The Limitations Of Functional Anatomical Analysis

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Anatomy classifies muscles into functional groups flexors extensors, abductors adductors, etc. based on hypothesized actions. These muscle groups are useful general classifications and are commonly used in fitness education, weight training, and rehabilitation. These hypothesized muscle actions in movements and exercises are used to judge the relevance of various exercise training or rehabilitation programs. This section will show that such qualitative estimations of muscle actions are often...

Coordination Continuum Principle

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Many kinesiology professionals are interested in the coordination of movement. Coordination is commonly defined as the sequence and timing of body actions used in a movement. Unfortunately there is no universally agreed-upon definition or way to study coordination in the kinesiology literature. A wide variety of approaches has been proposed to describe the coordination of movement. Some approaches focus on the kinematics of the joint or segmental actions Hudson, 1986 Kreighbaum amp Bartels,...

Qualitative Analysis Human Movement Diagram

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A free-body diagram of a person quietly standing. The major vertical forces acting on the person gravity and ground reaction force are illustrated, while horizontal forces are small enough to ignore. Figure 2.6. A free-body diagram of a person quietly standing. The major vertical forces acting on the person gravity and ground reaction force are illustrated, while horizontal forces are small enough to ignore. body is our first example of what in mechanics is called a free-body...

Review Of Key Anatomical Concepts

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This section reviews several key concepts from human anatomy. A course in gross anatomy macroscopic structures is a typi cal prerequisite for the introductory biomechanics course. This section does not review all the bones, muscle, joints, and terms. Students and kinesiology professionals must continuously review and refresh their knowledge of anatomy. Anatomy describes the human body relative to the anatomical position. The anatomical position is approximated in Figure 3.1. The three spatial...

Nine Fundamentals Of Biomechanics

Nine Principles Biomechanics

Biomechanists measure all kinds of linear and angular mechanical variables to document and find the causes of human motion. While these variables and studies are extremely interesting to biomechanists, some kinesiology students and professionals may not find them quite so inherently stimulating. Most kinesiology professionals want to know the basic rules of biomechanics that they can apply in their jobs. This section proposes nine such principles of biome-chanics and demonstrates how they...

Qualitative And Quantitative Analysis Of Vectors

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Before moving on to the next kinetic approach to studying the causes of movement, it is a good time to review the special mathematics required to handle vector quantities like force and acceleration. The linear kinetics of a biomechanical issue called muscle angle of pull will be explored in this section. While a qualitative understanding of adding force vectors is enough for most kinesiology professionals, quantifying forces provides a deeper level of explanation and understanding of the...

Three Mechanical Characteristics Of Muscle

Muscle Force Relationship

Previously we discussed the passive tension in an MTU as it is passively stretched. Now it is time to examine the tensile forces the MTU experiences in the wide variety actions, lengths, and other active conditions encountered in movement. The force potential of an MTU varies and can be described by three mechanical characteristics. These characteristics deal with the variations in muscle force because of differences in velocity, length, and the time relative to activation. The Force-Velocity...

Neuromuscular Control

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The mechanical response of muscles also strongly depends on how the muscles are activated. The neuromuscular control of movement is an active area of study where biomechanical research methods have been particularly useful. This section will summarize the important structures and their functions in the activation of muscles to regulate muscle forces and movement. The Functional Unit of Control Motor Units The coordination and regulation of movement is of considerable interest to many scholars....