Components of Retroflexion

Since the entire upper gastrointestinal tract is inspected and evaluated with a forward-viewing endoscope, retroflexion is necessary to obtain a complete view of the cardia and fundus. The angulus and body are also examined in retroflexion (Figs. 2.43, 2.44). The retroflexion maneuver consists of the following components:

► The large inner control wheel moves the instrument tip in the plane of the wheel

- Turning the wheel backward (counterclockwise) deflects the endoscope tip forward and upward into a U shape.

- Turning the wheel forward (clockwise) deflects the tip backward into a J shape.

► The small outer control wheel angles the endoscope tip laterally from the plane of the wheel

- Turning the wheel backward deflects the tip to the left.

- Turning the wheel forward deflects the tip to the right.

In the retroflexion maneuver, the instrument tip is deflected upward into a U shape and simultaneously rotated to the right by turning the large wheel backward and the small wheel forward.

- Fig. 2.43 Retroflexion across the angulus

- Fig. 2.43 Retroflexion across the angulus

Stomach Retroflexion

a First the endoscope tip is deflected upward into a U shape b The endoscope is simultaneously withdrawn and rotated toward the greater curvature c A combination of angling and twisting movements are used to inspect the cardia and fundus

Fig. 2.44 Topography of the angulus in retroflexion

The angulus is viewed from below. The anterior stomach wall is on the left side of the image, the posterior wall on the right. The body of the stomach is at the top, the prepyloric antrum at the bottom e = esophagus d = duodenum

Fig. 2.44 Topography of the angulus in retroflexion

The angulus is viewed from below. The anterior stomach wall is on the left side of the image, the posterior wall on the right. The body of the stomach is at the top, the prepyloric antrum at the bottom e = esophagus d = duodenum

Angulus Stomaco
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Responses

  • Elliot
    What is retroflexion with cardia fundus?
    6 years ago

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