Effective Ways To Remove Pubic Hair
As is the case for most pediatric presentations in the ED, children should be completely undressed and thoroughly examined. This enables physicians to look for subtle signs of disease, injury, and abuse. A child's development of secondary sex characteristics should be assessed and compared with the Tanner stages of breast and pubic hair growth. Most premenarchal girls should not undergo a speculum examination or vaginoabdominal palpation except in the event of vaginal bleeding and trauma. The vast majority of examinations and procedures can be done with the parent holding the child.
Recent studies using retroviral transduction of kera-tinocytes have revisited the concept that the bulge contains a multipotent population of stem cells that is the normal source of tissue regeneration. In one study, Ghazizadeh and colleagues dermabraded mouse skin and transduced it with a retrovirus encoding the b-galactosidase reporter gene, followed by a 36-week chase with five cycles of depilation-induced hair follicle cycles. If the entire skin epithelium is generated from multipotent, long-lived stem cells within the bulge, then the distribution of b-Gal positive cells might be expected to be uniform across the different cell lineages in the hair follicle and epidermis. The result was puzzling because, even after the long chase and repeated stimulation of stem cells, only 30 of the hair follicles were uniformly blue. The rest of the follicles were positive in the ORS, IRS, or SG but not in all three locations. Moreover, there were defined units of blue in the epidermis far away...
The terms for females that have an age referent are memea fafine, baby female, tamarikiriki fafine or tamaafine, little girl, and maatua fafine, grown-up woman. The last term usually refers to married adult women. Once past puberty it is not age that is important for a female but marital status. The unmarried girl is fafine taka, a categorization which applies from the time she has grown pubic hair, and she remains in this category until the end of her life if she does not marry. The male equivalent is tamaaroa, unmarried male. All single women are referred to by their given names or the appropriate kin term. An elderly bachelor can be given the married man's title Pa by courtesy, and most older single
Prior to contact, the Yuqui believed that a girl must engage in sexual intercourse if she were to yecuaquiu, or menstruate and come into adulthood. Thus, girls became sexually active at an early age, and the man or boy with whom she had sex at the time of her first menses was credited with causing this to happen. When a girl first menstruated, she was painted black with Genipa (Genipa americana), and if she had already paired with a young man, he would be painted as well. The Yuquibelieved that this would encourage the growth of pubic hair. Her forehead would also be newly plucked and she would be placed at some distance from the camp, behind leaves. All menstruating and postpartum women were segregated from the group by requiring them to remain behind leaves for the duration of the menstrual period. This involved remaining behind a few palm fronds that had been broken off at the base and then planted in the ground to form a screen.
Cutaneous manifestations of Addison's disease include increased brownish pigmentation over exposed body areas such as the face, neck, arms, and dorsum of the hands, and over friction or pressure points such as the elbows, knees, fingers, toes, and nipples. Pigmentation of mucous membranes, darkening of nevi and hair, and longitudinal pigmented bands in the nails may be seen. Vitiligo, mucocutaneous candidiasis, and alopecia may occur with Addison's disease that has an autoimmune cause. Women with Addison's disease may exhibit decreased growth of axillary and pubic hair because of adrenal androgen deficiency. This is not seen in men because of adequate testicular androgen.
Not everyone wants to assume every male or female trait. Transgendered men may elect to have testosterone treatment, excision of the breasts and genitals, reduction in thyroid cartilage to minimize the Adam's apple, and the construction of a vagina. Transgendered women may elect to have estrogen treatment, electrolysis of unwanted hair, and the construction of male genitalia. However, some transgendered people continue to value aspects of their originally assigned sex and want to keep them even as they add other transfomations. Also, not all instances of cross-dressing or atypical gender expression represent cross-gender identities. Some men and women cross-dress for sexual reasons this phenomenon is known in psychiatry as transvestism. In these instances there is no discordance between one's biological traits and one's desired gender identity. The issue here is gender expression rather than identity.
Traditionally patients were bathed the day before operation, the operative area was shaved and, especially before orthopaedic operations, the area was cleaned with antiseptic solution and then bound with sterile bandages. Many of these firmly held practices have been discarded. Hair removal should be avoided unless the hair will interfere with the operation. If it is to be removed, depilatory agents cause least damage. Shaving or clipping should be performed as close to the time of the procedure as possible, so that the abraded and scored skin cannot become contaminated with microorganisms.
The FBI Laboratory first explored the feasibility of using mtDNA in human identity applications in the late 1980s (Budowle et al. 1990) and aggressively began researching analysis methods in 1992. The FBI Laboratory DNA Unit II has conducted mitochondrial DNA casework since June 1996. Their first case involving court testimony came in August 1996 with the State of Tennessee versus Paul William Ware, which involved mtDNA analysis of a single pubic hair found in the throat of young victim that matched the defendant (Marchi and Pasacreta 1997). Much of the mtDNA evidence processed by FBI involves shed hairs.
As with head lice, the main complaint with pubic lice is itching, which may vary in intensity. Pubic hair of the groin is most commonly infested, but body hair and eyelashes may be affected as well. Close inspection reveals the lice and nits ( Fig, 2.4,2.-4.). FIG. 242-4. Pubic lice. Pubic lice are seen on the skin surface, and nits are attached to the pubic hairs.
Patient preparation begins with proper selection and workup of anyone who is a candidate for surgery. With few exceptions, patients harboring an infection or infectious process should not undergo elective procedures. After this, the next step in reducing postoperative infection is the administration of preoperative antibiotics. Studies have determined that administration of appropriately selected antibiotics leads to a decrease in SSIs when the antibiotic is administered 1 h prior to the initial incision.3 Following these guidelines, adequate drug levels are achieved in the bloodstream to reduce the microbial burden to a manageable level for host defense in light of surgical manipulation. Although this precaution is fairly easy to accomplish, recent evidence shows that only 55.7 percent of patients receive a preoperative antibiotic at the appropriate time.4 Two main aspects of patient body site preparation for surgery include the removal of body hair at the proposed surgical site and...