Figure 11.8. Chemical structure of the phenothiazine series of neuroleptics.
The piperazine phenothiazines, as exemplified by fluphenazine, are the most potent members of the phenothiazine group, being at least 50 times more potent than chlorpromazine. Because of the structure of their side chain, members of this series lack anticholinergic, antihistaminic, adrenolytic and sedative effects. However, they are more likely to cause extrapyramidal side effects.
The thioxanthines are structurally closely related to the phenothiazines (see Figure 11.9) and may be divided into three separate series of
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