Social Security Strategy Can Boost Your Retirement Income
Your Retirement Planning Guide
Don't Blame Us If You End Up Enjoying Your Retired Life Like None Of Your Other Retired Friends. Already Freaked-Out About Your Retirement? Not Having Any Idea As To How You Should Be Planning For It? Started To Doubt If Your Later Years Would Really Be As Golden As They Promised? Fret Not Right Guidance Is Just Around The Corner.
Traditionally, health care litigation, such as patients suing physicians or hospitals to recover monetary damages for medical injuries, is resolved by state courts. Before the rise of managed care, health insurance cases were litigated in state courts, often to decide whether an insurer should pay for care already provided. Managed care changes the policy and litigation context in two respects. With the integration of financing and care delivery under managed care, refusing coverage means denying care altogether. Then, if a plan subscriber challenges a denial, the health plan can invoke protection from liability under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act's (ERISA's) preemption provision. Congress enacted ERISA in 1974 primarily to regulate pension plans, but also included health benefit plans within its scope.12 ERISA's goals are to establish uniform national standards safeguard employee benefits from loss or abuse and encourage employers to offer those benefits. To achieve...
Until recently many urban Armenian men and women looked forward to middle age because it meant that they could retire and spend more time with their families and on leisure activities. As pensions have dwindled and social services have disappeared in the post-Soviet period, women and men no longer look forward to retirement, because it has come to mean impoverishment and powerlessness. However, in rural areas, where patriarchal traditions are more prevalent and where pensions were never an integral part of one's retirement income, women still look forward to middle age because it brings a gain in stature. In old age, men and women become equal. Elders are respected in Armenian society and are referred to by family members and strangers as father (hayrig) or mother (mayrig).
It is rare that our ethical decisions affect only a single client or a single colleague and no one else. A client may show up for a session drunk. How you define your responsibility may influence whether the client drives home drunk and kills a pedestrian. A colleague may begin to show signs of Alzheimer's. The choices you make may affect the safety and well-being of the colleague and the colleague's patients. A therapy client may tell you about embezzling pension funds. Therapist-patient confidentiality laws may direct you to tell no one else, and the client may refuse to discuss the issue. How you decide to respond may affect whether hundreds of families retain the pensions they earned or are thrown into poverty. An insurance claims manager may refuse to authorize additional sessions for a client you believe is at risk for killing his wife and children and then committing suicide. Your supervisor may agree with the manager that no more sessions are needed....
Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) exempts self-insured health benefit plans from state insurance laws, so the employees of companies that participate in such plans have no protection. Many employers, especially small businesses, are self-insured, and rely upon commercial insurance companies to administer their health plans. These employer-funded self-insurance plans qualify for the ERISA exemption, and therefore do not have to comply with state mandates for services or state laws regarding genetic discrimination, involuntary testing, or privacy.
Many companies offer their employees (sometimes quite generous) retirement packages but a surprising percentage of people don't participate in them. Many of these people would benefit from an unreduced cost-benefit analysis of the choice of whether to invest in such a retirement account. Such an analysis would not even attempt to reduce all the costs and benefits of the options to a single value (like current dollars). Consider the benefits of current spending (on, say, a larger mortgage on a larger home) and the potential future costs of inadequate retirement funds (lower standard of living, dependence on kin or children). While these costs and benefits cannot be reduced to a single unit of value, we suspect that if people thought clearly and coolly about the various options, they
The creation of a Soviet-style one-party state after World War II provided the context for most of the political, economic, social, and cultural features of contemporary Hungary. Politically, Hungary has had four rounds of free elections since the end of the socialist era in 1990, but no government has been reelected and no political ideology has been able to dominate national discourse for long. Two exceptions to this may be a push for traditional Hungarian gender and family roles and the desire to join Europe. Economically, Hungary was transformed during the second half of the 20th century from a largely agrarian country to an urbanized industrial one. Today, 65 of Hungarians live in cities or towns. Unfortunately, since 1990, both the urban and rural work forces have suffered under high rates of inflation, unemployment, and a restructuring of the social service benefits they had grown accustomed to during the socialist era. Some of the most significant of these are education...
Labor force and yet remain economically active as the recipients of childcare and maternity benefits, nursing fees to care for elderly parents and in-laws, and early retirement (Szalai, 1998). Fourth, women in Hungary have been more willing to take advantage of retraining programs (Szalai, 1999). Fifth, Hungarian women began more than 40 of the small private businesses started in Hungary between 1990 and 1998 (Frey, 1999). Finally, many women have been able to combine one or more of these kinds of supplementary incomes to support their entire families (Szalai, 1998) 44 of women and 41 of men have other sources of income besides their primary employment (Nagy, 1995). The result of all these factors is that women generally are more likely than their male counterparts to retain the occupational class attained by their fathers (Pongracz & Toth, 1999).
