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High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

Hippocampus HVA

A family of related genes that control a similar biological process.

The proportion of subjects with the genotype who manifest the disease.

Variations in DNA sequences that do not affect the corresponding gene product.

Supporting cells within the brain that act as a physical and metabolic buffer around nerve cells. Family of proteins within neurons that link receptors to ion channels or secondary messengers. Major seizure disorder characterized by tonic and clonic muscular movements and loss of consciousness.

The intracellular enzyme associated with some types of receptor that on activation produces the secondary messenger cyclic guanylate monophosphate (cyclic GMP).

Acute idiopathic polyneuritis characterized by muscular weakness and paraesthesia. The time taken for the concentration of a compound in a tissue to decrease by 50%.

Sensory perception that is not based on a real stimulus.

Chronic form of schizophrenia, usually starting before the age of 20 years, characterized by marked disorder in thinking, shallow and inappropriate affect, severe emotional disturbance, hallucinations and delusions.

T-cell that activates B-cells to produce antibodies and secretes interleukin-2 to facilitate natural killer cell proliferation and activity.

A progressive metabolic liver disorder that results in altered intellectual function and emotion. Presynaptic receptor that is activated by a neuro-transmitter from an adjacent neuron; the type of neurotransmitter activating the heteroceptor differs from that released from the axon. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid, the main metabolite of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) formed by mono-amine oxidase.

Form of chromatography in which mobile solvent passes through a column packed with a non-polar solid phase. The organic molecules are then detected fluorimetrically or electrochemically. Commonly used to determine trace concentrations of biogenic amines.

Region of the temporal lobe that is thought to play a role in learning and memory.

Homovanillic acid, one of the main metabolites of dopamine formed by the actions of monoamine oxidase and catechol-o-methyltransferase.

Hyperbaric

Hyperkinetic

Hypertension

Hypnotic

Hypochondriasis

Hypofrontality

Hypophysis

Hypotension Hypothalamus

Hypothermia Iatrogenic

Ideas of reference Idiosynchratic drug reaction

Illusion

Immunofluorescence Indoles

Infarct Interneuron

Intrinsic activity Inverse agonist

Ion channel

Raised pressure.

Increased movements or activity. Raised blood pressure. Sleep inducing. Over-concern about health.

Hypofunction of prefrontal cortex as shown by positron emission tomography imaging or cerebral blood flow determinations. Hypofrontality occurs in both medicated and unmedicated schizophrenics. The pituitary gland. Hypophysectomy is removal of the pituitary gland. Lowered blood pressure.

Region at the base of the brain concerned with the regulation of autonomic activity and some aspects of behaviour.

Low body temperature.

Complications of drug treatment; unwise use of drugs producing adverse effects; drug-induced disorder.

Ideas that normal events have specific reference to the individual or are commenting on the individual. Unpredictable side effects of a drug, including hypersensitivity reactions, that usually develop suddenly. Such reactions are often genetically determined and not related to the pharmacological properties of the drug.

Perceptual distortion of a genuine stimulus; visual and auditory distortions most common. Fluorescence histochemistry using antibodies to identify the compounds under investigation. Compounds with a 2,3-benzpyrrole structure. The indoleamines, e.g. 5-hydroxytryptamine, are compounds containing the indole structure. An area of dead tissue caused by a reduced blood supply.

One of the four major fundamental types of neurons that establish inter-relationships between sensory afferents and motor efferents.

The inherent ability of a ligand to elicit a biological response once it is bound to a receptor. A substance that produces effects at a receptor that are the opposite to those produced by the usual agonist. Thus the inverse agonists at benzodiazepine receptors have anxiogenic, proconvulsant and prom-nestic properties.

Pore on the nerve membrane through which sodium, potassium and other metal and non-metal ions (e.g. chloride) pass to produce changes in the electrical activity of the nerve membrane. These channels are controlled by receptors located in the nerve membrane.

Iontophoresis Isomerism

Isozyme Kindling

Korsakoff's psychosis

LD50; ED50

Learned helplessness Leptin

Lewy body dementia

Life events

Lifetime prevalence Ligand

Ligase chain reaction (LCR) Limbic system

Linkage analysis

Liver enzyme induction Lumbar puncture

Administration of compounds through micropipettes which are released by an electric current. The existence of a molecule that possesses two or more structural forms. Stereo-isomerism refers to the existence of two or more compounds possessing the same molecular and structural formulae but having different spatial configurations. Multiple molecular forms of an enzyme within the same individual.

Consequences of repeated subthreshold electrical or chemical stimuli that progressively increase convulsive or behavioural responses, eventually resulting in a seizure. Subsequent application of a single sub-threshold stimulus will also evoke a seizure. An organic brain syndrome associated with prolonged, heavy ingestion of alcohol. It is characterized by amnesia for recent events and an inability to memorize new information.

Dose of a compound which is lethal (LD50) or effective (ED50) in 50% of the test population. Behavioural phenomenon consisting of passivity and withdrawal after exposure to an uncontrollable adverse event.

The gene product of the obesity (ob) gene. Cortical dementia characterized by diffuse Lewy bodies with neuronal degeneration, mild parkinson-ism and slowing of the electroencephalogram. Experiences which are part of normal life but which are stressful and thought to trigger a psychiatric disorder in a vulnerable individual. Number of individuals who may have a disease any time during their lifetime.

Compound which specifically binds to a receptor. Recently developed amplification method used to detect a gene mutation. The method uses the coupling of two adjacent synthetic oligonucleotides aligned on the template of the target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

Area of the brain associated with small, involuntary functions, emotions and behaviour. Comprises the hypothalamus, parahippocampus, olfactory lobe, dentate gyrus, amygdala, anterior thalamus, fornix and stria terminalis.

Analysis of genetic markers linked to genes (e.g. genetic traits or phenotype markers such as enzyme deficiencies occurring in patients with mood disorders). Increased liver enzyme activity due to chronic use of drugs such as barbiturates.

The sampling of cerebrospinal fluid by insertion of a needle through the lumbar region of the spine into the space surrounding the spinal cord.

APPENDIX 2: GLOSSARY Malignant hyperthermia

Mass fragmentography Mass spectrometry

Medulla oblongata Mesencephalon

Mesocortical system

Mesolimbic system Messenger RNA (mRNA)

Meta-analysis

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