The Red Wine Diet

The Red Wine Diet

This diet is the single best way to lose weight if you'd rather not spend every spare minute on the treadmill and eating carrots and broth. You can lose the same amount of weight or MORE just by following the easy instructions in this ebook from Art Mcdermott, Certified Nutritionist and Strength Coach. Believe it or not, red wine is not a guilt pleasure. It is a very good and helpful part of your diet. The antioxidants in red wine alone can help you a lot in your quest to stay healthy! You don't have to just eat kale and carrots to lose weight Why not have a little something that tastes good as well? You will learn a lot in this ebook, including why alcohol is not your enemy in weight loss, the real health benefits of red wine that no one talks about, and addictive foods to avoid. Don't just avoid foods Get some red wine too! Read more...

The Red Wine Diet Summary


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Antioxidants from fruits vegetables herbs and spices

Able to increase vitamin C activity, protecting it against oxidative degradation. They are called bioflavonoids. In red wine and deep-red coloured fruit juices, various anthocyanins and their polymers are present, which are soluble in the aqueous phase, and possess moderate antioxidant activity. In addition to these compounds, various terpenic derivatives could act as potent inhibitors of lipid oxidation (see more in the next section). Another group of active compounds are carotenoids (Stahl and Sies, 1999), e.g., lycopene present in tomatoes. They possess antioxidant activities as mentioned in section 3.3.1.

Nutrient Composition

Some varieties of grapes are good to excellent sources of vitamin C, whereas others are not. Moderate consumption of red wine, which contains the phytochem-ical resveratrol, along with a heart-healthy diet may contribute to the prevention of heart disease. (See the Appendix, page 436, for the nutrient content of raisins.)

Current Estimates of Intake

Given the differences in dietary intake, particularly for fruits and vegetables, between populations, it is not surprising that the relationships between the predominant flavonoids and their sources will vary between populations, nor is it unexpected that there will be wide inter- and intraindividual variations in intake of the individual subclasses of the flavonoids. Flavonol intake was estimated to be highest in a Japanese population group (64mg day) and lowest in Finland (6mg day). International comparisons of dietary sources also reflect this variation, but only a few sources of flavonoids are responsible for most of the intake. Red wine was the main source of the flavonol quercetin in Italy, tea was the main source in Japan and The Netherlands, and onions were the most significant contributor to intake in Greece, the United States, and the former Yugoslavia (Table 1).

Cardiovascular Health

A significant proportion of the research on flavo-noids has concentrated on their antioxidant actions, and their capacity to act as antioxidants remains their best described biological property to date. Their antioxidant ability is well established in vitro, and in vivo animal data also suggest that consumption of compounds such as rutin or red wine extracts, tea, or fruit juice lowers oxidative products such as protein carbonyls, DNA damage markers, and malonaldehyde levels in blood and a range of tissues.

Commercial Applications

The most important group of polyphenols for commercial application has been anthocyanins. Commercial food colorants have been used for many years, especially in the wine trade. To enhance the color of red wine and also as a general food colorant, anthocyanin pigments from grape

Nonimmunological mechanisms

The largest class of substances that are found in many foods responsible for inducing pharmacological food intolerance are vasoactive amines. Other substances involved are methylxanthines, capsaicin and ethanol. Vasoactive amines include histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and serotonin. Foods such as tuna, cheese (in particular Parmesan and Roquefort), yeast extracts such as Marmite, and red wine such as Burgundy and Chianti are rich in these amines. Ingestion of large amounts of these foods can be followed by toxic symptoms.

In Vitro and Ex Vivo Evidence of Antioxidant Properties of Polyphenols

Similar to tea polyphenols, resveratrol, a major polyphenol in red wine, has also been found to have a protective effect against LDL oxidation in some but not all studies. In contrast to the disparate findings from wine and tea and their flavonoids on LDL protection, studies consistently suggest that cocoa, chocolate, and the procyanins found in cocoa protect LDL from oxidation, both in vitro and ex vivo. In vitro studies of apples, apple juice, and apple extracts (rich in anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols) indicate that these foods also protect LDL.

