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Cerebral insufficiency Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

c-fos

Chelating agent

Chemokines

Chorea

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)

Chronopharmacology Circling

Classical benzodiazepines

Clearance Cloning

Clonus Codon

Coefficient of variation Cofactor

Comorbidity Compartments Competitive inhibition

Complement Concordance

State in the elderly characterized by difficulties in concentration and memory.

Physiological fluid that bathes the brain and spinal cord and may be monitored by removing the fluid from the lumbar region of the spinal cord or occasionally from the lateral ventricles. Immediate early gene that serves as a transcription factor for the expression of other genes. Compound that sequesters a metallic ion, thereby inactivating it (e.g. EDTA).

Chemoattractant cytokines; soluble factors that induce chemotaxis of lymphocytes. Repetitive involuntary jerky movements. Symptom complex of extreme fatigue in combination with signs of an impaired immune and endocrine state. Frequently occurs after an acute, viral infection. Study of the influence of biological rhythms on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity of drugs.

Behaviour initiated in animals by dopamine agonists following a unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway.

1,4-Benzodiazepines that are structurally related to diazepam and that have qualitatively similar pharmacological profiles (e.g anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and sedative). The rate of elimination of a drug from the body. Process that involves removing the nucleus from an adult cell, transferring it to an unfertilized oocyte, destroying the genome of the oocyte and allowing the resulting cloned cell to develop. Movement characterized by involuntary, alternating rapid muscle contractions and relaxations. Triplet of three bases in a DNA or RNA molecule that encodes a specific amino acid according to the genetic code.

Standard deviation as a percentage of the mean. A compound or ion that, while not being directly involved in a chemical reaction, facilitates an enzyme-catalysed reaction.

Occurrence of more than one disease at the same time in the same patient (e.g. anxiety and depression). Areas of the body in which a drug or neurotrans-mitter has different kinetic characteristics. Inhibition of an enzyme or receptor that is dependent on the relative concentration of the inhibitor, substrate or agonist.

Plasma proteins that, when activated, bind to a target antigen or pathogen.

In genetics, similarity in a twin pair with respect to the presence or absence of a disease or trait.

APPENDIX 2: GLOSSARY Confidence interval (CI) Corpus striatum Co-transmission Cytochromes

Cytotoxic T cell

Dale's law Delirium

Delirium tremens (DTs)

Delusion Dementia

Dependence

Depersonalization Depolarization

Depression, major/chronic Desensitization

Designer drug Diencephalon

Measurement of the range of values within which the true population value probably lies. Part of the basal ganglia containing the caudate nucleus and the putamen.

Release of two or more neurotransmitters from the same neuron.

Part of the family of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes. Two isozymes (P450 2D6 and 3A4) responsible for biotransformation of 90% of drugs used clinically.

T-cell that, on activation by a specific antigen, targets and attacks cells bearing that type of antigen. Also called natural killer cell (NKC)

Principle that each neuron contains only one neurotransmitter (now no longer true!) Transient organic mental syndrome characterized by global impairment of cognition, including memory and perception.

Acute, sometimes lethal, brain disorder precipitated by total or partial withdrawal from excessive alcohol intake. Shown by confusion, disorientation, fluctuating or clouded consciousness, agitation and insomnia.

A belief held without any supportive evidence. An acquired global impairment of intellect, memory and personality but without global impairment of consciousness.

(a) A behavioural syndrome that implies compulsive use of a drug. (b) Physical dependence, or change in brain function in tolerance and withdrawal, when a chronically administered drug is abruptly discontinued.

Subjective experience that the body is unreal. The inside of a nerve cell becoming less negatively charged relative to the outside of the nerve membrane.

Unremitting major depression that persists for at least 2 years.

Reduction in the sensitivity of a receptor in response to excessive stimulation. Also termed down-regulation. Such changes may be associated with a decrease in the number of receptors and/or their functional responsiveness. Desensitization is also a term used to describe the reduction in anxiety and panic states caused by controlled exposure to a specific anxiety-provoking stimulus.

Illegally manufactured drug with similarity in structure or effect to a drug already registered as a drug of abuse.

