Characterization of Abnormal Findings

T3 C

Morphology

- Oval, round, irregular, spotty, patchy, linear, stippled, confluent

- Broad, constricted, pedunculated

- Smooth, furrowed, glistening, fissured

- Coarse, spotty, mottled

Number and Arrangement

- Solitary, scattered, multiple, numerous, ubiquitous

► Arrangement

- Focal, diffuse

Response to Probing

► Mobility of lesion or mucosa

► Consistency

Stenoses

► Degree of luminal narrowing

► Resistance to instrument passage

► Consistency

► Mucosal fragility

Findings in the Esophagus

Carcinoma

- Location: in centimeters from the incisors, relation to physiological constrictions, relation to the Z-line

- Extent: longitudinal extent, circumferential extent, degree of luminal narrowing

- Type of growth

- Width of residual lumen

- Mobility

- Consistency

- Fragility

► Esophagitis

- Grade

- Extent of lesions

- Extent of peptic stricture, if present

- Grade

- Extent of varices

- Signs of increased bleeding risk

Liver Cancer Colon Cancer

Findings in the Stomach

- Location

- Shape: round, oval, linear, bizarre, irregular

- Number

- Ulcer base: fibrin, hematin, visible vessel

- Ulcer margin

Location within the stomach Size

Type of growth

Consistency

Mobility

Location within the stomach

Size

Shape

Base

Surface x

T3 C

Findings in the Duodenum

- Location within the bulb

- Shape: round, oval, linear, bizarre, irregular

- Number

- Ulcer base: fibrin, hematin, visible vessel

- Ulcer margin

- Location within the bulb

- Shape

- Surface

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Notes

Page numbers followed by f indicate figures: t indicates tables.

To save space, the following abbreviations have been used:

MALT - mucosa associated lymphoid tissue

PEG - percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy vs. indicates a comparison or differential diagnosis

Abdominal wall, stomach relation

48, 48 f Abnormal findings characterization 186-187 stomach 128, 128 f Achalasia 2 f, 81-82, 81 f secondary peristalsis 35 squamous cell carcinoma 91 stenosis 172, 172 f balloon dilation 173 treatment 82 Aciclovir, herpes simplex virus treatment 74 Adenocarcinoma chromoendoscopy 1771,179 duodenal polypoid lesions 1371 malignant esophageal tumors 91

Adenoma differential diagnosis 108,109 duodenal polypoid lesions

1371, 138, 138 f stomach 112, 112 f frequency 108t locations 109 f Adenomatous polyps, hyperplas-

tic polyps vs. 110 Advanced gastric carcinoma see

Gastric carcinoma Aftercare, PEG 160 Agitation 12 Air insufflation 19, 19 f Alcohol, esophagitis 75, 75 f Alkaline reflux esophagitis 76, 76 f

Alkaline reflux gastropathy 122 Allergy, Lugol solution 177 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescent endoscopy 180, 180 f photodynamic therapy 157 Amoxicillin, gastric ulcer treatment 103 Ampicillin, prophylaxis 4t Amyloidosis, gastric ulcers vs. 102

Analgesia 9-10

complications 3 Anaphylaxis 13

Anastomoses, stenosis 172, 172 f Anesthesia general 10

local see Local anesthesia Angiodysplasias, stomach 96 f, 127, 127 f

Angle of His 32, 32 f Angulation 18, 181 Angulus 45 f body-antrum junction 41 f Anorexia 2 f

Antacids, alkaline reflux esophagitis 76 Antibiotic prophylaxis 4, 4 f, 41

PEG tube placement 160 Antihistamines 13 Antispasmodics 10 Antrum 41 endoscope looping 42 f gastric body junction 41, 41 f insertion into 38, 38 f left decubitus position 42 f normal view 41, 41 f peristalsis 43 f pylorus 42 f Aorta 28 Aortic arch 29 f Apnea 3, 12, 13 Argon plasma coagulation gastric ulcers 154, 155 f stenoses therapy 176 Arrhythmias 3 Aspiration 3, 16 Aspiration pneumonia 3, 16 Asystole 13 Atropine 13

Axial sliding hernia 61, 61 f, 63 f gastroesophageal prolapse vs.

