Key References for Further Reading

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No attempt will be made to give details of the experimental and clinical studies which have been surveyed in this text. I trust that the authors of these studies will forgive me for this deliberate omission, but my intention has been to create a readable text, not a detailed monograph, in which the flavour and excitement of the advances in psychopharmacology will encourage those interested to read further. With this in mind, a list of key monographs, review articles and textbooks is included merely as a guide for the reader. The choice of texts may seem idiosyncratic to some readers, but they include those which have appealed to the author because of their clarity, comprehensive nature or contribution to the advances in psychopharmacology.

General reading

Bazier, S. Psychotropic Drugs Directory. Salisbury: Quay Books, 2001.

Davis, K. L., Charney, D., Coyle, J. T. and Nemeroff, C. B. (Eds) Neuropsycho-

pharmacology - The Fifth Generation of Progress. New York: Raven Press, 2002. D'haenen, H. A. H., den Boer, J. A. and Willner, P. (Eds) Biological Psychiatry, Vols 1

and 2. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2002. Feldman, R. S., Meyer, J. S. and Quenzer, L. F. Principles of Neuropsychopharmacology.

Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates Inc., 1997. Janicak P. G., Davis, J. M., Preskorn, S. H. and Ayd, F. J. Principles and Practice of Psychopharmacology (Third Edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2001.

Kasper, S., den Boer, J. A. and Sitsen, A. J. M. (Eds). Handbook of Depression and

Anxiety (Second Edition). New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003. King, D. J. Seminars in Clinical Psychopharmacology (Second Edition). London: Gaskell, 2003.

Lopez-Ibor, J. J., Goebel, W., Maj, M. and Sartorius, N. Psychiatry as a Neuroscience.

Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2002. Schatzberg, A. F. and Nemeroff, C. B. Textbook of Psychopharmacology. Washington,

DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1998. Webster, R. A. (Ed.) Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2001.

490 FUNDAMENTALS OF PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY

Chapter 1 - Functional Neuroanatomy of the Brain

Fitzgerald, M. J. T. and Folan-Curran, J. Clinical Neuroanatomy (Fourth Edition). Edinburgh: W. B. Saunders, 2002.

Chapter 2 - Basic Aspects of Neurotransmitter Function

Barbour, B. and Hausser, M. Intersynaptic diffusion of neurotransmitters. TINS 20 (1997): 377-384.

Conn, P. T. and Pin, J.-P. Pharmacology and functions of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. 37 (1997): 205-232.

Dingledine, R. The glutamate receptor ion channel. Pharmacol. Rev. 51 (1999): 7-61.

Kandel, E. R., Schwartz, J. H. and Jessell, T. M. Principles of Neural Science (Fourth Edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2000.

Kerr, D. I. and Ong, J. GABA-B receptor. Pharmacol. Ther. 67 (1995): 187-246.

Langer, S. Z. 25 Years since the discovery of presynaptic receptors: present knowledge and future prospects. TIPS 18 (1997): 95-99.

Lindstrom, J. M. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in health and disease. Mol. Neurol. 15 (1997): 193-222.

Moss, S. T. and Smart, T. G. Constructing inhibitory synapses. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 2 (2001): 240-250.

Nicoll, R. A. The coupling of neurotransmitter receptors to ion channels in the brain. Science 241 (1988): 545-551.

Povlock, S. L. and Amara, S. G. The structure and function of noradrenaline, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporters. In: Neurotransmitter Transporters. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 1999, pp. 1-28.

Sautel, M. and Milligan, G. Molecular manipulation of G-protein coupled receptors: a new avenue into drug discovery. Curr. Opin. Med. Chem. 7 (2000): 889-894.

Shepherd, G. M. and Erulkar, S. D. Centenary of the synapse: from Sherrington to the molecular biology of the synapse and beyond. TINS 20 (1997): 385-392.

Soellner, T. and Rothman, J. E. Neurotransmission: harnessing fusion machinery at the synapse. TINS 17 (1994): 344-348.

Stanford, S. C. and Salman, P. Beta-adrenoceptors and resistance to stress: old problems and new possibilities. J. Psychopharmacol. 6 (1992): 15-19.

Wess, K. A. and Neve, R. L. (Eds) The Dopamine Receptors. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 1997.

Chapter 3 - Pharmacokinetic Aspects of Psychopharmacology

Bertilson, L. and Dahl, M. L. Polymorphic drug oxidation: relevance to the treatment of psychiatric disorders. CNS Drugs 5 (1996): 200-212.

