The Parkinson's-Reversing Breakthrough

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APUD cell Arousal




Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Augmentation

Autopsy Autoreceptor


Aversive conditioning Axon

Basal ganglia

Behavioural dyscontrol (inhibition)

Behavioural sensitization

Behavioural toxicity Benefit-risk ratio Binding site

Bimodal distribution Binomial distribution

Amine precursor, uptake and decarboxylation cell from which the platelet is derived.

Abrupt change from a deeper state of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep to a lighter stage, or from REM sleep to wakefulness.

The thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of arteries.

Chemical group that is derived from, or related to, an aromatic hydrocarbon (e.g. a benzene-like molecule). Loss of muscle co-ordination.

Heterogeneous group of behavioural disorders of unknown aetiology usually first evident in childhood.

The addition of a second drug to enhance the response to the first drug.


A receptor situated on the presynaptic nerve ending which responds to the transmitter released from the same nerve ending. Also termed a presynaptic receptor. Chromosome not determinant of sexual differentiation. Behavioural method whereby a sensory stimulus is paired with a painful, distasteful or unpleasant reinforcement. In behavioural therapy this method is used to produce an association between a negative experience and undesirable behaviour. Part of the neuron consisting of a single fibre down which the action potential is transmitted to the nerve terminal.

A collection of nuclei in the brain concerned primarily with the initiation and control of movement consisting of the corpus striatum (globus pallidus and the putamen) and the substantia nigra. Increase in hostility and aggressiveness provoked by alcohol and sedative/anxiolytics such as the benzo-diazepines.

Process whereby intermittent stimulant exposure produces a time-dependent, enduring and progressively more enhanced behavioural response. Impairment of psychomotor and cognitive abilities by psychotropic drugs.

Balance of the therapeutic efficacy of a drug with its liability to cause side effects.

Domain on receptor surface that has a characteristic arrangement of functional groups that recognize and bind specific ligands. Also sometimes called a recognition site.

Distribution with two peaks at which the frequency is greater than at either side of these points. Probability distribution that describes the number of successes observed in independent trials, each with the same probability of occurrences.

APPENDIX 2: GLOSSARY Bioassay Bioinformatics Bipolar

Blood dyscrasia Bolus

Borna virus disease (BVD)

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) Bradykinesia

Brain stimulation reward


Candidate gene


Carcinoid syndrome

Catalepsy Catatonia

Catechol CD4 cell cDNA library

Quantitative assessment of the potency of a drug's effect on an isolated tissue, cell, animal or man. Computer-based science of logging and comparing DNA sequences.

Affective illness characterized by mood swings between mania and depression. Abnormality ranging from a reduction in the white blood cells (leucopenia, agranulocytosis) to haemo-lytic anaemia.

Rapid intravenous infusion of a drug. A neurotropic, enveloped and negative single-stranded RNA virus that persistently infects domestic animals (e.g. horses) causing behavioural and cognitive dysfunction.

Transmissible prion disease of cattle; variation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Extrapyramidal disorder characterized by reduction in velocity of normal movements, paucity of movements and inability to initiate normal movements. Cardinal sign of Parkinson's disease. Experimental procedure whereby an animal learns to receive brief, low intensity electrical stimuli to subcortical regions of the brain that elicit a reward.

Eating disorder that may be either a symptom or a syndrome. Manifested by insatiable hunger resulting in compulsive binge eating.

Cloned human gene that is functionally related to the disease of interest (e.g. a gene for a specific receptor or ion channel).

Derivative or preparation from Cannabis sativa. This contains several dozen that are chemically related to cannabinol.

Disease in which symptoms are due to a 5-hydroxy-tryptamine secreting tumour, usually located in the gastrointestinal tract.

A state of rigidity with either resistance to alteration or ready adoption of a newly imposed posture. A clinical symptom which is associated either with a marked reduction or increase in mobility or alternation between the two states. This term may also be used to describe automatism or stereotyped movements.

A 1,2-dihydrobenzene structure, exemplified by the catecholamine transmitters noradrenaline and dopa-mine.

T helper (Th) lymphocyte, a subset of lymphocytes identified by their differential function and specific cell surface markers.

Clones containing a single independent DNA molecule.

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