Teaching Your Child to Read
In totally self-administered bibliotherapy, the client receives or is asked to purchase material from a helper with no additional contact beyond an initial meeting. In minimal contact formats, the counselor may provide reading materials but takes a somewhat more active role such as arranging phone calls and infrequent meetings. Yet a third format consists of counselor-directed reading in a self-help book that the client obtains at the beginning of assessment followed by meetings with the helper on a regular basis. Here, written material provides a focus of discussion in relation to how this applies to the client. Last, in a counselor-directed approach, self-help books are used as a part of the counseling. In addition to reading, other formats include listening to tapes and computer-presented information. It is suggested that practitioners use books with which they are familiar, consider the length of the book as well as degree of extraneous material, and select books that are...
IJTRC program was a core group of clinicians and therapists who were able to focus on patient needs, putting aside uncertainties and barriers in order to address a growing underserved population. This driving purpose led them to devise safe and effective alternatives to traditional modes of delivery. A physical therapist, for example, might use a caregiver in a home situation as an assistant to lower the probability of patient falls, provide patient props, reinforce therapist instruction through cueing, and promote compliance with an in-home exercise regimen. A speech language pathologist might use toys such as an automated reader for joint play with the client in order to sequence language exercises to assist with reading skills. A psychotherapist could address adjustment to disability for the caregiver as well as the patient in the safety and anonymity of their home setting. This program has been developed over a period of three years. To date, a total of 3,711 consults have been...
The tasks that make up personality tests may not be designed to evaluate cognitive functioning, but they do involve cognitive processes. In selected-response instruments, such as personality inventories and questionnaires, the relevant cognitive processes are related to the inventory taker's ability to understand the items. Therefore, the vocabulary levels and reading skills of potential test takers need to be considered in devising those items. Projective tasks, on the other hand, involve a certain amount of proficiency in whatever mode the responses are to be expressed. Most projective instruments require a modicum of skill in verbal expression, drawing, or some other kind of performance. Thus, the relative difficulty or ease of projective tasks for various kinds of examinees must also be considered in the development, administration, and interpretation of these instruments.
For many years, it has been documented that depressed dominant (almost always left) cerebral hemisphere development will lower verbal IQ and depressed nondominant hemisphere development will lower performance IQ. Similarly, developmental tasks such as acquisition of reading skills or expressive language are primarily dependent upon dominant hemisphere maturation (in the posterior and anterior portions, respectively). Thus, the measurement of developmental phenomena relevant to the acquisition of such academic pursuits as learning to read and spell or to recognize and reproduce images of given objects
Although a consensus has not been achieved, there is mounting evidence that, at least for some people, the right hemisphere is not word blind but may support the reading of some types of words. The full extent of this reading capacity and whether it is relevant to normal reading, however, remains unclear.
Learning visual perceptual skills that do not require motor responses, such as the ability to read text that is presented in reverse mirror-image, depends on the integrity of posterior cortical regions. During learning, the right parietal region becomes activated, presumably because of the need to process the visuospatial aspects of the information. Once the skill is acquired, however, this region becomes less active while activity in the left temporooccipital region increases. The left temporooccipital region is important to normal reading, suggesting that once the skill is learned, the need to decode the visuospatial aspects of the words diminishes and skilled reading occurs.
In recent years, many investigators have developed models of reading in which the architecture and procedures are fully specified and implemented in a manner that permits an empirical assessment of their performance. One computational account of reading has been developed by Coltheart and colleagues. Their dual-route cascaded model represents a computationally instantiated version of dual-route theory similar to that presented in Fig. 1. This account incorporates a lexical route (similar to C in Fig. 1) as well as a nonlexical route by which the pronunciation of graphemes is computed on the basis of position-specific correspondence rules. The model accommodates a wide range of findings from the literature on normal reading. words through repeated exposure to familiar and unfamiliar words. Learning of word pronunciations is achieved by means of the development of a mapping between letters and sounds generated on the basis of experience with many different letter strings. The...