Basil And Functional Food Applications

The long-term goal of this project is to use the tools of biotechnology to develop improved clonal lines of dietary herbs and improved fermentation process for dietary legumes to generate consistent, nontoxic, and clinically relevant levels of phenolic metabolites for use as antimicrobials against chronic diseases caused by ulcer-associated Helicobacter pylori and urinary tract infection-associated Escherichia coli. Plant phenolic metabolites such as capsaicin from diet are known to be associated with low rate of ulcers through inhibition of H. pylori (49), and currently available synthetic drug treatments have significant side effects (50,51). Phenolics from cranberry have potential for use against urinary tract infections linked to E. coli (52). Use of dietary source of diverse antimicrobial-type plant phenolics could lead to reduced use of antibiotics and therefore reduce the potential increase in antibiotic-resistant, disease-causing bacteria. In addition, plant phenolic...

CYP1A1 and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor AhR

Another class of plant derived compounds that modulate AhR CYP1A1 functions and have potential applications as chemopreventative agents are the phytoalexins. These primarily stress induced compounds can act as antifungal agents in plants, but possess additional activities that make them attractive chemopreventative agents. For example, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in red wine that has a wide spectrum of inhibitory properties (73). Resveratrol has been shown to induce apoptosis in established human breast cancer cell lines that have wild-type p53 tumor suppressor protein but not mutant p53 (46). In addition to its ability to inhibit cyclooxygenases, resveratrol is a competitive antagonist of AhR that causes nuclear translocation of AhR but does not induce CYP1A1 (74). Thus, resveratrol may act to prevent cancer initiation by inhibiting signaling through AhR and blocking the upregulation of CYP1A1.

Functional Phytochemicals from Cranberries Their Mechanism of Action and Strategies to Improve Functionality

Phenolic compounds or phenolic phytochemicals are secondary metabolites of plant origin which constitute one of the most abundant groups of natural compounds and form an important component of both human and animal diets (1,2,3). These phenolic metabolites function to protect the plant against biological and environmental stresses and are therefore synthesized in response to pathogenic attack, such as fungal or bacterial infection, or high energy radiation exposure, such as prolonged UV exposure (4,5). Because of their important biological functions, phenolic phytochemicals are ubiquitous in plants and therefore find their place in almost all food groups. Common fruits such as apples, cranberries, grapes, raspberries, and strawberries, and fruit beverages like red wine and apple and orange juices, are rich sources of phenolic phytochemicals. In addition to fruits, vegetables such as cabbage and onion, and food grains such as sorghum, millet, barley, peas, and other legumes (6) are...

Summary of the pharmacological properties of antidepressants in general use in Europe

Sertraline Muscarinic

The main limitation to the clinical use of the MAOIs is due to their interaction with amine-containing foods such as cheeses, red wine, beers (including non-alcoholic beers), fermented and processed meat products, yeast products, soya and some vegetables. Some proprietary medicines such as cold cures contain phenylpropanolamine, ephedrine, etc. and will also interact with MAOIs. Such an interaction (termed the ''cheese effect''), is attributed to the dramatic rise in blood pressure due to the sudden release of noradrenaline from peripheral sympathetic terminals, an event due to the displacement of noradrenaline from its intraneuronal vesicles by the primary amine (usually tyramine). Under normal circumstances, any dietary amines would be metabolized by MAO in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, in the liver, platelets, etc. The occurrence of hypertensive crises, and occasionally strokes, therefore limited the use of the MAOIs, despite their proven clinical efficacy, to the...

Communicating about Risk Menace and Safety

Although epidemiologists might wonder at the hubris of the Lancet asking if they cause epidemics, anthropologists would readily reply, Why, of course they do Most epidemiologists would recoil from what anthropologists find quite acceptable that the public's epidemiologic understanding goes beyond what it knows about epidemiologic method. This public understanding encompasses what epidemiology is used for and whether people find it personally relevant. Anthropologists know that epidemiology produces metaphors even as it produces knowledge about disease causation and prevention. These metaphors include qualities like safe sex and good cholesterol, but they also include confusing contradictions between risks and benefits of consuming specific foods. Contradictory information puts people in the difficult bind of choosing between whether to drink red wine to reduce the risk of heart disease or to avoid red wine to reduce the risk of liver disease. Conflicting data about fat and heart...

