1. What reference level is used as zero?
ANS: The sternal angle (angle of Louis).
2. What are the upper limits of normal for jugular pulsation in the (a) supine and (b) 45° position with the sternal angle as zero?
ANS: a. The supine upper limit is 2 cm.
Venous pressure can be estimated by observing the upper level of internal jugular pulsations above the sternal angle. If it is over 4.5 cm at 45°, it indicates an
Venous pressure can be estimated by observing the upper level of internal jugular pulsations above the sternal angle. If it is over 4.5 cm at 45°, it indicates an b. The 45° upper limit is 4.5 cm. (It is easy to remember 4.5 cm at 45°.)
3. Why is it important to know the venous pressure at 45° rather than supine? ANS: Supine, the top level of a normal venous pressure may not be seen because it could be above the angle of the jaw at mid-face level.
The 2-cm level is above the angle of the jaw in this patient. Therefore, only if her top level of pulsations were lower down at sternal-angle level would the upper level be measurable. At 45°, her top level ofjugular pulsations was below jaw level and was measurable.
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Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...