Brosen, K. Are pharmacokinetic drug interactions with SSRIs an issue? Int. J. Psychopharmacol. 11 (Suppl. 1) (1996): 23-27.

Catterson, M. O. and Preskorn, S. H. Pharmacokinetics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: clinical relevance. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 78 (1996): 203-228.

Fugh-Berman, A. Herb drug interactions. Lancet 355 (2000): 134-138.

Fuhr, U. Drug interactions with grapefruit juice: extent, probable mechanism and clinical relevance. Drug Safety 18 (1998): 251-272.

Horsmans, Y. Major cytochrome P450 families: implications in health and liver disease. Acta Gastro-Enterol. Belg. 15 (1997): 2-10.

Nemeroff, C. B., De Vane, C. L. and Pollock, B. G. Newer antidepressants and the cytochrome P450 system. Am J. Psychiat. 153 (1996): 311-320.

Stockley, I. H. Drug Interactions: A source book of adverse interactions, their mechanisms, clinical importance and management (Fifth Edition). London: Pharmaceutical Press, 1999.

Chapter 4 - Clinical Trials and their Importance in Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Psychotropic Drugs

Healy, D. and Doogan, D. P. (Eds) Psychotropic Drug Development. London: Chapman and Hall Medical, 1996. Jick, H. Adverse drug reactions: the magnitude of the problem. J. Allergy Clin.

Immunol. 74 (1984): 555-557. Kaitin, K. I., Richard, B. W. and Lasagna, L. Trends in drug development. J. Clin.

Pharmacol. 27 (1987): 542-548. McDevitt, D. G. and MacDonald, T. M. Post-marketing drug surveillance - how far have we got? Quart. J. Med. 78 (1991): 1-3. Passamani, E. Clinical trials - are they ethical? N. Engl. J. Med. 324 (1991): 1589-1592. Temple, R. Trends in pharmaceutical development. Drug Inf. J. 27 (1993): 355-366.

Chapter 5 - Molecular Genetics and Psychopharmacology

Heilig, M. Antisense technology: prospects for treatment in neuropsychiatric disorders. CNS Drugs 1 (1994): 405-420.

Lerer, B. (Ed.) Pharmacogenetics of Psychotropic Drugs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Mallet, J. Catecholamines: from gene regulation to neuropsychiatric disorders. TIPS 17 (1996): 129-135.

Mueller, R. F. and Young, I. D. Emery's Elements of Medical Genetics (Seventh Edition). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2001.

Stahl, S. M. New drug discovery in the post genomic era: from genomes to proteomics. J. Clin. Psychiat. 61 (2000): 894-895.

Wagner-Savill, K. and Kay, S. A. Circadian rhythm genetics: from flies to mice and humans. Nat. Genet. 26 (2000): 23-27.

Watson, S. T., Meng, F., Thompson, R. C. and Abil, H. The "chip" as a specific genetic tool. Biol. Psychiat. 48 (2000): 1147-1156.

Chapter 6 - Psychotropic Drugs that Modify the Serotonergic System

Aghajanian, G. K. and Marek, G. J. Serotonin and hallucinogens. Neuropsycho-

pharmacol. 21 (1999): 16S-23S. Barnes, N. M. and Sharp, T. A review of central serotonin receptors and their function. Neuropsychopharmacol. 13 (1999): 983-1152.

Baumgarten, H. G. and Goethert, M. (Eds) Serotoninergic neurons and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors in the CNS. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol. 129. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1997.

Gillman, P. K. The serotonin syndrome and its treatment. J. Psychopharmacol. 13 (1999): 100-109.

Heils, A., Mossner, R. and Lesch, K. P. The human serotonin transporter gene polymorphism - basic research and clinical implications. J. Neural. Trans. 104 (1997): 1005-1014.

Hoyer, D., Clarke, D. E. and Fozard, J. R. International Union of Pharmacology classification of receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Pharmacol. Rev. 46 (1994): 157-164.

Jacobs, B. L. and Fornal, C. A. Activation of serotonergic neurons in behaving animals. Neuropsychopharmacol. 21 (1999): 95-158.

Marshall, S. E., Bird, T. G. and Hart, K. Unified approach to the analysis of genetic variation in serotonergic pathways. Am. J. Med. Genet. 88 (1999): 621-627.