The Kyrgyz recognize the following events as important lifestyle passages and publicly mark each event birth, the first steps of a child, circumcision of a boy, engagement, marriage, retirement, and death. Birthday celebrations are a recent phenomenon, since prior to sovietization birth dates were never recorded or registered. For most Kyrgyz over the age of 75 years (in the year 2000), the date and year of their birth are usually an approximation. declining economic conditions in the country. Many who had looked forward to retirement at 50 years (for women) and 55 years (for men) find themselves working in the informal market instead of enjoying their leisure time. The elderly, many of whom are women, find that the social safety net once in place during the Soviet period is no longer there, and they have few options but to depend on their children for day-to-day assistance.
Instead of honestly stating the motivation, the speaker seeks self-exoneration by talking about what the motivation was not. Denying an irrelevant charge that no one has made can be an effective rhetorical tactic. The denials are often true. For example, the person who repeatedly embezzles pension funds, uses substandard materials to build high rises, speeds while drunk, and stresses that he or she never meant to hurt anyone was probably not acting with the intention of making other people suffer.
While death is inevitable, its social impact is meliorable. Parsons explored two respects in which this is true (Parsons and Lidz Parsons, Fox, and Lidz). First, medical and public health technologies have reduced premature death and now typically enable members of society to use God-given talents to advance their vocations in good health over long lives. The demographic changes of the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and related efficiencies in the use of human talents, thus flowed from an effort to master death. Second, when individuals die, the resulting experiences of social loss can be controlled. Measures ranging from life insurance to retirement planning in business to estate planning in personal affairs to psychotherapy for grief and loss reduce harms ensuing from death (Zelizer, 1983). Similarly, American mourning customs emphasize austerely supporting the bereaved in overcoming grief and guilt, so they are able to return to their routine social obligations without...
Either the quality of marriage or their access to valuable resources (e.g., a deceased husband's retirement funds, social security benefits, or some other forms of inheritance or income). This wealth, while not considerable, is often sufficient to attract another wife. With this supplementary source of income, a man can buy a used car or build a home for his new wife. If a wife withholds her income, it can undermine her husband's ability to attract another wife. A polygynist husband depends on his cowife's (or cowives') assistance to sustain a friendly household environment and to provide economic aid in helping him build his heavenly kingdom.
Agency reinforcement of pathology and illness via compensation or benefits. Individuals who receive benefits through Social Security Supplementary Income (SSI), veteran's benefits, or workmen's compensation often have their payments based on their degree of injury, dysfunction, or impairment. They may receive their pension until they no longer qualify. That might mean that if an individual is no longer impaired, they stand to lose their financial support. This is in no way a description of all benefit recipients. Many would prefer to be rid of their disability so that they could function more effectively.
Genetics adviser and drafted a code of practice. The first HGAC report was published in December, 1997 (Human Genetics Advisory Commission, 1997). The report recommended a 2-year moratorium on genetic testing. Its conclusions are shown in Table 20.1. The ABI, a body representing around 95 of insurers in the UK, also reported their recommendations at the same time as the HGAC (Association of British Insurers, 1997). The ABI code of practice for genetic testing came into effect in January, 1998. The code had several important features (Table 20.2) and applied to all insurance, including life, permanent health, critical illness, and long-term care and medical expenses. Most 'relevant' UK insurance is predominantly life insurance linked to personal pensions, and property insurance (mortgage cover). As the UK NHS provides free health care, health insurance is less frequently purchased than in the USA, although there has been a recent increase in sales of personal health insurance cover...
In those days funding came from the government via a body called the University Grants Committee. I remember shortly after my appointment that its chairman, Sir John Wolfenden, visited Bangor and made clear to the college senate that the government had no wish to dictate to universities how they should spend their money. I was fortunate to have been able to spend most of my academic life with these funding arrangements. In the 1980s, however, all this changed universities were told to apply to industry and elsewhere for funds to support their research. The result, not surprisingly, was that criteria for what was valuable in research were determined largely by market forces and by researchers' ability to convince the appropriate committees that their proposals were of value. It is symptomatic of the changed climate that, shortly before my retirement, I was told that, in addition to being head of the Department of Psychology, I was now head of a 'Cost Centre'
In 2001, there was no treatment that prevented, much less cured, AD. Information regarding the risk of developing AD is useful only in life planning activities (such as purchasing or offering health insurance coverage or long-term care insurance coverage, or choosing retirement age) or in family planning. An individual's ability to cope with either an increased or a decreased risk may vary. Misuse of the information resulting in insurance or employment discrimination is possible. Absence of a causative gene mutation or of an APOEe4 susceptibility gene in either symptomatic or presymp-tomatic disease does not preclude AD as the cause of dementia or mean that the individual has no risk of developing AD in later years. see also Complex Traits Disease, Genetics of Gene Discovery Genetic Testing Inheritance Patterns Psychiatric Disorders.
