Diagnosis

Endoscopic diagnostic criteria

► Difficult orientation

► It is difficult or impossible to reach the pylorus.

Differential diagnosis

Checklist for endoscopic evaluation

Inflammatory signs in the esophagus Inflammatory signs in the stomach

Additional Studies

► Radiographic contrast examination

Comments

The diagnosis is established by contrast radiographs. Surgical correction is advised for patients who are well enough to tolerate surgery.

Fig. 3.14 Schematic diagram of upside-down stomach. Complete herniation of the stomach into the chest

Fig. 3.15 Upside-down stomach a Herniation through the diaphragm

b Appearance of the cardia region
c Fundus

Fig. 3.16 Radiographic findings a Very large hiatal hernia b Upside-down stomach

Fig. 3.16 Radiographic findings a Very large hiatal hernia b Upside-down stomach

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