Cranberry synergies with functional phytochemicals and other fruit extracts

Recent research has documented the evidence that whole foods, and not single compounds, have a better functionality in maintaining our health against many of the antioxidant diseases. Recent work on the effect of wine has shown that resveratrol is responsible for the decrease in atherogenesis in rats (101,102). However, when resveratrol was used as a supplement in diet such an effect was not seen. Other researchers have shown that the combination of resve-ratrol and quercetin exerts a synergic effect in the inhibition of growth and proliferation of human oral squamous carcinoma cells (221). Carbonneau et al. (223) during in vivo antioxi-dant assays with red wine, observed that different phenolics in wine could play a coantioxi-dant role, similar to that described for vitamin C, and a sparing role toward vitamin E, which increases due to supplementation with phenolics. Synergistic interactions between wine polyphenols, quercetin, and resveratrol were found to decrease the inducible...

Antioxidants from fruits and berries overview

Antioxidant composition (anthocyanins, flavanols and proanthocyanidins, flavonols, hydroxycinnamates, carotenoids, vitamin C and vitamin E) of selected, commonly consumed fruits and berries is presented in Table 3.1. Large amounts of anthocyanins (up to 8100mgkg-1) are found in the strongly coloured fruits and berries including bilberries (wild clone of blueberries), blackcurrants, cherries, cranberries, red grapes and raspberries. The amount of flavanols is generally below 150mgkg-1 with larger amounts found in blackcurrants, cranberries, red wine grapes, peaches, plums and red raspberries. Apart from a few exceptions such as cranberries and red grapes, fruits and berries are generally also low in flavonols and high in phenolic acids such as hydroxycinnamates. Large amounts of hydroxycinnamates are present in cherries (300-1930mgkg-1), plums (121 896mgkg-1) and peaches (81-750mgkg-1). High molecular weight phenolics, tannins, are also found in fruits and berries with large amounts of...

Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

In addition to these pharmacological inhibitors of COX, many phytochemicals are capable of blocking COX activity. The best studied plant derived compound that inhibits COX is the phytoalexin polyphenol resveratrol, found in red wine, peanuts, and many herbs. Resveratrol induces growth arrest and apoptosis in several human cancer cell lines, including the breast cancer line MCF-7 (153). Treatment of mouse mammary glands with resveratrol inhibited the development of preneoplastic lesions (154), thus demonstrating resveratrol has chemopreventative functionality. Most of the initial research indicated that resveratrol was selective for inhibiting COX-1 however, it has since been shown in mammary epithelial cells to inhibit the both the expression and the activity of COX-2 (155,156). Resveratrol likely blocks COX-2 expression by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism (155).

Gamma Movement Effect

Action of the drug with tyrosine in the cheese other substances producing this effect include red wine, pickled herring, and yeast extract and sauce Bearnaise effect - refers to a single-trial learning response involving an association to a highly specific stimulus and a delayed negative consequence based on an analogy to becoming sick some hours after a meal that included sauce Bearnaise and, regardless of the cause of the illness, the sauce becomes identified with the aversive episode). Specifically, laboratory rats quickly acquire an aversion to a sweet-tasting liquid when it is followed by an injection that makes them ill, but they do not readily acquire an aversion to the sweet taste when it is followed by an electric shock. In contrast, rats learn to avoid a light noise stimulus combination when it is paired with shock but not when it is followed by a nausea-inducing injection. These findings indicate that classical conditioning cannot be established equally well for all...

Fermented Not Distilled Beverages

Next S02 is added at 50 to 100 ppm to condition the must for its ability to inhibit undesirable organisms and its antifungal and antioxidative properties. The correct amount of sugar is added to define the final concentration of alcohol in the wine. The rule is when one wants to make a wine of X alcohol one would add 2 X of sugar. This is because 1 g of sugar will be converted to half a gram of alcohol and another half a gram of carbon dioxide, which is released into the environment. The conditioned must will then be inoculated with a wine yeast (usually S. cer-evisiae var. ellipsoideus Montrachet strain) at 1 inoculum level. For red wine the must can be fermented on the skin, which allows extraction of the red anthocyanin by alcohol to give the red color to the wine. Alternatively, the must can be hot-pressed (the must is heated to 62.7 C, and the juice is pressed out while hot), which also extracts the red color. To make white wine, white grapes can be used or, if red grapes are...