As noted previously, some accounts of normal reading postulate that familiar words are read aloud by matching the letter string to a stored representation of the word and retrieving the pronunciation by means of a mechanism linked to semantics or by means of a ''direct'' route. A critical point to note is that because reading involves stored associations of letter strings and sounds, the pronunciation of the word is not computed by rules but is retrieved, and therefore whether the word contains regular or irregular correspondences does not appear to play a major role in performance.
Disorders of reading and their implications for models of normal reading. Visible Language, 15, 245-286. Humphreys, G. W., & Evett, L. J. (1985). Are there independent lexical and nonlexical routes in word processing An evaluation of the dual-route theory of reading. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 8, 689-740.
Although there has been relatively little neuroima-ging research on perceptual learning, the research that has been conducted is illuminating. Perhaps the first study was an fMRI experiment of mirror reading. Participants viewed words and matched nonwords printed backward and decided whether the stimulus was a real word. Improvement in mirror reading is still detectable after 2 months of practice, and changes in performance are evident after 1 year without practice. The researchers compared mirror reading with normal reading and practiced, mirror words with unpracticed ones. Mirror reading compared to normal reading produced increases in blood flow in a number of areas, including the medial and lateral occipital cortex, right superior parietal cortex, bilateral fusiform gyrus, pulvinar, and cerebellum, particularly on the right side. Decreases were found in nearby regions of some of the same areas, including the medial occipital and right superior parietal cortices, as well as in the...
Psychological test scores are also used for making placement and classification decisions, both of which involve more than two options. Of these two, placement decisions are simpler. They involve assigning individuals to separate categories or treatments on the basis of a single score, or of a composite score computed from a single regression equation, with reference to a single criterion. Although placement decisions do not involve the option of rejecting individuals who do not meet a certain level of performance on a test or predictor, they are not substantially different from selection decisions in terms of the evidence they require, which is a demonstrable relationship between one or more predictors and a criterion. Scores on a reading test, for instance, may be used to place students in instructional groups suitable to their levels of reading skills. Similarly, scores on a depression scale might be used to classify psychiatric patients in terms of the severity of their depressive...
With degenerative damage in the region. However, impairments are not always found because preserved acquisition of mirror-reading skill has been found in Parkinson's disease patients. Whether cerebellar damage impairs perceptual and cognitive skill acquisition is uncertain because although deficits have been reported, there is strong evidence that patients with selective cerebellar degeneration do not show deficits in learning to read mirror-reversed text or solving the tower of Hanoi difficulty. The difficulty is that many studies have included patients with degeneration that extended beyond the cerebellum.
Clinicians using consent forms must ensure that their clients have the requisite reading skills. Illiteracy is a major problem in the United States clinicians cannot simply assume that all of their clients can read. Moreover, some clients may not be well versed in English, perhaps having only rudimentary skills in spoken English as a second or third language.
At normal reading distance, the average angular separation between the eyes is 12 to 14 . Thus, stereo pairs in the electron microscope are often recorded at tilt angles of plus and minus 6 to 7 . Using these angles, high-magnification stereo pairs of thin specimens, or lower magnification stereo pairs of thicker specimens, can be comfortably viewed. To maintain the same stereo depth effect with a given specimen thickness, the tilt angle is increased as the magnification is reduced. Note that this procedure does not ensure that the depth dimension is represented at the same scale as the in-plane dimensions. However, if the tilt angle and the magnification are known, the actual vertical separation between two points in the specimen can be measured from the stereo pair (see Subheading 3.7.).
Helping Your Child Learn To Read
When parents help their children learn to read, they help open the door to a new world. As a parent, you can begin an endless learning chain: You read to your children, they develop a love of stories and poems, they want to read on their own, they practice reading, and finally they read for their own information or pleasure. They become readers, and their world is forever expanded and enriched.