Pulmonary Artery

Abnormalities of the V Wave

Constrictive Pericarditis Pressure Waves

How can you recognize a higher than normal V wave at a glance ANS By recognizing a Y descent of greater amplitude than normal. 2. What are the common causes of a higher than normal jugular V wave ANS a. Excessive right atrial filling either from 1 above the tricuspid valve, as in ASD or anomalous pulmonary venous connection, or 2 below the tricuspid valve as in TR. b. Loss of compliance of the right atrium from either 1 outside the heart, i.e., constrictive pericarditis, or 2 inside the...

Causes of a Loud A2 or P2

Hyperkinetic Circulation

What conditions tend to make the aortic component of the second sound louder than normal ANS a. Conditions that raise aortic systolic pressure, e.g., systemic hyper tension, which occasionally produces a drumlike sound or tambour S2. A tambour is a small drum that is covered only on one side. The tambour effect may persist even after the blood pressure has been lowered to normal by medication. b. Conditions that produce a hyperkinetic systemic circulation, e.g., youth, or thyrotoxicosis. The...