Renewable Energy Ebooks Catalog
The standard free energy of hydrolysis of ATP is -30.5 kJ mol. In the cell, however, the concentrations of ATP, ADP, and Pj are not only unequal but much lower than the standard 1 m concentrations (see Table 13-5). Moreover, the cellular pH may differ somewhat from the standard pH of 7.0. Thus the actual free energy of hydrolysis of ATP under intracellular conditions (AGp) differs from the standard free-energy change, AG' . We can easily calculate AGp. In human erythrocytes, for example, the concentrations of ATP, ADP, and Pi are 2.25, 0.25, and 1.65 mm, respectively. Let us assume for simplicity that the pH is 7.0 and the temperature is 25 C, the standard pH and temperature. The actual free energy of hydrolysis of ATP in the erythrocyte under these conditions is given by the relationship Thus AGp, the actual free-energy change for ATP hydrolysis in the intact erythrocyte (-52 kJ mol), is much larger than the standard free-energy change (-30.5 kJ mol). By the same token, the free...
Natural gas is the predominant source of energy used by the U.S. food industry. In the last few decades about 50 of the gross energy used in food processing was from natural gas 15 , from fuel oil, 13 , from electricity and about 22 , from propane, butane, other petroleum products, coal, and some renewable energy sources (2). Within the food industry, the principal types of energy use include
If metallic electrodes are used they will give rise to a photovoltaic artifact (electron release from metal molecules by light photons). This can interfere with the leading edge of the ERP (R1) and can only be overcome by using nonmetallic electrodes (Dawson & Galloway, 1991). A metallic electrode with high sampling rates can be used to isolate the R2 (Fig. 5), as the photovoltaic artifact has a very fast time-course. In many cases, this approach may be adequate, but it needs to be mentioned that the ratio R1 R2 is known to provide useful additional information (Dawson & Galloway, 1991). The problem is that the extraction of the R1 is further complicated by the temporal characteristics of the light source and the melanin response. Any pigment molecule can interact with light to generate a potential, as does melanin within the eye. This produces a fast electronegative potential (
Although from time to time the government may provide tax incentives to jump-start an interest in renewable energy resources which in practice is synonymous with ethanol from biomass, the production process must be inherently competitive for it to be sustained in the long run. Table 8 shows a study of ethanol production in California. It gives the price of different feedstocks at near-term and midterm operation at a large scale. The target price takes into account the operating costs, the debt, and return on investment. The target price decreases from near-term to mid-term, as the technology improves and forces down the production cost. Even when the cellulosic feedstock is inexpensive, conversion into ethanol may be costly. Cellulase enzymes cost 45 cents gal of ethanol and are, therefore, too expensive at the commercial level.
Molecular biotechnology will enable broadening of the range of products and use of transgenic plants as a versatile renewable and low-cost source of novel high-value molecules (Goddijn and Pen, 1995 Arakawa et al., 1999 Dunwell 1999 Fischer et al., 1999 Fischer and Emans, 2000 Giddings et al., 2000). This area of novel commercial exploitation of plants is called biofarming or molecular farming and involves the crop-plant-based production of industrial or therapeutic biomolecules. In this application, the plant can be considered as a solar-powered bioreactor and an attractive alternative to conventional microbial or animal cell expression systems. Its requirements are simple and inexpensive sunlight, mineral salts from the soil (or fertilizers), and water (Goddijn and Pen, 1995 Arakawa et al., 1999 Dunwell 1999 Fischer et al., 1999 Fischer and Emans, 2000 Giddings et al., 2000). Similarly, as traditional agriculture takes advantage of these characteristics in the large-scale production...
The development of dual-wavelength systems began with Glen Millikan, who ingeniously scribed a barrier in the Weston photovoltaic cell and used green and red filters to measure myoglobin spectral changes in the visible region. However, he connected the output to a mirror galvanometer so that the system was intrinsically quite slow and thus unsuitable for the rapid measurements required for the flow apparatus. The dual-wavelength principle was continued in the Millikan ear oximeter used so effectively during World War II.
As for the UV spectrophotometers, the greatest recent improvements in the IR spectrophotometers have been in the area of detectors They are transducers of radiation. They change radiation into electrical power which can be amplified by the accompanying electronics. The methods of transduction can be separated into two groups thermal detectors and photon detectors. The responsive element of thermal detectors is sensitive to changes in temperature brought about by changes in incident radiation. The response element of a photon detector is sensitive to changes in the number or mobility of free charge-carriers, electrons and or holes, that are brought about by changes in the number of incident IR photons. The different thermal detectors are the bolometric, pyroelectric, thermopneumatic and thermovoltaic detectors. As with the UV spectro-photometers, the photon detectors are photoconductive and photovoltaic.