During the 1980s, self-insurance emerged as a cost-control strategy among large corporations. These firms stopped buying health insurance for their workers and set themselves up as the at-risk entity for healthcare costs incurred by their employees. The practice put these corporations beyond the reach of state insurance regulations because of a 1974 federal law, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA). The intent of ERISA was to protect pension trust funds in companies with employees in several states from inconsistent and burdensome state regulations. The effect on health insurance, while not a primary goal of ERISA, so complicated health-insurance reform that, by the late 1980s, it became a critical element in all proposals that relied on employee benefits as the primary vehicle for distributing health insurance to citizens.
Retirement and or having grown children mark old age in Hungary. As of the late 1990s, 19 of the Hungarian population was over 60 years of age (15.8 of the total male population and 21.8 of the total female population) (Foldesi, 1998). While there are many reasons for the difference between men and women, a few contributing factors are that many more men than women in this age group smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol regularly, and remain unwilling to change their traditional diet for a healthier one. At the same time, only 1 more of the men in this age group (5 vs. 4 of women) have remained physically active into their old age, which might have In addition, a large number of elderly Hungarian women feel that they are the losers in the recent political, economic, and social changes because the system they worked all their lives to support, and which in turn promised to care for them in their old age, has failed them (Foldesi, 1998). For example, women receive 23 less pension on average...
The situation in China offers a different perspective on the abortion controversy. China instituted a national population policy in the 1970s that employed abortion within its highly coercive family planning program that established birth quotas. In the 1980s, both incentives (in the form of wage and pension increases, medical and educational benefits, etc.) as well as disincentives (such as salary cuts and loss of benefits) were imposed on Chinese couples (Livi-Bacci, 2001). China's population policy has been viewed as an attack on basic human rights as well as a targeted assault on women's rights, since forced abortions often selected female fetuses (Hartmann, 1994). More recently the one-child policy has been relaxed somewhat, and the coercive program is being phased out as China has been able to realize some of its demographic goals by sharply reducing fertility (Livi-Bacci, 2001).
Who should be a candidate for cognitive rehabilitation Clinicians often confront a series of questions. For example, is the client out of a coma Is he or she medically stable and out of crisis What was his or her preinjury level of functioning What is his or her current level of functioning Are his or her perceptual skills intact Will he or she be able to attend to a therapist for any length of time and, if so, for how long Is the client combative, apathetic, depressed, or aggressive Are there any secondary gain issues (e.g., settlement, worker's compensation, and retirement secondary to disability) What social supports does the client have Is the client likely to improve with rehabilitation
Right hemisphere parietofrontal lesions may impair an individual's ability to interpret and produce emotional gestures, prosody, and affect and to monitor internal somatic states. This may produce an acquired sociopathy, even in the absence of bifrontal lesions. Although the most frequently noted pattern of altered behavior after right parietal cortical lesions is one of inappropriate cheerfulness and denial of illness, irritability and aggressive outbursts may also ensue. A well-known case is that of former Supreme Court Justice William Douglas, who exhibited disturbed social judgment following a right hemisphere stroke. Although he retained sufficient linguistic and abstract reasoning ability to return to the bench, inappropriate social behaviors soon forced his retirement.
The provision of lifesaving services on a volunteer basis entails particular obstacles. Daytime coverage for service is a challenge because most volunteers or part-time personnel have other full-time employment. As a result, many services hire a cadre of full-time providers to respond during business hours. Dispatching volunteers from home or work directly to the scene may be one method of providing daytime coverage and reducing response times.18 Recruitment and retention of providers is an ongoing problem. To address it, volunteer services may be able to provide incentives, such as retirement benefits, death benefits, and scholarships for volunteers and their children. Undoubtedly, the most powerful incentive for EMS volunteers is the fellowship bonds that develop within volunteer EMS agencies.
