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Microglia

Microsatellite

Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system Microsomes

Migraine

Mitochondria

Mitogen

Monoamine

Rare, familial hyperthermia (41 °C) associated with inhalation anaesthetics, muscle relaxants, tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazine neuroleptics (particularly chlorpromazine) monoamine oxidase inhibitors and haloperidol.

Quantitative analysis of compounds by measurement of specific fragments using mass spectrometry. Analysis of the chemical structure of a compound by measurement of the molecular weight of fragments formed by bombardment of the molecule by ions.

Area of the brain lying below the pons. Area of the brain also called the midbrain, which contains the tegmentum and the substantia nigra. Part of the dopaminergic system with the cell bodies mainly in the ventral tegmental area which project to the prefrontal cortex, accumbens, septum and olfactory tubercles.

Area of the brain containing the nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle and projections to the cortex. RNA that carries genetic information for a specific polypeptide from the nuclear gene to the cytoplasm where it combines with transfer RNA (tRNA) to initiate protein synthesis.

Statistical overview of randomized, controlled trials that reduce random errors and may detect small treatment effects that are not apparent in a single study.

3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, the main brain metabolite or noradrenaline formed by the actions of monoamine oxidase and catechol-o-methyltransfer-ase.

Cells in the CNS that modify their behaviour in response to diverse signals from other cells; these cells represent the immune system in the CNS. A variable number of tandem repeats of a relatively short oligonucleotide sequence. An enzyme complex in the liver that metabolizes alcohols and other compounds. Subcellular particles occurring in most types of cell and involved in the metabolism of drugs as well as natural substances.

A syndrome thought to involve 5-HT characterized by localized headache and often accompanied by nausea, vomiting and sensory disturbances. Rod-shaped subcellular particles involved in energy production (e.g. ATP) and metabolism. Substance foreign to the body that induces lymphocytes to proliferate.

General name for catecholamine and indoleamine neurotransmitters.

Monozygotic Narcolepsy

Natural killer cell (NKC)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) Neuritic plaques

Neuroendocrine challenge test

Neurofibrillary tangle (NFT)

Neuromodulator

Neuron

Neuroregulator Neurosis

Neurotransmitter Nigrostriatal pathway NMDA

Nociceptive Novel anxiolytics

Nuclear schizophrenia Nutraceuticals

In genetic studies this refers to twins who are derived from a single ovum and therefore have identical genetic characteristics.

Rare, disabling sleep disorder of unknown origin. Characterized by sudden attacks of flaccid paralysis (cataplexy), extensive daytime sleepiness, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and rapid onset of rapid eye movement (REM) phase of sleep.

Any class of white blood cells that can spontaneously recognize and kill tumour or virus infected cells without previous exposure to an antigen. NKC cytotoxicity decreased in depression and in alcoholism.

Member of a class of proteins, the neurotrophins, that regulate neuronal cell death during development, aiding neural recovery from injury and ageing. Found in high density throughout the hippocampus and neocortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Density of plaques correlated with degree of cognitive impairment.

Any of a variety of tests used to examine the functional integrity of the monoamine pathways that control the secretion of pituitary hormones. One of the principal histopathological changes observed in Alzheimer's disease. A substance that modifies the function or effects of a neurotransmitter, e.g. peptides. A nerve cell.

A compound that has not been shown to fulfil the criteria of a neurotransmitter.

Behaviour showing undue adherence to an unrealistic idea of things and showing an inability to take a rationally objective view of life. A chemical messenger released by a neuron to excite or inhibit adjacent neurons.

The neural projection from cell bodies in the substantia nigra to the striatum. n-Methyl-D-aspartate, a synthetic amino acid that activates a subclass of excitatory amino acid (glutamate) receptors. Impulses that give rise to pain.

Drugs chemically unrelated to diazepam that produce their anxiolytic effects by facilitating inhibitory transmission through mechanisms other than the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex (e.g. buspir-one).

The core symptoms of schizophrenia rather than the associated or social factors.

Plants used for food but also for health benefits, including disease prevention and treatment.

Nystagmus

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

Oedema

Oligodendroglia

Oligonucleotide Oncogene

"On-off" phenomenon

Operant conditioning

Palpitations Panic attack

Paper chromatography

Paranoia

Para suicide Particulate fraction

Passivity

Penetrance

Phobia

Phosphatidylinositol system (PI system)

Phospholipid Physical dependence

Oscillatory movements of the eyes. State characterized by recurrent, intrusive thoughts and compulsive stereotyped, repetitive behaviour or cognitions.

Swelling due to the presence of excess fluid in the intercellular spaces of the body. One of the three types of glia cells responsible for creating the myelin sheath surrounding neurons in the CNS.

Short (less than 30 nucleotides) piece of DNA. Gene involved in development and differentiation that causes cancer when mutated. Occurs in patients with Parkinson's disease. The "on" phase (choreoathetotic dyskinesia) occurs at peak dose effect. In the "off" phase (akinesia), patients suddenly "freeze".

Response to a stimulus that increases the probability that the behavioural response to the stimulus will be repeated.

An unduly rapid heart beat which is noticed by the subject.

Sudden attack of fear or anxiety associated with one or more of 12 autonomic symptoms (e.g. shortness of breath, dizziness, palpitations, sweating). Separation of a mixture of compounds on filter paper according to their relative solubility in organic solvents that diffuse through the paper by capillary action.

The occurrence of delusions that are frequently of a persecutory nature.

Deliberately non-fatal self-poisoning or injury. Usually applied to a fraction of a tissue homogenate which contains subcellular particles. A feeling of being under the control or will of an outside agency.

Genetic term referring to the degree to which an inherited characteristic is expressed. A persistent and unreasonable fear of some situation or object.

G protein linked secondary messenger system which, by controlling the concentration of intracellular calcium, modulates the actions of some transmitters. The action of lithium may be mediated via the PI system.

A phosphorus-containing lipid that comprises about 50% of the cell membrane.

Phenomenon in which abnormal behavioural and autonomic symptoms occur following the abrupt withdrawal of a drug of dependence or when the effect of the drug is terminated by means of a specific antagonist.

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