Enzyme Activities of Non Saccharomyces Wine Yeasts

With respect to the role played by these non-Saccharomyces species in wine quality, they are known to have the capability to improve the wine aroma (Charoenchai et al. 1997 Esteve-Zarzoso et al. 1998). The available aromas in the grape impart and define the characteristics and the final quality of wine. Terpenic compounds account for most of these aromas. Grape processing liberates small quantities of aromatic terpenols however, odorless precursors in the grape present a large, untapped reserve for wine aromas. Not only is the aroma an important quality factor in wine but also the intensity of the color is another very important quality factor in red wine, where anthocyanins are the main pigments. Various enzyme activities can improve the process of winemaking and enhance wine quality. The yeasts involved in wine making could be important producers of these enzymes (for a review see Table 1).

Non Nutrient Antioxidants

The same is true for the polyphenolic flavonoids, anthocyanins, and various other plant-based non-nutrient antioxidants in the diet. Many of these have antioxidant powers far higher than those of vitamin C and vitamin E when tested in in vitro systems. Dietary intake can be similar to that of vitamin C (100mgday-1 or higher), but, as their bioavailability is low, plasma levels of individual flavonoids and other phenolic antioxidants are very low or undetectable. The major dietary polyphenolic compounds are quercetin, kaempferol, myricitin, and the catechins. These flavonoids are found in onions, apples, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, teas, grapes, and wine. Moderate wine intake, especially of red wine (which is very rich in polyphenolic antioxidants), is associated with a significant

Dietary Management

The additives sulfur dioxide, tartrazine, sodium benzoate, and salicylates have been implicated, although in the case of sulfur dioxide its ability to cause asthma depends on the nature of the food to which it is added, the level of residual sulfur dioxide in the food, and the sensitivity of the patient. Foods such as nuts, cola drinks, ice, and those cooked in oil have been found to cause symptoms more frequently in Asian children. Many of the studies that have identified certain foodstuffs as triggering asthma have had limitations or flaws in their design, leading to difficulties in interpreting and extrapolating their results.

Migraine and headaches

Occasionally foods with a high content of tyramine, such as cheese, coffee, red wine and yeast extract, are responsible for migrainous headaches.19 In some patients the association is obvious and these patients usually avoid these foods. In other cases of chronic headache, once other treatable causes have been excluded, a diet excluding foods with high tyramine content may be tried. However, double-blind challenges are often unsuccessful in confirming a relationship of foods with headaches.

Jugged Hare

You might have heard of this classic English dish. The main ingredient is a hare that has been soaked in a marinade of red wine and juniper berries for a day or more. The marinated meat is browned and then made into a casserole that includes vegetables, seasonings, and stock for baking. Juices from this mixture are poured off after cooking and combined with cream, blood from the hare that was set aside at butchering, and the hare's liver, which has been pulverized. The strained sauce is served over the meat and vegetables. Because the dish was historically served in a crock or jug, the dish has been referred to as jugged hare.


The grape itself may supply at least a portion of the lipids needed by yeast during fermentative growth. Up to two-thirds of the cuticular waxes in some grape varieties are composed of oleanolic acid. This fatty acid has been found to replace the yeast's requirement for ergosterol supplementation under anaerobic conditions (19). Thus, pomace contact, either prior to pressing in white wine production or extended during red wine fermentation, extracts this and other essential components from the grape cuticle.