Naughton, M., Mulrooney, J. B. and Leonard, B. E. A review of the role of serotonin receptors in psychiatric disorders. Hum. Psychopharmacol. 15 (2000): 397-415.

Pinegro, G. and Blier, P. Autoregulation of serotonin neurons: role in antidepresant drug action. Pharmacol. Rev. 51 (1999): 533-591.

Uphouse, L. Multiple serotonin receptors: too many, not enough or just the right number. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 21 (1997): 679-698.

Chapter 7 - Drug Treatment of Depression

Artigas, F., Perez, V. and Alvarez, E. Pindolol induces a rapid improvement of depressed patients treated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 51 (1994): 248-251.

Asberg, M., Traskman, L. and Thoren, P. 5HIAA in the CSF: a biological chemical suicide predictor. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 33 (1976): 1193-1197.

Benedetti, F. Polymorphism within the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene and antidepressant efficiency of fluvoxamine. Mol. Psychiat. 3 (1998): 508-511.

Cassidy, S. L. and Henry, J. A. Fatal toxicity of antidepressant drugs in overdose. Br. Med. J. 295 (1987): 1021-1024.

Davis, L. L., Yonkers, K. A., Trivedi, M., Kramwer, G. L. and Petty, F. The mechanism of action of SSRIs: a new hypothesis. In: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: Past, Present and Future, Stanford, S. C. (Ed.). Austin, TX: R. G. Lander, 1999, pp. 171-185.

Farmer, R. D. T. Suicide and poisons. Hum. Psychopharmacol. 9 (Suppl. 1) (1994): S11-S18.

Grasby, P. M. Imaging strategies in depression. J. Psychopharmacol. 13 (1999): 346351.

Kasper, S., den Boer, J. A. and Sitsen, A. J. M. (Eds) Handbook of Depression and Anxiety (Second Edition). New York: Marcel Dekker, 2003.

Ordway, G. A. Pathophysiology of the locus caeruleus in suicide. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 836 (1997): 233-252.

Schildkraut, J. J. The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: review of the supporting evidence. Am. J. Psychiat. 122 (1965): 509-522.

Spina, E. and Perucca, E. Newer and older antidepressants: a comparative review of their drug interactions. CNS Drugs 2 (1994): 479-490.

Yamada, M. and Higuchi, T. Functional genomics and depression research: beyond the monoamine hypothesis. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 12 (2002): 235-244.

Chapter 8 - Drug Treatment of Mania

Belmaker, R. H. How does lithium work in manic depression? Clinical and psychological correlates of the inositol theory. Ann. Rev. Med. 47 (1996): 47-60.

Finley, P. R. Clinical relevance of drug interactions with lithium. Clin. Pharmacokinetics 29 (1995): 172-187.

Guscott, R. and Taylor, L. Lithium prophylaxis in recurrent affective illness; efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency. Br. J. Psychiat. 164 (1994): 741-750.

Keck, P. E. and McElroy, S. L. Outcome of the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 16 (Suppl.) (1996): 15-23.

Manji, H. K., Moore, G. J. and Chen, G. Lithium at 50: have the neuroprotective effects of this unique cation been overlooked? Biol. Psychiat. 46 (1999): 929-940.

McElroy, S. L. and Keck, P. E. Pharmacological agents for the treatment of acute bipolar mania. Biol. Psychiat. 48 (2000): 539-557.

Chapter 9 - Anxiolytics and the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders

Barbaccia, M. L., Berkovich, A., Guarneri, P. and Slobodyansky, E. Diazepam binding inhibitor: the precursor of a family of endogenous modulators of GABA-A receptor function. History, perspectives and clinical implications. Neurochem. Res. 15 (1990): 160-173. Charney, D. S. and Bremner, J. D. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders. In: Neurobiology of Mental Illness. Charney, D. S., Nestler, E. J. and Bunney, B. S. (Eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 494-517. Davis, M. Neurobiology of fear responses; the role of amygdala. J. Neuropsychiat.

Clin. Neurosci. 9 (1999): 382-402. Den Boer, J. A. and Westenberg, H. G. M. Serotonergic compounds in panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and anxious depression. Hum. Psychopharmacol. 10 (Suppl. 3) (1995): S173-184. Dupont, R. L., Rice, D. P., Miller, L. S. and Shiraki, S. S. Economic cost of anxiety disorders. Depress. Anxiety 2 (1996): 167-172. Haefely, W. The GABA-benzodiazepine interaction fifteen years later. Neurochem.