Balloon dilation 173, 173 f achalasia treatment 82 Balloon tamponade 147 Banding 149, 149 f Barrett esophagus 2f, 70-71, 70 f fluorescent endoscopy 180 f magnification endoscopy 180 malignant esophageal tumors vs. 91

methylene blue staining 71 f,

178, 178 f pathology 71 f photodynamic therapy 157 prevalence 70 Batteries, as foreign bodies 159 Benign duodenal polypoid lesions 1371 Benzodiazepines antagonism 13 complications 3

Bezoars 122, 122 f

Bile ducts, duodenum relation

141, 141 f Billroth I operation 124, 124 f Billroth II operation 96 f, 124, 124 f, 125 f alkaline reflux esophagitis 76 PEJ 166

postoperative conditions 122 f, 125 f Biopsy 156 acute gastritis 99 adenomas 112

benign esophageal tumors 90 buttonhole see Buttonhole biopsy chronic gastric erosions 111 chronic gastritis 101 Crohn's disease 77 duodenal bulbitis 136 duodenal ulcers 134 gastric carcinoma 116 gastric lymphoma 117 gastric ulcers 103 Helicobacter pylori 156 malignant esophageal tumors 91

peptic stricture 72 sprue 139 suction 156 Bite guard insertion 22, 22 f Bleeding 12 acute gastritis 97 f, 971, 98 complications 4, 14 duodenal ulcers 135,135 f predisposition 4, 4f see also Upper gastrointestinal bleeding Blind insertion 23 Body-antrum junction 41, 41 f Boeck disease, gastric ulcers vs. 102

Boerhaave syndrome 66 Botulinum toxin achalasia treatment 82 stenoses therapy 176 Bougie dilation 173 Bowing/looping, endoscopes 18 Brachyesophagus 71 f Bradycardia, apnea 13 Braun side-to-side anastomosis 124,124f erythema 125 f

Cysts, Elster glandular see Elster glandular cysts Cytology, peptic stricture 72 Cytomegalovirus (CMV) 74 candidiasis vs. 73, 74

Defoaming agents 10 Dentures, as foreign bodies 159 Diaphragmatic hiatus 32, 32 f Diazepam (Valium) 9 Dieulafoy ulcers, hemostasis 155 Diffuse esophageal spasm 83, 83 f Dihematoporphyrin ether 157 Direct vision insertion see Insertion Disclosure complications 7 preparations (for endoscopy) 8 risk factors 7 Distal esophagus 31, 31 f Distal reflux esophagitis 75 Diverticula esophagus see Esophageal diverticula stomach 128, 128 f Documentation 7 Duodenal bulb 54, 54 f diseases/disorders bulbitis 132 f, 136, 136 f locations 185 f ulcers 133 insertion into 52, 52 f normal views 56, 56 f Duodenal polypoid lesions 132 f, 137-138, 137 f, 1371, 187f benign 1371 malignant 1371

duodenal ulcers vs. 134 see also individual types Duodenal tube insertion, PEG

165 f, 167-170, 170-172 f Duodenal ulcers 132 f, 133-135, 187 f clinical aspects 133, 133 f, 134 f complications 135, 135 f definition/causes 133 diagnosis 134 differential diagnosis 134 duodenal bulb 133 Helicobacter pylori 133 location 133, 133 f

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Duodenal ulcers nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAlDs) 133 treatment 134

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome 133 Duodenum bulb see Duodenal bulb descending insertion into 54 f normal views 57, 57 f views of 55, 55 f diseases/disorders 132-141, 1321

adjacent organ disease 141, 141 f bulbar diverticulum 132 f,

140, 140 f bulbitis see Duodenal bulb Crohn disease 139, 139 f locations 185 f pancreatitis 132 f polypoid lesions see

Duodenal polypoid lesions sprue 132 f, 139, 139 f ulcers see Duodenal ulcers Whipple disease 139 endoscope manipulations 53, 53 f insertion into 53, 53 f organ relations 141 f papilla of Vater 55 perforation 15 proximal 54, 54 f systematic examinations 184 f valvulae conniventes 55 Dysphagia 2 f candidiasis 73 reflux esophagitis 67 Dyspnea 12, 13, 15

Early gastric carcinoma see Gastric carcinoma Edema acute gastritis 97 f, 971, 98 duodenal bulbitis 136 f Eder-Pusestow dilators 173 Electrocoagulation, gastric ulcers 154

