Pathological Findings Esophagus

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Overview of Pathological Findings in the Esophagus ... 60

Cardial Incompetence ... 61

Definition and Clinical Aspects . . . Diagnosis ... 61

Hiatal Hernia: Axial Sliding Hernia . . . Definitions and Clinical Aspects . . Diagnosis ... 62

Hiatal Hernia: Paraesophageal Hernia Definition ... 63

Upside-Down Stomach ... 64 64 64

Diagnosis

Hiatal Hernia: Definition Diagnosis .

Gastroesophageal Prolapse ... 65 Definition and Clinical Aspects Diagnosis . . . 65

Mallory-Weiss Lesion and Boerhaave Syndrome ... 66 Definitions and Clinical Aspects . . . 66 Diagnosis . . . 66

Gastroesophageal Reflux and Reflux Esophagitis:

Clinical Aspects ... 67

Gastroesophageal Reflux ... 67 Reflux Esophagitis ... 67

Reflux Esophagitis: Diagnosis and Treatment ... 68 Diagnosis ... 68 Treatment ... 68

Reflux Esophagitis: Grading ... 69 Grade I-IV Reflux Esophagitis ... 69

Complications of Reflux Esophagitis:

Barrett Esophagus ... 70

Definition and Clinical Aspects ... 70 Diagnosis ... 70

Complications of Reflux Esophagitis: Management of Barrett Esophagus . . . 71 Diagnosis . . . 71 Treatment and Follow-Up . . . 71

Complications of Reflux Esophagitis:

Peptic Stricture . . . 72 Pathophysiology . . . 72 Diagnosis . . . 72

Candida Esophagitis Pathophysiology . Clinical Aspects . Diagnosis . . . 73

Viral Esophagitis:

Herpes simplex and Cytomegalovirus ... 74 Pathophysiology ... 74 Clinical Aspects ... 74 Diagnosis . . . 74 Treatment . . . 74

Esophagitis due to Medications, Alcohol, or Foreign Bodies ... 75 Pathophysiology ... 75 Diagnosis ... 75

Alkaline Reflux Esophagitis and Radiogenic Esophagitis ... 76

Alkaline Reflux Esophagitis ... 76 Diagnosis ... 76 Radiogenic Esophagitis . . . 76 Diagnosis . . . 76

Esophagitis due to Corrosive Ingestion or Crohn Disease . . . 77 Corrosive Ingestion . . . 77 Diagnosis . . . 77

Crohn Disease of the Esophagus . . . 77

Synopsis of Inflammatory Lesions of the Esophagus ... 78 Clinical Complaints ... 78 Causes of Complaints ... 78 Differential Diagnosis ... 78

Diverticula: Definitions and Diagnosis ... 79 Definitions ... 79 Diagnosis ... 79

Diverticula: Details ... 80 Cervical Diverticulum ... 80 Thoracic Diverticulum ... 80 Epiphrenic Diverticulum . . . 80

Achalasia: Clinical Aspects and Diagnosis ... 81 Clinical Aspects ... 81 Diagnosis ... 81

Achalasia: Treatment ... 82 Treatment Options ... 82 Follow-Ups ... 82

Diffuse Esophageal Spasm ... 83 Clinical Aspects ... 83 Diagnosis ... 83 Treatment . . . 83

Nutcracker Esophagus and Motility Disorders in Scleroderma . . . 84

Esophageal Motility Disorders in Systemic Diseases: Scleroderma . . . 84 Diagnosis . . . 84 Normal Variants . . . 84

Esophageal Varices ... 85 Anatomy . . . 85 Clinical Aspects . . . 85 Diagnosis . . . 85

Esophageal Varices: Grading ... 86

Esophageal Varices: Signs of High Bleeding Risk ... 87 Assessing the Risk of Bleeding . . . 87

Esophageal Varices: Treatment ... 88 Therapy . . . 88

Esophageal Tumors: Overview of Benign Esophageal Tumors . . . 89 Complaints . . . 89

Differentiation of Benign Esophageal Tumors Management . . . 89

Benign Esophageal Tumors: Diagnosis . . . 90

Malignant Esophageal Tumors: Diagnosis ... 91 Squamous Cell Carcinoma . . . 91 Adenocarcinoma . . . 91

Malignant Esophageal Tumors: Treatment and Follow-Up . . . 92 Treatment . . . 92 Follow-Ups . . . 92

Postoperative Conditions . . . 93 Type of Operation . . . 93

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Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.

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