Res. 15 (1990): 169-182. Uhde, T. W. Genetics and brain function: implications for the treatment of anxiety.

Biol. Psychiat. 48 (2000): 1142-1143. Wolff, M., Alsobrook, J. P. and Pauls, D. L. Genetic aspects of OCD. Psychiat. Clin.

North Am. 23 (2000): 535-544. Woods, J. H. Current benzodiazepine issues. Psychopharmacol. 118 (1995): 107-120.

Yehuda, R. Are glucocorticosteroids responsible for putative hippocampal damage in PTSD? How and when to decide. Hippocampus 11 (2001): 85-89. Zohar, J., Mueller, E. A., Insel, T. R., Zohar-Kadouch, R. C. and Murphy, D. L. Serotonergic responsivity in OCD: comparison of patients with healthy controls. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 44 (1987): 946-951.

Chapter 10 - Drug Treatment of Insomnia

Garcia-Garcia, F. and Drucker-Colin, R. Endogenous and exogenous factors on sleep-wake cycle regulation. Prog. Neurobiol. 58 (1999): 297-314. Hartmann, P. M. Drug treatment of insomnia: indications and newer agents. Am.

Fam. Physician 51 (1995): 191-200. Holbrook, A. M., Crowther, R. and Lotter, A. Meta-analysis of benzodiazepine use in the treatment of insomnia. CMAT 162 (2000): 225-233. Lancel, M. Role of GABA-A receptors in sleep regulation: differential effects of muscimol and midazolam on sleep in rats. Neuropsychopharmacol. 15 (1996): 63-74. Tecott, L. H. Genes and anti-anxiety drugs. Nature Neurosci. 3 (2000): 529-530. Tzischinisky, O. and Lavie, P. Melatonin possesses time-dependent hypnotic effects.

Sleep 17 (1994): 638-645. Walsh, T. K. and Schweitzer, P. K. Ten-year trends in the pharmacological treatment of insomnia. Sleep 22 (1999): 371-375. Zammit, G. K., Werner, J. and Damato, N. Quality of life in people with insomnia. Sleep 22 (1999): S379-S385.

Chapter 11 - Drug Treatment of Schizophrenia and the Psychoses

Brunello, N. New insights into the biology of schizophrenia through the mechanism of action of clozapine. Neuropsychopharmacol. 13 (1995): 177-188.

Conley, R. R., Tamminga, C. A. and Beasley, C. Olanzapine versus chlorpromazine in therapy-refractory schizophrenia. Schizophren. Res. 24 (1997): 190-202.

Coyle, J. T. The glutamatergic dysfunction hypothesis of schizophrenia. Harvard Rev. Psychiat. 3 (1996): 241-250.

Kane, J. M. Management strategies for the treatment of schizophrenia. J. Clin. Psychiat. 60 (Suppl. 12) (1999): 13-17.

Kinan, B. J. and Lieberman, J. A. Mechanism of action of atypical and antipsychotic drugs - a critical analysis. Psychopharmacol. 124 (1996): 2-12.

Lawrie, S. M. and Abukineil, S. S. Brain abnormality in schizophrenia. A systematic and quantitative review of volumetric magnetic resonance imaging studies. Br. J. Psychiat. 172 (1998): 110-120.

Liddle, P. F. Functional imaging in schizophrenia. Br. Med. Bull. 52 (1996): 486-494.

Meltzer, H. Y. The role of serotonin in antipsychotic drug action. Neuropsycho-pharmacol. 21 (Suppl. 2) (1999): 106S-115S.

Sartorius, N. (Ed.) The usefulness and use of second generation antipsychotic medication: review of evidence and recommendations by a task force of the World Psychiatric Association. Curr. Opin. Psychiat. 15 (Suppl. 1) (2002).

Sartorius, N. (Ed.) The usefulness and use of second generation antipsychotic medication - an update. Curr. Opin. Psychiat. 16 (Suppl. 2) (2003).

Chapter 12 - Drug Treatment of the Epilepsies

Albini, F. Carbamazepine: clinical pharmacology - a review. Pharmacopsychiat. 28 (1995): 235-245.

Baulac, A., Arzimanoglu, A., Semah, F. and Cavalcanti, D. Therapeutic opinions provided by new anti-epileptic drugs. Rev. Neurol. 155 (1997): 21-33. Chadwick, D. General review of the efficacy and tolerance of new anti-epileptics.