The choice of a poplar species for this application is interesting, since they have been found useful in similar roles elsewhere. Trichloroethylene (TCE), an organic compound used in engineering and other industries for degreasing, is a particularly mobile pollutant, typically forming plumes which move beneath the soil's surface. In a number of studies, poplars have been shown to be able to volatilise around 90 of the TCE they take up. In part this relates to their enormous hydraulic pull, a property which will be discussed again later in this chapter. Acting as large, solar-powered pumps, they draw water out of the soil, taking up contaminants with it, which then pass through the plant and out to the air.
Around half of the total dry matter in plant origin biomass is cellulose, and since this makes up the majority of the biowaste component in MSW, it represents a huge potential source of renewable energy. As is widely appreciated, sugars can be broken down by certain micro-organisms to produce alcohols, of which ethanol (C2H5OH) is the most common. This is, of course, a well-known application for the production of alcoholic beverages across the world, typically using fermentative yeasts. These organisms are poisoned by ethanol accumulation
The energy demands of the developed world are well known to be enormous. In the USA alone, the requirement for electricity has grown by 2.7 on average per year over the past 10 years (Perkowitz 2000). The Executive Order on Biobased Products and Bioenergy, August 1999, set out the goal of tripling US biomass use by 2010, which has been estimated to be worth around 15 billion of new income, while at the same time reducing carbon emissions by the equivalent of removing some 70 million cars from the road (Feinbaum 1999). The European Commission has also suggested that the EU as a whole should aim to double the current contribution made by renewable energy sources, taking it to 12 , also by 2010. Under this proposal, biomass energy was to provide an additional 90 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) per year, raising its overall share to 137 Mtoe. Half of this would come from specifically farmed energy crops, while other biofuel forms would account for the rest. This relationship of...
According to official figures from the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), in 2001, UK rape seed sells for 15 less than it costs to produce, even after taking government subsidies into account (Curran 2001). February 2001, eight months after the Royal Commission's report, saw the European Commission publish the first review of its 1997 strategy for renewables, entitled The Communication on the Community Strategy and Action Plan on Renewable Energy Sources. In this document, the poor adoption of liquid biofuels like biodiesel, was specifically criticised, with only Austria, France, Germany and Italy having defined policies on usage. Even so, their combined contribution to the total diesel fuelled transport sector only amounted to 0.3 in 1998, the latest period for which figures were available. As is so often the case, the report concluded that revised taxation to favour biofuels will be the key to future expansion, coupled with the establishment of specific...
Extensive industrial use has contributed to cadmium being widely distributed in the environment. Because organic cadmium compounds are unstable, most of the cadmium in foods is as inorganic cadmium salts. Cadmium may be electrolytically deposited as a coating on metals, chiefly iron or steel, on which it forms a chemically resistant coating. Alloys of cadmium with lead and zinc are used as a solder for iron. Cadmium salts are used in photography and to manufacture fireworks, rubber, fluorescent paints, glass, and porcelain. Cadmium sulfide is employed in a type of photovoltaic cell.
Unsurprisingly, energy industries account for the greatest share (36 ) of carbon dioxide emissions, a large 1000 Megawatt coal-fired power station releases something in the region of million tonnes of CO2 annually. Clearly, the current focus on reducing fossil fuel usage, and on minimising the emissions of carbon dioxide to atmosphere, is important. In one sense, the most straightforward solution to the problem is simply to stop using fossil fuels altogether. However, this is a rather simplistic view and just too impractical. While great advances have been made in the field of renewable energy, a wholesale substitution for gas, coal and oil is not possible at this time if energy usage is to continue at an unabated rate. The potential role of existing nonfossil fuel technology to bridge the gap between the current status quo and a future time, when renewables meet the needs of mankind, is a vital one. However, it is ridiculous to pretend that this can be achieved overnight, unless the...
The keynote of this chapter is the potential for integrating biotechnologies. In the preceding discussion of biogas, this involved the marrying together of the goals of biowaste treatment and energy production. In a similar vein, as was described in an earlier chapter, there have been various attempts, over the years, to produce ethanol from various forms of waste biomass, using naturally occurring microbes, isolated enzymes and genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The appeal to obtaining renewable energy from such a cheap and readily available source, is obvious.
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