Endoscopy Unit

The endoscopy unit in the strict sense consists of the supply unit, the endoscope, and the cleaning area (Fig. 1.4).

Supply Unit

The supply unit consists of a light source, a compressed air pump for delivering air and water, a suction pump, and a video processor (for video endoscopy). These units converge at the supply plug of the endoscope.

Light and compressed-air source

Suction pump

Water bottle

Fig. 1.4 Endoscopy unit

Light and compressed-air source

Suction pump

Water bottle

Fig. 1.4 Endoscopy unit

Endoscope

Eyepiece

Angulation control wheels

Umbilical cord

Eyepiece

Angulation control wheels

Umbilical cord

Air vent

Suction button

Air/water button

Biopsy port

Insertion tube

Connector 4 for suction pump

Light guide

Fig. 1.5 Endoscope

Suction button

Air/water button

Biopsy port

Insertion tube

Air vent

Connector 4 for suction pump

Lens

Air/water jet Light guide Instrument channel

Components of the Endoscope

The endoscope consists of the supply plug, umbilical cord, control head, insertion tube (shaft), and bending section. A fiberoptic endoscope has an eyepiece, while a video endoscope has remote control buttons for the video control unit (Fig. 1.5).

Supply plug and umbilical cord. The supply plug at the end of the umbilical cord has distal connectors for the light guide and air supply, side connectors for the water bottle and suction, and an air vent, which is not functional during endoscopy. The umbilical cord connects the supply plug to the control head.

Control head and insertion tube. Between the umbilical cord and insertion tube is the control head, which has controls for air insufflation, irrigation, suction, and for the bending section at the distal end of the scope. At the intersection of the insertion tube and control head, there is a biopsy port for passing instruments down the endoscope shaft. The insertion tube has a distal bending section, whose tip carries the illuminating end of the light guide, air and water jets, the distal opening of the biopsy channel, and the lens or video chip.

Endoscope handling and operation are described elsewhere (see p. 18).

Fiberoptic vs. Video Endoscopy

In a fiberoptic endoscope, light is conducted from the distal lens to the eyepiece by bundles of optical glass fibers. In a video endoscope, the image is captured with a video chip at the distal end of the endoscope, transmitted electronically, and displayed on a monitor.

Advantages and disadvantages. Video endoscopy offers several advantages: high resolution; the convenience of a monitor display, which permits others in the room to view the image; easier handling of the endoscope during the procedure; and easier documentation of images, which can be digitally processed and stored. The main disadvantage of video endoscopy is its high cost.

A video camera can also be coupled to the eyepiece of a conventional fiberoptic endoscope, providing a monitor display. But the image quality is markedly reduced compared with direct video endoscopy.

Lens

Air/water jet Light guide Instrument channel

Light guide

Fig. 1.5 Endoscope

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