The length of follow up should be sufficient to include all relevant costs and benefits - such as readmissions to the hospital due to treatment failures. Non-monetary costs directly related to the medical intervention should also be included, such as the cost of home care by the patient's family, since omission of these costs would bias assessments toward programs that rely on unpaid work by family members or volunteers. Other costs not directly related to the intervention, however, such as the patient's lost wages or pension costs, are omitted by convention from the measured costs in a cost effectiveness analysis.
Most biochemical knowledge obtained with these methods refers to large cell populations ( 107) of readily culturable bacteria in exponential growth phase. Here, we are primarily concerned with the behaviour of pathogens during infections. Not only will these organisms rarely be in a simple sus- (jT) pension phase but also it seems most unlikely that the environment will be conducive to unimpeded exponential growth. Evidently, the degree to which R
In the century roughly between 1870 and 1970, the social transition to adulthood (end of school, first job, first marriage) became more abrupt and uniform for a growing segment of the population. At the same time, the spread of universal, age-homogeneous public school and chronologically triggered public pension systems divided the life course into three boxes education, work, and retirement. In the modern life course, old age was transformed from a cultural category and a negotiated phase of work and family life into a separate, bureaucratically defined segment of the life course. The rise of the welfare state facilitated the creation of old age as the capstone of the institutionalized life course. Following the example of Germany (in 1889) and other industrial democracies (e.g., Great Britain, 1908 Austria, 1909 France, 1910 the Netherlands, 1913), the United States instituted a national pension system in 1935 through its Social Security Act (Quadagno). In linking retirement...
Social security law has established precedents which find application in insurance medicine. Victims of heart disease commonly discuss the option of retirement on grounds of ill health, and indeed may be encouraged to do so by their medical advisers, and personnel manager. Most permanent sickness policies, however, state that an employee should be wholly incapable of continuing their former employment in order to claim benefit. This is a difficult argument for the cardiologist to sustain if, for example, the individual has made a full recovery following a coronary bypass procedure. These policies were originally devised to compensate victims of accidents at work, not those whose illness results from natural causes. Hence there are insufficient funds to meet all claims and each is scrutinised both at the time of application, and subsequently. Patients may find themselves financially disad-vantaged if they retire on medical grounds without first checking the terms of their policy.
Unless otherwise covered by contract, psychologists make reasonable efforts to plan for facilitating services in the event that psychological services are interrupted by factors such as the psychologist's illness, death, unavailability, relocation, or retirement or by the client's patient's relocation or financial limitations. (See also Standard 6.02c, Maintenance, Dissemination, and Disposal of Confidential Records of Professional and Scientific Work.)
For defendants, the question was how to insulate themselves from bad faith claims in cases that did not concern the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA). Under ERISA, the plaintiff can only collect the amount of the benefit denied punitive damages are not allowed. Fox exposed the industry's vulnerability to punitive damages in non-ERISA claims. In most of the cases, defendants were able to avoid bad faith damages by showing that their actions were reasonable under the circumstances and thus in good faith. Even community oncologists testifying for plaintiffs would admit that reasonable physicians could differ on HDC ABMT, making it difficult to show bad faith.
In general, the exposure levels for GCR while on the Moon would range within the exposure limits recommended for LEO. As an example, let's consider a male lunar colonist who starts his space occupation at the age of 45. His career limit amounts to 3.13 Sv (calculated from NCRP 1989). This career limit of 3.13 Sv would be reached only after 16 turns of the nominal 195-day mission shift, assuming an average 1 g cm2 thick Al shield which gives an average GCR dose of 0.195 Sv per mission (Table 7-01). This assumption of an average shield of 1 g cm2 is highly pessimistic, because the lunar habitat will provide a much better shielding against GCR. The value finally depends on the number of EVAs with much lower shielding. In other words, this astronaut most likely would reach his retirement age before exhausting the acceptable limits of radiation exposure from GCR.
The 20th century saw dramatic prolongation of life expectancy in developed countries. More people living longer in retirement creates a premium on strategies to promote healthy ageing (meaning, in this context, maintenance of enjoyable and independent living for the longest time with compression of morbidity into the shortest timeframe at the end of life). A focus on gainful coexistence with chronic ailments supplants the eradication of disease. Ameliorating disabilities that accrue during age could enhance quality of life regardless of its prolongation. Among strategies to improve health and well-being of the elderly, the judicious evidence-based use of hormonal therapy clearly warrants exploration. An important caveat is that since the best available evidence suggests that androgen replacement therapy does not influence life-expectancy (Handelsman 1998), beneficial effects of physiological androgen dosages are likely to be restricted to quality of life, for which instrumental...