Anterior region of the brain that includes the thalamus, hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

Discordance Dissociation constant

Dizygotic

Double depression Down-regulation

Drug abuse Drug dependence

Dyskinesia

Dysphasia

Dysphoria

Dyspraxia

Dystonia

Effect size Electrolytic lesion

Endocoids Enteroviruses

Entorhinal cortex

Entrainment Enzyme induction

Dissimilarity in a twin pair with respect to the presence or absence of a disease or trait. Term used to describe quantitatively the separation of a ligand from a receptor. In ligand binding studies it may be expressed as the reciprocal of the affinity constant.

In genetic studies this refers to twins who have developed from two ova and therefore have different genetic characteristics.

Major depression superimposed on underlying dysthymia (chronic minor depression). Reduction in response following the exposure of a receptor to a higher than normal concentration of an agonist.

Use of any drug in a manner which is at variance with the approved use in that culture. Syndrome in which an individual continues to take a drug for its pleasurable effect despite the adverse medical and social consequences. The individual then continues to take the drug for his or her well-being. Impairment of voluntary movements. Impairment of language.

Acute, transient changes in mood (e.g. feelings of sadness, sorrow, anguish).

Impairment of ability to perform co-ordinated movement.

Neurological condition characterized by slow, tonic sustained muscle contractions often of the tongue, jaw, eyes, neck and occasionally the whole body.

The clinically meaningful result required to detect a specific result or end-point; related to the probability of declaring a true positive.

Destruction of a specific nerve pathway by the passage of a current between electrodes inserted into the brain region which is innervated by the nerve pathway.

Unspecified endogenous compounds that may modulate synaptic neurotransmission. Small ribonucleic acid (RNA) containing viruses. For example, polio viruses, which destroy the anterior horn cells leading to lower motor neuron paralysis, are of this type.

Critical area of the brain linking limbic structures to the cerebral cortex. The hippocampus receives its major input from the entorhinal cortex via the perforant pathway.

Synchronization of a biological rhythm by a stimulus such as an environmental time cue (zeitgaber). Increase in enzyme activity in response to an increase in the amount of substrate available. For example,

Eosinophilia myalgia syndrome (EMS) Evoked potential (EP)

Exon

Extrapyramidal Extrapyramidal system

Fatal toxicity index Fatigue

Fibromyalgia Flashback

Flicker fusion threshold

Flight of ideas

Foetal alcohol syndrome

Gangliosides

Gas chromatography

Gene, candidate barbiturates increase the activity of the hepatic microsomal enzyme system following their repeated administration.

Toxic, potentially fatal disorder attributed to a contaminant of tryptophan.

Electrophysiological measurement in which a sensory (flight flash, tone) or cognitive signal stimulates a response that is detected from the scalp or cortex. Part of a gene that encodes information present in messenger RNA.

Motor control that does not involve the pyramidal tracts. It originates in the basal ganglia. Polysynaptic neuronal pathways involving the basal ganglia and related subcortical nuclei that influence motor behaviour.

Number of deaths due to poisoning per million National Health Service prescriptions. The patient tires abnormally early during prolonged mental or physical activity or cannot sustain the same level of activity as normal.

Form of non-articular rheumatism characterized by a syndrome of chronic, diffuse musculoskeletal pain and stiffness, chronic fatigue and sleep disturbance.

Spontaneous occurrence of previously experienced drug effects (e.g. hallucinations, delusions, deperso-nalization) or distressing emotions originally associated with trauma. Generally associated with LSDlike drugs and occasionally cannabis. Measure of CNS drug effects that assesses temporal information processing in the visual system; the threshold for flicker detection at high frequencies (>30 Hz).

Rapid succession of thoughts without logical connections.

Specific, recognizable pattern of malformation (brain, skull, heart) in offspring of alcoholic mothers. Group of complex sphingolipids containing sphingo-sine linked to a fatty acid and a branched chain polysaccharide molecule.

Method whereby volatile compounds are separated by injecting them into a stream of inert gas which percolates over a solid or liquid stationary phase. The separated compounds are then detected and quantified by means of an electrochemical or fluorescent probe. GC-MS is a method whereby the gas chromatograph is linked to a mass spectrograph, thereby allowing very small quantities of the compound to be quantified.

A gene that may be associated with a disease phenotype.

Gene, family Gene, penetrance Gene, polymorphism Glia

G proteins Grand mal

Guanylate cyclase

Guillain-Barre syndrome Half-life Hallucinations Hebephrenia

Helper T-cell

Hepatic encephalopathy Heteroceptor

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How To Win Your War Against Anxiety Disorders

How To Win Your War Against Anxiety Disorders

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