Epilepsia 38 (Suppl. 1) (1996): S59-S62. Feely, M. Drug treatment in epilepsy. Br. Med. J. 318 (1999): 106-109. Joffe, R. T. and Calabrese, J. R. Anticonvulsants in Mood Disorders. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1994.

Loiseau, P. Tolerability of newer and older anticonvulsants: a comparative review.

CNS Drugs 6 (1995): 148-166. Meldrum, B. S. Update of the mechanisms of action of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia

37 (Suppl. 6) (1996): 4-11. Sander, T. and Was, B. New drugs for epilepsy. Curr. Opin. Neurol. (11) (1998): 141-148.

Shorvan, S. D. Handbook of Epilepsy Treatment. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2000. Vermeulen, J. and Aldenkamp, A. P. Cognitive side effects of chronic antiepileptic drug treatment: a review of 25 years' research. Epilepsy Res. 22 (1995): 65-80.

Chapter 13 - Drug Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

Calne, D. W. Treatment of Parkinson's disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 329 (1997): 1021-1027.

Hirsh, E. C. and Hunot, S. Nitric oxide, glial cells and neural degeneration in Parkinson's disease. TIPS 21 (2000): 163-165.

Hogan, J. J., Middlemas, D. N., Scharpe, P. C. and Poste, G. H. Parkinson's disease: prospects for improved therapy. TIPS 18 (1997): 156-163.

Le Witt, P. and Oertel, W. Parkinson's Disease: The Treatment Options. London: Martin Dunitz, 1999.

Quinn, N. Drug treatment in Parkinson's disease. Br. Med. J. 310 (1995): 575-580.

Reddy, H. P., Williams, M. and Tagle, D. A. Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. TINS 22 (1999): 248-255.

Chapter 14 - Alzheimer's Disease and Stroke: Possible Biochemical Causes and Treatment Strategies

Adams, M. P. Treating ischaemic stroke as an emergency. Arch. Neurol. 55 (1998): 457-461.

Allen, N. H. P. The treatment of Alzheimer's disease. J. Psychopharmacol. 9 (1995): 43-50.

Auld, D. S., Kar, S. and Quiron, R. Beta amyloid peptides as direct cholinergic neuromodulators: a missing link? TINS 21 (1958): 43-49.

Barinaga, M. Finding new drugs to treat stroke. Science 272 (1996): 664-666.

Brioni, J. D. and Decker, M. W. (Eds) Pharmacological Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997.

Daniel, S. E., Lees, A. J. and Cruz-Sanchez, F. F. Dementia in Parkinsonism. Vienna: Springer-Verlag, 1997.

Eagger, S. A. Tacrine and older anticholinesterase drugs in dementia. Curr. Opin. Psychiat. 8 (1995): 264-270.

Hardy, J. Amyloid, the presenilins and Alzheimer's disease. TINS 20 (1997): 154-159.

Kumar, V. Advances in pharmacotherapy for decline in memory and cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Psychiat. Serv. 47 (1996): 249-259.

Neve, R. L. and Robakis, N. K. Amyloid disease: a re-examination of the amyloid hypothesis. TINS 21 (1998): 15-19. Selkoe, D. J. Translating cell biology into therapeutic advances in Alzheimer's disease. Nature 399 (Suppl.) (1999): A23-A31. Smith, M. A. Alzheimer's disease. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 42 (1998): 1-44.

Chapter 15 - Psychopharmacology of Drugs of Abuse

British Medical Association. The Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. London: Harwood Academic, 1997.

Burgess, C., O'Donohoe, A. and Gill, M. Agony and ecstacy: a review of MDMA effects and toxicity. Eur. Psychiat. 15 (2000): 287-294.

Chick, J. and Cantwell, R. Seminars in Alcohol and Drug Misuse. London: Gaskell, 1994.

Daws, L. C. and White, J. M. Regulation of opioid receptors by opioid antagonists: implications for rapid opioid detoxification. Addiction Biol. 4 (1999): 391-397.

Maldonado, R. (Ed.) Molecular Biology of Drug Addiction. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2003.

Nestler, E. J. and Aghajanian, G. Molecular and cellular basis of addiction. Science 278 (1997): 58-63.

Robbins, T. W. and Everitt, B. Drug addiction: bad habits add up. Nature 398 (1999): 567-571.