Elster glandular cysts 109 f, 110, 110f differential diagnosis 108, 109 frequency 108t locations 109 f Emergency equipment 7, 7 f, 71

medications 7 f Endoprostheses, malignant esophageal tumors 92 Endoscopes control head 6, 6 f insertion see Insertion insertion tube 6, 6 f manipulations 18, 18t duodenum 53, 53 f overall control 18 retroflexion see Retroflexion mechanisms 17-18, 171

structure/design 6 supply plug 6, 6 f umbilical cord 6, 6 f Endoscopy facilities 5-7 accessories 7 documentation 7 emergency equipment 7, 7f, 7t emergency medications 7 f, 7 t image documentation 7 staff 5 suite 5 unit 5-6, 5 f Endosonography achalasia 81 Barrett esophagus 71 benign esophageal tumors 90,

90 f esophageal varices 85 gastric carcinoma 116 gastric lymphoma 117, 117 f hypertensive gastropathy 120, 120 f intramural gastric tumors 107 malignant esophageal tumors

see also Ultrasonography Enteroscopy 181, 181 f Eosinophilic gastritis, gastric ulcers vs. 102 Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, sprue vs. 139 Epigastric pain, reflux esophagitis 67

Epinephrine anaphylaxis management 13 gastric ulcer injection 151, 152 f, 153 Epiphrenic esophageal diverticula 79, 80

Erosions, acute gastritis 97 f, 97 t,

98, 98 f Erosive bulbitis 136 f Erythema acute gastritis 97 f, 971, 98, 98 f Braun side-to-side anastomosis 125 f

Erythematous bulbitis 136 f Esophageal carcinoma 186 bleeding predisposition 4f differential diagnosis 75 stenoses 171, 171 f Esophageal diverticula 60 f, 7980

bleeding predisposition 4 cervical diverticula see Zenker diverticulum computed tomography 78 manometry 78

oral contrast radiography 78 f radiographic contrast examination 78 thoracic 79, 80, 80 f traction 79, 79 f Zenker diverticulum see Zenker diverticulum Esophageal manometry see

Manometry Esophageal tumors 60 f, 89-92 benign see below differential diagnosis 89 f malignant see below Esophageal tumors, benign 8990, 891 diagnosis 89 biopsy 90

contrast esophagogram 90 endosonography 90, 90 f differential diagnosis 89 fibromas 89, 90 glycogenic acanthosis 89, 90, 90 f hemangiomas 89, 90 leiomyomas 89, 90, 90 f lipomas 89, 90 management 89 neurinomas 89, 90 papillomas 89, 90 Esophageal tumors, malignant 891, 91 f adenocarcinoma 91 diagnosis 91 differential diagnosis 91 follow-up 92 risk factors 911 squamous cell carcinoma 91,

92 f, 171, 171 f symptoms 91 t treatment 92 Esophageal varices 60 f, 85-88, 85 f, 147 f, 186 f anatomy 85, 85 f bleeding predisposition 4 f, 85 bleeding risk assessment 87, 87 f clinical aspects 85 diagnosis 85

differential diagnosis 85, 86 f grading 86, 86 f treatment 88, 88 f, 147-149, 147 t balloon tamponade 147 banding 149, 149 f isosorbide mononitrate 88 ligation 88 pharmacology 147 propanolol 88 sclerotherapy 88, 148,148 f spironolactone 88 Esophagectomy 93, 93 f Esophagitis 78, 186 alcohol 75, 75 f alkaline reflux 76 f causes 78 t corrosive ingestion 77, 77 f Crohn's disease 77, 77 f differential diagnosis 78, 78 f foreign bodies 60 f, 75 medications 75 radiogenic 76, 76 f reflux see Reflux esophagitis Esophagus Barrett see Barrett esophagus cervical 27, 27 f, 271 diseases/disorders 60-93, 60 f, 601, 186 f achalasia see Achalasia Boerhaave syndrome 66 corrosive injury 2f diffuse esophageal spasm 83, 83 f diverticula see Esophageal diverticula esophagitis see Esophagitis foreign bodies 60 f gastroesophageal prolapse

65, 65 f gastroesophageal reflux see Gastroesophageal reflux hiatal hernia see Hiatal hernia infections 60 f, 73-74 see also individual infections locations 185 f Mallory-Weiss lesion see

Mallory-Weiss lesion motility disorders 60 f, 84 nutcracker esophagus 84 perforation 15

postoperative conditions 60 f,

93, 93 f reflux esophagitis see Reflux esophagitis scleroderma 84 tumors see Esophageal tumors varices see Esophageal varices distal 31, 31 f middle esophageal constriction

