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that could be improved are Range of Motion and Force-Time. Since you are a good physical educator, you also note the non-biomechanical factors relevant in this situation: the player appears to visually focus on the ball, is motivated, and is trying her best.

Figure 9.6. A junior high school basketball player catching a pass. Time between images is 0.1 seconds.

Diagnosis of this situation is not as difficult as many qualitative analyses because the two weaknesses demonstrated in this example are closely related. Increasing the range of motion in receiving the ball will generally increase the time of force application. You must decide if the player's catching and basketball performance would improve most if her attention were focused on reaching more to intercept the ball or emphasizing how the arms bring the ball in. Both biomechanical principles are important. Can you really say one is more important than the other? The player would clearly improve if she stepped and reached more to intercept the ball earlier and provide more body range of motion to slow the ball down. Increasing range of motion also has a secondary benefit by reducing the risk of a pass being intercepted. How the hand forces opposing ball motion, however, has the most influence on whether a ball is caught or bounces out of a player's grasp. This is a case where some professionals might disagree on the most appropriate intervention. In class, you only have a few seconds and you provide a cue to a student to focus on "giving" with her hands and arms as she receives the ball. You say, "See if you can give with your hands and arms as you catch the ball. Bring that ball in so you barely hear a sound."

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