Simonata, M. The neurochemistry of morphine addiction in the neocortex. TIPS 17 (1996): 410-415.

Spangel, R. and Weiss, F. The dopamine hypothesis of reward: past and current status. TINS 22 (1999): 521-527.

Spangel, R. and Ziegansberger, W. Anti-craving compounds for ethanol: new pharmacological tools to study addictive processes. TIPS 18 (1997): 54-58.

Zernig, G., Saria, A., Kurz, M. and O'Malley, S. S. (Eds) Handbook of Alcoholism. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001.

Chapter 16 - Paediatric Psychopharmacology

Battino, D., Estienne, M. and Aanzini, G. Clinical pharmacokinetics of anti-epileptic drugs in pediatric patients. Clin. Pharmacokinetics 29 (1995): 341-369.

Brown, C. S. and Cooke, S. C. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - clinical features and drug treatment options. CNS Drugs 1 (1994): 95-109.

Campbell, M. and Cueva, J. E. Psychopharmacology in child and adolescent psychiatry: a review of the past seven years. J. Am. Acad. Child. Adolesc. Psychiat. 34 (1995): 1124-1130.

Posey, D. J. and McDougle, C. J. The pharmacology of target symptoms associated with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. Harvard Rev. Psychiat. 8 (2000): 45-63.

Chapter 17 - Geriatric Psychopharmacology

Altamura, A. C., De Novalis, F., Guercetti, G. et al. Fluoxetine compared with amitriptyline in elderly depression: a controlled clinical trial. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Res. 9 (1989): 391-396.

Ashtari, M., Greenwald, B. S. and Kramer-Ginsberg, E. Hippocampal/amygdala volumes in geriatric depression. Psychol. Med. 29 (1999): 629-638. Ganguli, M., Reynolds, C. F. and Gilby, J. E. Prevalence and persistence of sleep complaints in a rural elderly community sample: the MOVIES project. J. Am. Ger. Soc. 44 (1996): 778-784. George, C. F., Woodhouse, K. W., Denham, M. J. and MacLennon, W. T. (Eds) Drug

Therapy in Old Age. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1998. Livingston, G., Blizard, B. and Mann, A. Does sleep disturbance predict depression in elderly people? A study in inner London. Br. J. Gen. Pract. 43 (1993): 445-448. Robertson, D. R. Drug therapy for Parkinson's disease in the elderly. Br. Med. Bull. 46 (1998): 124-136.

Zaleon, C. R. and Guthrie, S. K. Antipsychotic drug use in older adults. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 51 (1994): 2917-2925.

Chapter 18 - The Inter-relationship Between Psychopharmacology and Psychoneuroimmunology

Ader, R., Felten, D. L. and Cohen, N. (Eds) Psychoneuroimmunology (Third Edition).

San Diego: Academic Press, 2001. Blalock, J. E. (Ed.) Neuroimmunoendocrinology. Basel: Karger, 1997. Dantzer, R., Wollman, E. E. and Yirmiya, R. Cytokines, Stress and Depression. New

York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 1999. Leonard, B. E. Brain cytokines and the psychopathology of depression. In: Antidepressants, Leonard, B. E. (Ed.). Basel: Birkhauser-Verlag, 2000, pp. 109-122. Leonard, B. E. and Miller, K. (Eds) Stress, the Immune System and Psychiatry.

Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1995. Merrill, J. E. and Beneviste, E. N. Cytokines in inflammatory brain lesions: helpful and harmful. TINS 19 (1996): 331-336. Rabin, B. S. Stress, Immune Function and Health. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1999. Smith, R. S. The macrophage theory of depression. Med. Hypoth. 35 (1991): 298-306. Song, C. and Leonard, B. E. Fundamentals of Psychoneuroimmunology. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2000.

Chapter 19 - Endocoids and their Importance in Psychopharmacology

Apfel, S. C. (Ed.) Clinical Applications of Neurotrophic Factors. Philadelphia:

Lippincott-Raven Press, 1997. Itzhak, Y. (Ed.) Sigma Receptors. San Diego: Academic Press, 1994. Izquierdo, I. and Medina, J. (Eds) Naturally Occurring Benzodiazepines. New York: Ellis Horwood, 1993.

Leonard, B. E. The potential contribution of sigma receptors to the action of antidepressant drugs. In: Antidepressants - New Pharmacological Strategies, Skolnick, P. (Ed.). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 1997, pp. 159-172.

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