28-29, 28 f, 28t, 29 f motility 35, 35 f retrocardiac see Retrocardiac esophagus stricture, sclerotherapy complication 148 systematic examinations 184 f upper sphincter see Upper esophageal sphincter Exudate, acute gastritis 97 f, 97 t, 98

Familial polyposis syndrome 2 f Fiberoptic endoscopy 6 Fibrin glue 153 Fibromas 89, 90 Fistula, stomach 129f Fluconazole, candidiasis 73 Fluid sampling 156 Flumazenil (Anexate) 13 Fluorescent endoscopy 180 5-aminolevulinic acid 180, 180 f

Barrett's esophagus 180 f Focal hyperplasia 111, 111 f differential diagnosis 108, 109, 111

frequency 1081 locations 109 f Foreign bodies 60 f, 75 removal 158-159 instruments 158 f types 158, 158 f Forrest classification, gastric ulcers 1511, 152 f

Foscavir, cytomegalovirus treatment 74 Fundoplication 126, 126 f axial sliding hernia 61 esophageal disease 93 f reflux esophagitis treatment 68, 126 stenosis 172, 172 f Fundus 45 f heart relation 51 f insertion into 37, 37 f inspection of 46, 46 f upside-down stomach 64 f varices 96 f treatment 150,150 f Furosemide, cardiac decompensation 13

Gagging 12

Gallbladder, duodenum relation

141,141 f Ganciclovir 74 Gastrectomy endoscopic examination 122 f esophageal disease 93, 93 f partial see below total 123, 123 f Gastrectomy, partial 124-125 examination 125,125 f types 124, 124f Gastric antral venous ectasia (GAVE) syndrome 119-120, 119 f, 127 f see also Hypertensive gastropathy Gastric body 40 antrum junction 41, 41 f insertion into 37, 37 f normal views 40, 40 f surface structures 40, 40 f Gastric carcinoma 114-116,187 f advanced 115,115 f, 116 f Billroth II operation 125 f diagnosis 116 differential diagnosis 116 early 114, 116 f classification 114 f diagnosis 116 follow-up intervals 114 location 114 Menetrier's disease 114 precancerous conditions 114t treatment 116 Gastric erosions, chronic 111, 111 f, 187 f biopsy 111

differential diagnosis 109, 111 Gastric lymphoma 117-118, 117 f clinical aspects 117 diagnosis 117,117 f differential diagnosis 108, 117 acute gastritis vs. 99 chronic gastric erosions vs.

chronic gastritis vs. 101 duodenal ulcers vs. 134

gastric carcinoma vs. 116 gastric ulcers vs. 102 sprue vs. 139 duodenal polypoid lesions 1371 Helicobacter pylori infections 117

MALT 99 f, 117, 118 f non-Hodgkin's 117 f treatment 118 staging 118t treatment 118 Gastric mucosa see Heterotopic gastric mucosa Gastric outlet stricture, stenosis 172

Gastric polyps see Gastric tumors, benign Gastric tumors 187 f benign see below intramural 107 leiomyoma 107,107 f lipoma 107, 107 f overgrown PEG tube 107 f malignant see below Gastric tumors, benign 96 f, 105 f, 108-113, 187 f adenoma see Adenoma carcinoid see Carcinoid chronic erosions see Gastric erosions, chronic classification 108, 108t clinical features 108 f definition 108 diagnosis 108, 113 f differential diagnosis 108, 109 gastric carcinoma vs. 116 by location 109 f by number 109 by size 1091 Elster glandular cysts see Elster glandular cysts focal hyperplasia see Focal hy-

perplasia frequency 108,108t heterotopic Brunner glands see

Heterotopic Brunner glands heterotopic pancreatic tissue 112

histology 113 f hyperplastic polyps see Hyper-

plastic polyps nomenclature 106 f Peutz-Jeghers syndrome see

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome treatment 113, 113 f Gastric tumors, malignant 114117

carcinoma see Gastric carcinoma classification 114t frequency 1141 lymphoma see Gastric lymphoma

Gastric ulcers 96 f, 102-104, 187 f clinical features 102,102 f, 103 f complications 103 definition 102 diagnosis 102-103 differential diagnosis 102 gastric carcinoma vs. 116

follow-up 103

Forrest classification 1511,152 f Helicobacter pylori 153 incidence 151 location 102