Carcinoid Syndrome

Carcinoid syndrome occurs in less than 10 percent of patients with carcinoid and develops when venous drainage from the tumor gains access to the systemic circulation, as with hepatic metastases. The classic syndrome consists of flushing, diarrhea, bronchospasm, and right-sided cardiac valvular fibrosis. Symptoms are paroxysmal and may be provoked by alcohol, cheese, chocolate, or red wine. Diagnosis is made by 24-h measurement of urinary 5-HIAA or of whole blood 5-hydroxytryptamine. Surgical cure usually is not possible with extensive abdominal or hepatic metastases however, debulking of the tumor may alleviate symptoms and improve survival, when it can be performed safely. Hepatic metastases also have been treated with chemoembolization using doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and cisplatin. Carcinoid crisis with severe bronchospasm and hemodynamic collapse may occur perioperatively in patients with undiagnosed carcinoid. Prompt recognition is crucial as administration of octreotide can...


Epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary flavonoids, such as the quercetin, kaempferol, myri-cetin, apigenin, and luteolin found in tea, apples, onions, and red wine (usually as glycoside derivatives of the parent aglycones), may help to protect against coronary heart disease (CHD). The main epidemiological evidence comes from the Zutphen Elderly study and the Seven Countries Study. In the Zutphen Elderly study (805 men aged 65-84 years), the mean baseline flavonoid intake was 25.9 mg daily and the major sources of intake were tea (61 ), onions (13 ), and apples (10 ). Flavonoid intake, which was analyzed in tertiles, was significantly inversely associated with mortality from CHD, and the relative risk of CHD in the highest versus lowest tertile of flavonoid intake (> 28.6 vs < 18.3mg day) was 0.42 (95 confidence interval, 0.20-0.88).

Wine And Health

Average levels of malvidin-3-glucoside in four red wines made in 1989, 1990, and 1991. Source Reprinted with permission from Waterhouse and Teissedre, Ref. 10. Copyright 1997, American Chemical Society. Figure 6. Average levels of malvidin-3-glucoside in four red wines made in 1989, 1990, and 1991. Source Reprinted with permission from Waterhouse and Teissedre, Ref. 10. Copyright 1997, American Chemical Society. Thus, healthy diets, as the Mediterranean diet, consists of large amounts of fruits and vegetables, with only limited levels of meat, and moderate amounts of red wine. Etha-nol, the largest component of wine (< 14 ), and the polyphenols seem to be the healthful natural chemicals of wine as described in The French Paradox.

Wine and Cancer

One recent study has shown a direct link to wine and cancer inhibition in a transgenic mouse model (20). These mice have a set of genetic disorders that cause tumors to grow along nerves similar to neurofibromatosis in humans. Dehydrated, dealcoholized red wine solids were fed as a supplement with a defined amino-acid-based diet to these mice successfully for three generations. Catechin was the major wine polyphenol, followed by gallic acid and epi-catechin. These three phenols comprised about 93 of the total phenolics in the red wine used in this study. The mouse group fed the wine solids, compared to the unsup-plemented controls, showed a significantly delayed tumor onset, and the major polyphenol, catechin, in the red wine was absorbed intact. This latter finding is important because if wine, or more specifically certain polyphenols in wine, has a role in the prevention of human cancer development, then future studies must show absorption, metab-

Hnc Weight Loss

A number of mechanisms have been proposed for the protection by flavonoids against CHD, including antioxidant activity. Oxidative damage to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (particularly to the apoprotein B molecule) is considered to be an important stage in the development of atherosclerosis It is a prerequisite for macrophage uptake and cellular accumulation of cholesterol leading to the formation of the atheromal fatty streak. Flavonoids such as quercetin are effective inhibitors of in vitro oxidative modification of LDL by macrophages or copper ions. Although consumption of flavonoids in onions and black tea (providing 91 mg day of quercetin for 2 weeks) by young healthy male and female subjects had no effect on plasma F2-isoprostane concentrations (a biomarker of in vivo lipid peroxidation) or on resistance of LDL to copper-ion-induced oxidation, flavonoids in red wine have been reported to protect LDL against oxidative damage. The antiox-idant properties of flavonoids may...

