1. What are the usual conditions that can attenuate the X' descent?
ANS: a. A poor RV contraction, as in RV infarction, or when there is no atrial presystolic Starling effect stretch, as in atrial fibrillation or flutter.
b. Tricuspid regurgitation (TR), because the X' descent is encroached upon in proportion to the degree of regurgitation.
2. What can increase the amplitude of the X' descent?
ANS: a. Increased volume in the RV, as with an atrial septal defect (ASD), pulmonary regurgitation, and anomalous pulmonary venous connection.
b. Pericardial tamponade. Filling is restricted throughout diastole so that blood can only enter the right atrium during systole to make a good X' descent. The slow filling during diastole may eliminate the Y descent.
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Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...