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) 151, 153 pathophysiology 102 postoperative 122, 122 f symptoms 151

treatment 103, 151-155, 151 f after primary hemostasis 155 hemoclip application 151,

154, 154 f indications 151 injection therapy 151,152 f, 153

pharmacological therapy 153 thermal methods 151, 154 see also Helicobacter pylori Gastritis 97-101 basic forms 971 differential diagnosis gastric carcinoma vs. 116 gastric lymphoma vs. 117 giant fold 101

Helicobacter pylori see Heli-

cobacter pylori hemorrhagic 155, 155 f Ménétrier disease 101 Gastritis, acute 96 f, 97-99 causes 97 t clinical features 97, 97 f, 98 f edema 97 f, 971, 98 erosions 97 f, 971, 98, 98 f erythema 97 f, 971, 98, 98 f exudate 97 f, 971, 98 hemorrhages 97 f, 97 t, 98 diagnosis 98, 98 f, 99 differential diagnosis 99, 99 f chronic gastritis vs. 99, 101 treatment 99 Gastritis, chronic 96 f, 99 f, 100101

candidiasis 100 f classifications 100,100 f, 100t clinical features 100,100 f, 101 f differential diagnosis 101

acute gastritis vs. 99, 101 Sydney classification 100,100 f, 100t

Gastroenteritis, sprue vs. 139 Gastroesophageal junction 3233, 32 f passage through 33 f Gastroesophageal prolapse 65, 65 f

Gastroesophageal reflux 67 f pathophysiology 671 stent complications 175 f symptoms 67 f General anesthesia 10 Giant fold gastritis 101 Gliadin antibodies, sprue 139 Glycogenic acanthosis 89, 90, 90 f

Heart, anatomic relations 51, 51 f Heartburn, reflux esophagitis 67 Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty 126, 126f Helicobacter pylori 104 assays 101,103,104

histology 104,104 f biopsy specimens 156 duodenal ulcers 133 eradication 118 focal hyperplasia 111 gastric lymphoma 117 gastric ulcers 153 gastritis 99

transmission in endoscopy 4 see also Gastric ulcers Hemangioma 89, 90

esophageal varices vs. 85 Hematemesis 2f, 16,145 Hemoclip application, gastric ulcer treatment 151, 154, 154 f Hemorrhages see Bleeding Hemostasis Dieulafoy ulcers 155 hemorrhagic gastritis 155,155 f Mallory-Weiss lesion 155, 155 f upper gastrointestinal bleeding treatment 146 Hepatitis B, transmission in en-

doscopy 4 Herpes simplex virus 74, 74 f candidiasis vs. 73, 74 Heterotopic Brunner glands 112, 112 f differential diagnosis 109 frequency 1081 locations 109 f Heterotopic gastric mucosa duodenal bulbitis vs. 136 duodenal polypoid lesions 138 Heterotopic pancreatic tissue benign gastric tumors 112 duodenal polypoid lesions 1371 Hiatal hernia 62-64 axial sliding hernia see Axial sliding hernia mixed 63 f paraesophageal hernia 63, 63 f upside-down stomach 64, 64 f see also Cardiac incompetence; individual types Histology, Helicobacter pylori assays 104,104 f Hyperplastic polyps 110, 110f differential diagnosis 109 adenomas vs. 112 adenomatous polyps vs. 110 duodenal polypoid lesions

1371, 138 frequency 1081 locations 109 f Hypertensive gastropathy 99 f, 119-120, 119 f, 120 f acute gastritis vs. 99 endosonography 120,120 f stomach 99 f see also Gastric antral venous ectasia (GAVE) syndrome x ■a u

Hypoventilation 3 Hypovolemia 16

Image documentation, endoscopy facilities 7 Incision, stenoses therapy 174 Indications (for endoscopy) 2, 2 f Indigo carmine 179, 179 f Infections, esophagus 60 f, 73-74 Inflammatory bowel disease 2 f Informed consent 8 lack of 2 PEG 160 Injection therapy, gastric ulcer treatment 151,152 f, 153 Insertion (of endoscope) 22-26, 22 f into antrum 38, 38 f bite guard 22, 22 f blind insertion 23 cervical spondyloses 23 f direct vision 24-25, 24 f, 25 f piriform recess 23 f, 24 risks 23 f upper esophageal sphincter 23 Zenker diverticulum 23 f, 24 Insertion tube, endoscope 6, 6 f Instrumentation 19, 19 f Interventional endoscopy 144181

complications 8 procedures 144 f, 1441 see also individual procedures Intraoperative enteroscopy 181 Intubation, stenoses therapy 175 Iron, esophagitis relation 75 Irrigation 19,19 f Isosorbide mononitrate, esophageal varices treatment 88

benign esophageal tumors 89, 90

intramural gastric tumors 107, 107 f Liver cancer, stomach relation 106 f cirrhosis, angiodysplasia 127 duodenum relation 141,141 f stomach relation 50, 50 f ultrasound 50 f Local anesthesia 9 complications 3 Looping, in antrum 42 f Lower esophageal constriction 31,

