Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
Selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
Standard deviation (SD)
Standard error of the mean (SEM)
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)
Relationship between the applied concentration (in molar units) and the ratio of bound to free drug following the binding of a hormone, drug or neurotransmitter to a receptor.
Seasonal subtype of major depressive disorder characterized by an annual pattern of symptoms (e.g. depression occurring in the autumn or spring). A molecule such as cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP or phosphatidylinositol that regulates intracellular processes in response to an extracellular signal. Uncontrolled or paroxysmal brain activity that is usually expressed through the motor system. Antidepressants such as fluoxetine and fluvoxamine that show specificity in inhibiting the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine into platelets or brain tissue in vitro and in vivo.
Neuroimaging technique for measuring cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, metabolic rate, oxygen utilization and the oxygen extraction volume.
Disorder characterized by respiratory cessations during sleep.
Measure of the dispersion or spread of points clustered around the mean value; SD=square root of the variance.
Measure of the variability of the mean value from one sample to another (e.g. control versus experimental sample).
Jerky movements produced by a loud sound or stimulus.
Two or more compounds with the same molecular and structural formulae but having different spatial configurations.
A method for accurately placing lesions in the brain by electrocoagulation, selective neurotoxins or radioactive pellets.
The persistent repetition of body movements. A neurosurgical procedure used for the treatment of therapy-resistant depression.
The decreased response of a receptor to a fixed concentration of an agonist, shown as a shift in the dose-response curve to the right. In behaviour, subsensitivity represents a decreased response to a fixed dose of a drug. Supersensitivity is the opposite of subsensitivity and the dose-response curve is shifted to the left.
Collection of cells in the anterior hypothalamus acting as a biological clock or oscillator that maintains the circadian rhythm of the sleep-wake cycle.
The gap separating adjacent neurons.
Tardive dyskinesia (TD)
T-cell suppressor Teratogenesis
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
Transcription factor TRAP
Tuberoinfundibular system Up-regulation
The pinched off and resealed nerve endings formed following the homogenization and high speed centrifugation of brain tissue in an isotonic medium. Rapid heart beat.
Potentially irreversible, late onset, extrapyramidal hyperkinetic movement disorder often associated with the long-term administration of neuroleptics. Abnormal movements generally involve the mouth, lips and tongue.
A microtubule associated protein that is a major component of the neurofibrillary tangles found in the Alzheimer brain.
T-cell that specifically inhibits antibody formation in beta cells as well as other cytotoxic T-cells. Physical malformation of foetal organs that can be caused by exposure to psychotropic drugs (e.g. thalidomide) during the first trimester of pregnancy in females.
The ratio between the dose of a drug needed to produce a therapeutic effect (assumed to be unity) and the toxic dose.
Drug affecting mood state; formerly used to describe antidepressants.
Reduced effect of an agonist or antagonist following its prolonged administration resulting from the increased metabolism (called metabolic tolerance) or decreased receptor sensitivity (termed pharmaco- or tissue tolerance).
A variable factor that is specific for a particular disease and remains stable over time, as distinct from a STATE marker which only appears when the disease symptoms are present.
Procedure that involves rapidly passing an electric current through a coil thereby creating a powerful, localized and transient magnetic field. This field depolarizes superficial cortical neurons. Regulatory protein that controls the transcription of specific genes; transcription is the first step from DNA to RNA by RNA polymerase. Acronym for the major symptoms of Parkinson's disease (T=tremor, R=rigidity, A=akinesia, P=postur-al disturbance).
The system connecting the hypothalamus with the pituitary gland.
An increase in the number and/or sensitivity of receptors to compensate for the decreased effect of an agonist.
Chronic stimulation of vagus as a non-drug treatment for epilepsy and depression. Reduction in the diameter of blood vessels by contraction of the circular muscles in the vessel wall.
Ventral tegmental area
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels Volume of distribution
Area of the midbrain dorsal to the substantia nigra.
Cavities within the brain containing the CSF.
Ion channels for calcium uptake whose regulation is controlled by nerve impulses.
The apparent volume of the body in which a drug would be distributed if it was present throughout the body at the same concentration as that occurring in plasma.
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