Pathological Findings Stomach

Overview of Pathological Findings in the Stomach . . . 96 Gastritis: Clinical Aspects . . . 97

Acute Gastritis

Acute Gastritis: Diagnosis . . . 98 Acute Gastritis: Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Treatment .

Chronic Gastritis: Clinical Aspects and Classification . . . 100 Clinical Features . . . 100 Classifications . . . 100

Chronic Gastritis: Diagnosis, Giant Fold Gastritis, and Ménétrier Disease . . . 101

Diagnosis of Chronic Gastritis . . . 101 Giant Fold Gastritis . . . 101 Ménétrier Disease . . . 101

Gastric Ulcer: Clinical Aspects and Diagnosis . . . Definition and Pathophysiology . . . 102 Clinical Features . . . 102 Location . . . 102 Diagnosis . . . 102

Gastric Ulcer: Management . . . 103 Treatment and Follow-Up . . . 103

Gastric Ulcer: Helicobacter pylori . . . 104 Tests for Detection of Helicobacter pylori . . .

Mass, Tumor, Malignancy: Overview . . . 105 Classification . . . 105 Role of Endoscopy . . . 105 Synopsis . . . 105

Mass, Tumor, Malignancy: Diagnosis Extrinsic Indentation ... 106

Mass, Tumor, Malignancy: Intramural Tumors ... 107 Classification ... 107 Diagnosis ... 107 Management Strategy ... 107

Polypoid Lesions: Benign Tumors ... 108 Definition ... 108

Classification of Benign Gastric Tumors ... 108 Frequency ... 108 Diagnosis . . . 108

Polypoid Lesions: Differential Diagnostic Criteria ... 109

Polypoid Lesions: Elster Glandular Cysts and Hyperplastic Polyps ... 110 Elster Glandular Cysts . . . 110 Hyperplastic Polyps . . . 110

Polypoid Lesions: Focal Hyperplasia and Chronic Erosions ... 111 Focal Hyperplasia . . . 111 Chronic Erosions . . . 111

Polypoid Lesions: Adenoma and Rare Findings ... 112 Adenoma ... 112

Heterotopic Brunner Glands ... 112 Carcinoid . . . 112

Heterotopic Pancreatic Tissue . . . 112 Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome ... 112

Polypoid Lesions: Management ... 113 Treatment and Follow-Up ... 113

Malignant Diseases of the Stomach: Gastric Carcinoma, Early Carcinoma ... 114 Gastric Carcinoma ... 114 Early Carcinoma ... 114

Malignant Diseases of the Stomach: Advanced Gastric Carcinoma ... 115 Classification ... 115

Malignant Diseases of the Stomach: Diagnosis of Gastric Carcinoma ... 116 Diagnosis ... 116 Treatment ... 116

Malignant Diseases of the Stomach: Gastric Lymphoma . . . 117 Clinical Aspects . . . 117 Diagnosis . . . 117

Malignant Diseases of the Stomach: Gastric Lymphoma, Treatment . . . 118 Stages and Treatment Options ... 118

Portal Hypertension and Hypertensive Gastropathy: Clinical Aspects . . . 119

Causes and Findings ... 119 Treatment ... 119

Portal Hypertension and Hypertensive Gastropathy: Diagnosis . . . 120

The Operated Stomach . . . 121 Special Considerations . . . 121 Systematic Examination ... 121

The Operated Stomach:

Endoscopically Identifiable Lesions and Diseases ... 122 Alkaline Reflux Gastropathy ... 122 Reflux Esophagitis ... 122 Stenoses . . . 122 Ulcers ... 122

Suture Granuloma ... 122 Bezoars ... 122 Gastric Remnant Carcinoma .. Recurrent Carcinoma ... 122

Total Gastrectomy ... 123

Partial Gastrectomy: Types and Findings ... 124 Types ... 124

Endoscopic Appearance ... 124

Partial Gastrectomy: Examination ... 125

Vagotomy and Fundoplication ... 126 Vagotomy and Pyloroplasty ... 126 Endoscopic Appearance . . . 126 Fundoplication . . . 126 Endoscopic Appearance . . . 126

Angiodysplasias ... 127 Definition ... 127 Diagnosis ... 127

Diverticula, Abnormal Gastric Contents ... 128 Diverticula ... 128 Abnormal Gastric Contents ... 128

Miscellaneous ... 129

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