31 f, 31 t Lower esophageal sphincter 32, 33

Lugol solution 177, 177 f, 179 Lymphatic hyperplasia, duodenal polypoid lesions 1371, 138 Lymphoma see Gastric lymphoma

Lactose H2 breath test 139 Larynx, radiography 23 f Laser therapy gastric ulcers 154 malignant esophageal tumors 92

stenoses therapy 175 Left bronchus, middle esophageal constriction 29 f Left decubitus position, antrum 42 f

Leiomyoma 89, 90, 90 f duodenal polypoid lesions 138 esophageal varices vs. 85, 86 f intramural gastric tumors 107, 107 f

Lesions, reflux esophagitis 68 f Lidocaine 9

Ligation, esophageal varices treatment 88 Linton-Nachlas tubes 147 Lipoma

Magnification endoscopy 180 Malignant duodenal polypoid lesions 1371 Mallory-Weiss lesion 66, 66 f hemostasis 155, 155 f reflux esophagitis vs. 66, 68 MALT lymphomas 99 f, 117, 118 f Manometry achalasia 81

cardiac incompetence 61 diffuse esophageal spasm 83, 83 f esophageal diverticula 78 nutcracker esophagus 84, 84 f reflux esophagitis 68 scleroderma 84 Marbles, as foreign bodies 159 Meat, as foreign bodies 159 Mediastinitis, Boerhaave syndrome 66 Mediastinum 66 f Megaesophagus, bleeding predisposition 4f Melena 16 upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding 145 Ménétrier's disease gastric carcinoma 114 gastritis 101 Mesenchymal tumors, duodenal polypoid lesions 1371 Metat-tetra(hydroxy-phenyl)chlorin 157 Methylene blue 71 f, 178, 178 f, 179

Midazolam (Dormicum) 9 Middle esophageal constriction

28-29, 28 f, 281, 29 f Mixed hiatal hernia 63 f Motility disorders, esophagus

60 f, 84 Mucosa antrum 41

body-antrum junction 41 gastric body 40 see also Heterotopic gastric mucosa Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas 99 f, 117, 118 f Mucosal folds, esophageal varices vs. 85, 86 f Mucosectomy gastric carcinoma treatment 116

precancerous conditions treatment 157 Mycobacteria, transmission in endoscopy 4 Myocardial ischemia 15

Narcotic-filled condoms, as foreign bodies 159 Narcotics, complications 3 Nausea/vomiting 2 f Necrotizing pancreatitis 141 f Needles, as foreign bodies 159 Neurinoma benign esophageal tumors 89, 90

intramural gastric tumors 107 Neurofibroma, intramural gastric tumors 107 Nitroglycerine, cardiac decompensation 13 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma gastric lymphoma 117 f Helicobacter pylori eradication 118

treatment 118 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) duodenal ulcers 133 esophagitis relation 75 gastric ulcers 151, 153 upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding 145 Nutcracker esophagus 84

Odynophagia, candidiasis 73 Open resection, precancerous conditions treatment 157 Opiates, antagonism 13 Optics, endoscopes 17 Oral contrast examination achalasia 81 axial sliding hernia 61 diffuse esophageal spasm 83 Mallory-Weiss lesion 66 nutcracker esophagus 84 Oral contrast radiography, esophageal diverticula 78 f Osler disease, angiodysplasia 127 Overall control, endoscopes 18 Overgrown PEG tube, intramural gastric tumors 107 f

Pain 12, 14 Pancreas duodenum relation 141, 141 f pseudocyst 129f stomach relation 49, 49 f, 106 f ultrasound 49 f Pancreatic carcinoma duodenal ulcers vs. 134 duodenum infiltration 141 f Pancreatitis, duodenum 132 f Pantoprazol 103 Papilla of Vater 55 Papillomas 89, 90 Paraesophageal hernia 63, 63 f Parietal cell antibodies 101 Patient instructions 8 f Penicillins, esophagitis 75 Peptic esophageal stricture 172, 172 f

