Plantibodies

The production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody in plants was first described by Hiatt et al. (1989). The antibody chosen for study, 6D4, was a mouse IgG1 antibody that recognizes a synthetic phosphonate ester and can catalyze the hydrolysis of certain carboxylic esters. For the creation of trans-genic tobacco plants synthesizing the intact antibody, a multimer of two heavy-chain polypeptides and two light-chain polypeptides covalently linked by disulfide bonds, a two-step strategy was...

Carotenoids

Carotenoids comprise a group of natural pigments that are ubiquitous throughout nature. Over 600 different carotenoids with diverse chemical structures have been identified in bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants (Shew-maker et al., 1999 Mann et al., 2000). Their colors range from yellow to red, with variations of brown and purple in addition, carotenoids as colorants take advantage of their good pH stability and their insensitivity to reducing agents such as ascorbic acid (Mann et al., 2000)....

Plant Vaccines

The first demonstration of expression of a vaccinogen in plants ocurred in 1990 when Curtiss and Cardineau expressed the Streptococcus mutans surface protein antigen A (SpaA) in tobacco. After incorporation of the transgenic tobacco tissue into the diet of mice, a mucosal immune response was induced to the SpaA protein the induced antibodies were demonstrated to be biologically active when they reacted with intact S. mutans. The most widespread of autoimmune diseases is diabetes mellitus, a...

References

Steiger, Z. Wang, and G. Sandmann 2000 Novel hy-droxycarotenoids with improved antioxidative properties produced by gene combination in Escherichia coli, Nat. Biotechnol., 18, 843-846. Altenbach, S.B., C.C. Kuo, L.C. Staraci, K.W. Pearson, C. Wainwright, and A. Georges-cu 1992 Accumulation of a Brazil nut albumin in seeds of transgenic canola results in enhanced levels of seed protein methionine, Plant Mol. Biol., 18, 235-245. Anderson, B.F., H.M. Baker, G.E....

Vitamins

Vitamin C L-ascorbic acid is used on a large scale as an antioxidant in food, animal feed, beverages, pharmaceutical formulations, and cosmetic applications Chotani et al., 2000 . The current world market of ascorbic acid is 60,000 to 70,000 metric tons per year and generates annual revenues in excess of U.S. 500 million Glick and Pasternak, 1998 Chotani et al., 2000 . An expensive process that includes one microbial fermentation step and a number of chemical steps starting with D-glucose...