Synthetic Compounds

Studies on synthetic compounds related to the anthocyanins have shown that methyl or phenyl moieties substituted at the C-4 position in the molecule are virtually resistant to nucleophilic attack at the C-2 position. This observation led to the suggestion that a number of synthetic analogues would prove to be very stable (7). The first natural C-4 substituted anthocyanin reported was purpurinidin fructo-glucoside isolated from willow bark, but shortage of raw material has precluded its commercial development (8). A second group of naturally occurring C-4 substituted anthocyanins was reported by Cameira dos Santos et al. in red wine (9). The new pigments contain a vinylphenol group attached to positions 4 and 5 of the grape anthocyanins and were named anthocyanin-3-glucoside adducts. Sarni-Manchado et al. prepared the vinylphenol adducts of five of the major anthocyanins of wine, namely, delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside, and...


Red wines, extracts of different types of fresh grapes, 'grape skin extract', American Concord grape juice, as well as European red grape juices, strongly inhibit human LDL oxidation in vitro and this antioxidant activity is associated with the phenolic compounds.2,47-50 Thus, not only has the antioxidant activity of similarly diluted grape samples been shown to be proportional to concentration of total phenols, but in certain cases, the antioxidant potency also correlates to the levels of different classes of compounds. Thus, the relative antioxidant potency towards human LDL oxidation in vitro is strongly correlated to levels of anthocyanins and flavonols for fresh grape extracts for Concord grape juice and red European grape juice strongly correlated to the level of anthocyanins, and in white grape juice samples the antioxidant potency on LDL correlates to the levels of hydroxycinnamates and flavan-3-ols.2,49,50 Extracts of fresh grapes also inhibit both development of lipid...

The French Paradox

Platelet aggregation is related to one of the conditions needed for the development of coronary disease. However, later studies by Frankel et al. (17) showed that the alcohol content of wine may not be the sole explanation for this protection. Red wine, containing antioxidant polyphenols, seemed to play an important role because in vitro studies showed that the red wine phenolics inhibited the oxidation of LDL. Continued studies by these investigators (18) showed that the two flavonoids, epi-catechin and quercetin, had about twice the inhibiting potency as irarcs-resveratrol in LDL oxidation. The oxidation of LDL, commonly called the bad cholesterol, is another condition usually required in the etiology of coronary disease.


Historically botrychiums have a rich association with herbal cures and magical powers. The moonwort, Botrychium lunaria, with its lunate (half-moon-shaped) pinnules and once-abundant nearly worldwide distribution, was a leader in mystical powers. (Harry Potter would love it.) Specific uses included boiling the leaves in red wine to produce a concoction that would curtail bleeding and vomiting, as well as heal both internal and external wounds. More fanciful attributes based on the double key-shaped pinnae gave it the ability to undo locks and unshoe horses. My favorite, however, is that the fairy folks used the leaflets as their wee horses.

Phenolics In Wine

The two most prevalent types of nonflavonoids, as observed in Table 1, are gallic acid and caffeic acid, as well as their related compounds (Fig. la,b). Gallic acid, the major wine hydroxybenzoate compound caffeic acid, the primary hydroxycinnamate compound and the stilbene derivative, imns-resveratrol, are the major, important nonflavonoids in wine. Other hydroxybenzoates and hy-droxycinnamates appear in wine with substituted molecules for hydrogen in the final acid moiety of these compounds. All wines have quite similar amounts of nonflavonoids, and these compounds can contribute important sensory properties and color stability to wine. Other nonflavonoids in wines are short-chain aldehydes, caftaric acids, vanillin, syringaldehyde, tyrosol, 4-vinylguaiacol, acetovanillone, eugenol, and 4-ethylphenol. Some of these appear to be degradation products of other phenols and increases during red wine aging (4). irans-Resveratrol (Fig. lc) levels in wines, which are somewhat higher in red...


Flavan-3-ols, often referred to as flavanols, are the most complex class of the flavonoids because they range from simple monomers (catechin and its isomer epicatechin) to the oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins, which are also known as condensed tannins. Proanthocyanidins can occur as polymers of up to 50 units, and when hydroxylated they can form gallocatechins or undergo esterification to form gallic acid. Red wine contains oligometric proanthocyanidins derived mainly from the seeds of black grapes. Green tea is also a rich source of

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