Peptic stricture 2 f reflux esophagitis 72, 72 f Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) 160-165, 167

aftercare 160 alternative methods 160 antibiotic prophylaxis 160 bumpers, as foreign bodies 159 complications 8, 160, 160t, 166 f components 161 f computed tomography-guided gastrostomy 160 contraindications 160, 160t duodenal tube insertion 165 f,

167-170, 170-172f indications 160, 160t informed consent 160 malignant esophageal tumors 92

preparations 160 principle 160 technique 161-164 f tube removal 167,167 f tubes 160

ultrasound-guided gastrostomy 160

Percutaneous endoscopic jeju-nostomy (PEJ) 166 complications 8, 166 Perforation 4

duodenal ulcers 135,135 f Peristalsis, antrum 43 f Pernicious anemia 2 f Pethidine (Dolantin) 10 Peutz-Jeghers syndrome 112, 112 f frequency 1081 intramural gastric tumors 107 Pharynx injury 15

Lugol solution irritation 177 radiography 23 f pH monitoring reflux esophagitis 68 scleroderma 84 Photodynamic therapy, pre-cancerous conditions treatment 157

Phrenicoesophageal ligament 32 f Piriform recess, endoscope insertion 23 f, 24 Piritramide (Dipidolor) 10 Plummer-Vinson syndrome 91 Polidocanol esophageal varices therapy 148 gastric ulcer injection 153 Polypectomy 157 Polyps see Duodenal polypoid lesions; Hyperplastic polyps Portal hypertension 2 f Potassium iodide 75 Precancerous conditions gastric carcinoma 114t treatment 157 Prednisolone 13

Preparations (for endoscopy) 810

checklists 11 disclosure 8 informed consent 8 medications 9-10 patient instructions 8 f Pressure changes, esophagus 35 f Pressure injury, stomach 129 f Primary peristalsis, esophageal motility 35 Propanolol 88 Propofol (Diprivan) 10 Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) acute gastritis treatment 99 axial sliding hernia 61 gastric ulcer treatment 103 reflux esophagitis treatment 68

Proximal duodenum 54, 54 f Pulsion esophageal diverticula 79 Push enteroscopy 181 Pushing/pulling, endoscopes 18, 18 f, 181 Pylorus antrum 42 f insertion into 39, 39 f

Radiation exposure esophagitis 76, 76 f stenosis 172 Radiation therapy, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 118 Radiographic contrast examination candidiasis 73 esophageal diverticula 78 malignant esophageal tumors 91

paraesophageal hernia 63 reflux esophagitis 68 scleroderma 84 upside-down stomach 64 Radiography gastric ulcer diagnosis 103 larynx 23 f pharynx 23 f retrocardiac esophagus 30 f Radiotherapy/chemotherapy 92

Rapid urease test acute gastritis 99 Helicobacter pylori assays 104 Recurrent carcinoma, postoperative stomach conditions 122 Reflux esophagitis 67-71 alkaline 76 clinical signs 67, 671 complications 67 Barrett esophagus see Barrett esophagus peptic stricture 72, 72 f diagnosis 68 differential diagnosis 68 malignant esophageal tumors vs. 91 Mallory-Weiss lesions vs. 66, 68

scleroderma vs. 84 dysphagia 67 epigastric pain 67 grading 69, 69 f, 691 lesions 68 f postoperative stomach conditions 122 treatment 68 fundoplication 68, 126 Renal failure, angiodysplasia 127 Repolarization abnormalities 3 Respiratory system complications 3, 3 f, 3 t upper gastrointestinal bleeding treatment 146,1461 Restlessness 12

Retrocardiac esophagus 30, 30 t radiography 30 f Retroflexion 44-45 across angulus 44 f cardiac incompetence 61 functions 44 f Retrosternal pain 2 f candidiasis 73

diffuse esophageal spasm 83 reflux esophagitis 67 Risk factors 3-4, 31

disclosure 7 Rotation, endoscopes 18,18 f, 181 Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy 123 f

Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy 124, 124f

Salmonellae, transmission in endoscopy 4 Savary bougies 173 Scleroderma 84 reflux esophagitis vs. 84 secondary peristalsis 35 Sclerotherapy complications esophageal stricture 148 stenosis 172, 172 f esophageal varices treatment

88, 148, 148 f fundic varices treatment 150, 150 f

Secondary peristalsis 35 Sedation 9

complications 3 Self-expanding stents see Stents Sengstaken-Blakemore tubes 147 Serological testing, Helicobacter pylori assays 104 Sonde enteroscopy 181 Specimen collection 156

biopsy see Biopsy Spironolactone 88 Spleen, stomach relation 51, 51 f, 106 f

Spondylosis, bleeding predisposition 4, 4f Sprue 2 f, 132 f, 139, 139 f Squamous cell carcinoma chromoendoscopy 177 t, 179 malignant esophageal tumors 91, 92 f, 171, 171 f Staff 5

Staging, gastric lymphoma 118t Stains, chromoendoscopy 177,

1771 Stenosis 171-176 achalasia see Achalasia anastomoses 172,172 f benign 172

bronchial carcinoma 171, 171 f causes 171, 171 t corrosive ingestion 172, 172 f esophageal carcinoma 171, 171 f fundoplication 172, 172 f gastric outlet stricture 172 peptic esophageal stricture

172, 172f postoperative stomach conditions 122 radiation exposure 172 sclerotherapy complications

172, 172f sites 171, 171 t therapy 171, 1711, 173 argon plasma coagulation 176

balloon dilation 173,173 f botulinum toxin 176 incision 174 intubation 175 laser therapy 175 self-expanding stents 174, 174 f see also individual types Stents complications 174 compression 175 f gastroesophageal reflux 175 f malignant esophageal tumors 92

stenoses therapy 174, 174 f Stomach abdominal wall relation 48, 48f antrum see Antrum cardia 45 f diseases/disorders 96-129 abnormal contents 128, 128 f adenoma see Adenoma angiodysplasias 96 f, 127, 127 f carcinoma 96 f, 99 f Crohn's disease 99 f diverticula 128, 128 f fistula 129 f fundic varices 96 f gastritis see Gastritis hypertensive gastropathy see Hypertensive gastropathy locations 185 f MALT lymphomas 99 f masses see Stomach masses pancreatic pseudocyst 129f perforation 15 polyps see Gastric tumors, benign postoperative conditions see Stomach, postoperative conditions pressure injury 129 f ulcers see Gastric ulcers varices 119 examination 36-51 fundus see Fundus heart relation 51, 51 f insertion into 36, 36 f liver relation 50, 50 f main body see Gastric body pancreas relation 49, 49 f pylorus see Pylorus relations of 48 t spleen relation 51, 51 f systematic examinations 184 f ultrasound 48 f see also Entries beginning gastric

Stomach masses 105-106,107118

classification 105, 1051 extrinsic indentation 106,106 f spleen enlargement 105 f see also Gastric tumors Stomach, postoperative conditions 121-126

alkaline reflux gastropathy 122 bezoars 122, 122 f Billroth II gastroenterostomy 96 f complications 121 t considerations 121, 121 t examination 121, 121 f gastric remnant carcinoma 122 recurrent carcinoma 122 reflux esophagitis 122 stenoses 122

suture granulomas 122,122 f techniques 121 t ulcers 122, 122 f see also individual operations Stratum circulare, gastroe-sophageal junction 32 f Strecker stents 174 Sucralfate, alkaline reflux esophagitis 76 Suction 19, 19 f Suction biopsy 156 Supply plug, endoscope 6, 6f Suture granulomas 122,122 f

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Swallowing 35 difficulties 2 f passage through upper esophageal sphincter 23, 25 f pressure changes 35 f Sydney classification 100, 100 f, 100t

Systematic examinations 184

Techniques (of endoscopy) 17-19 air insufflation 19,19 f endoscope manipulation see

Endoscopes instrumentation 19, 19f irrigation 19, 19 f suction 19, 19f training 17,171 Terlipressin 147 Tertiary peristalsis 35 Tetracyclines, esophagitis 75 Theophylline 13

Therapeutic endoscopy see Inter-

ventional endoscopy Thermal methods, gastric ulcer treatment 151, 154 Thoracic esophageal diverticula

79, 80, 80 f TIPS see Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)

Toothpicks, as foreign bodies 159 Trachea 24 f

Traction esophageal diverticula

79, 79 f Training 17, 171 Transjugular intrahepatic por-tosystemic shunt (TIPS) esophageal varices therapy 147 fundic varices treatment 150, 150 f

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