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Electronics Repair Manuals

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Cytokine Capture Assay and Intracellular Cytokine Staining

Brefeldin Ics

Fig. 6.2 Schematic diagram illustrating the cytokine-capture assay (CCA). These are based on the same principle as the ELISPOT assay, but secreted cytokine is captured on the cell surface and detected with fluorescent chromogen-labeled antibodies the stained T cells remain viable. Fig. 6.2 Schematic diagram illustrating the cytokine-capture assay (CCA). These are based on the same principle as the ELISPOT assay, but secreted cytokine is captured on the cell surface and detected with fluorescent chromogen-labeled antibodies the stained T cells remain viable. Fig. 6.3 Schematic diagram illustrating the intracellular staining (ICS) method. Cytokine secretion is blocked by either brefeldin A or monensin. The accumulated intracellular cytokine is detected following permea-bilization of cells to permit entry of fluorescent chromogen-labeled anti-cytokine antibodies. Fig. 6.3 Schematic diagram illustrating the intracellular staining (ICS) method. Cytokine secretion is blocked by either...

Requirements for inline sensors

Figure 12.1 shows a schematic diagram of how the individual elements of the system go together to produce a feedback loop for plant and equipment control. The system would be valid for both continuous and batch processing. Multiple sensing heads with different functions can be accessed and correlated to provide a specific output. The product conditioning is a vital part of the overall sensor system. Without this, the heterogeneous nature of the flowing particulate food stream is likely to give a high noise-to-signal interference in the subsequent sensor-based analysis. This may be attributed to high background fluorescence and signal quenching due to the turbidity and components of the matrix and the general presence of food particulates. A proper sample conditioning system will help reduce or eliminate the interference, thus allowing higher signal-to-noise detection and analysis of the desired signal in the subsequent sensing element. Following the information processing stage, which...

Test Apparatus And Conditions

The plate heat exchanger (PHE) tested was an APV Model 405 using APV Type R40 stainless-steel plates 45 in. high and 18 in. wide. The plate heat-transfer area was 4 ft2 with a nominal gap between plates of 0.12 in. with the plate corrugations, the maximum gap was 0.24 in. Seven plates were used, creating three countercurrent passages each of the cooling water and the heating medium. A schematic diagram of the installation is shown in Figure 3.

Periaqueductal Gray PAG

Periaqueductal Grey Anatomy

Figure 8 Schematic diagram of the dorsolateral and ventrolateral longitudinal cell columns of the periaqueductal gray controlling the fight (dorsolateral) or flight (ventrolateral) responses. See Table I. Figure 8 Schematic diagram of the dorsolateral and ventrolateral longitudinal cell columns of the periaqueductal gray controlling the fight (dorsolateral) or flight (ventrolateral) responses. See Table I.

Description of the Model

Figure 3 Schematic diagram of the states of the Meck and Church accumulator mechanism as it enumerates two items. The resulting fullness level of the accumulator is the mental representation for two (courtesy of Current Directions in Psychological Science). Figure 3 Schematic diagram of the states of the Meck and Church accumulator mechanism as it enumerates two items. The resulting fullness level of the accumulator is the mental representation for two (courtesy of Current Directions in Psychological Science).

Functional Anatomy Of The Kidney

Juxtamedullary Nephrons

FIGURE 2 Schematic diagram of the major blood vessels of the kidney. All of the glomeruli are located in the cortex and each is supplied by an afferent arteriole. The efferent arteriole conveys the blood from the glomerular capillary tuft to the peritubular capillary circulation, which is not shown in the figure. The peritubular capillary network arising from glomeruli in the outer regions of the cortex is confined to the cortex in close association with the nephron of origin. The peritubular capillary network arising from glomeruli near the corticomedullary junction penetrates deeply into the medulla in a series of long hairpin loops referred to as vasa recta. OM, outer medulla IM, inner medulla. (Modified from Kriz W. A standard nomenclature for structures of the kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Fluid Electrolyte Physiol 1988 254 F1-F8.) FIGURE 2 Schematic diagram of the major blood vessels of the kidney. All of the glomeruli are located in the cortex and each is supplied by an afferent...

Pretectal Complex and the Accessory Optic System

Anterior Pretectal Nucleus Function

Figure 6 Schematic diagram of the final common pathway for horizontal saccades. Supranuclear inputs to the paramedian zone of the pontine reticular formation arise from the superior colliculus and frontal eye fields in parallel. Note that X marks the location of a third nerve lesion and the filled circle is a MLF lesion. A lesion in the MLF would preserve vergence, whereas a third nerve palsy would impair vergence. See Table I for other abbreviations. Figure 6 Schematic diagram of the final common pathway for horizontal saccades. Supranuclear inputs to the paramedian zone of the pontine reticular formation arise from the superior colliculus and frontal eye fields in parallel. Note that X marks the location of a third nerve lesion and the filled circle is a MLF lesion. A lesion in the MLF would preserve vergence, whereas a third nerve palsy would impair vergence. See Table I for other abbreviations.

Online NIR Instrumentation

Consideration of equation (1) suggests that, irrespective of the optical system, to make use of NIR absorption requires a knowledge of the incident and reflected energies at the measuring wavelength. In practice it is not possible to measure how much energy falls on to the measured sample, that is the incident radiation. Therefore for on-line measurement, in the simplest case, this is approximated by making a two-wavelength measurement. Figure 5.5 shows a schematic diagram of the technique and takes moisture as an example. One wavelength would be centred on the 1.94 pm absorption band of moisture. The other would be chosen from a part of the spectrum where there is little or no absorption due to moisture commonly, a wavelength close to 1.80 pm is chosen as this reference. The ratio of the reflected signals at the two wavelengths provides a measure of the peak height

Techniques For Assessment Of Resuscitative Efforts

Direct mechanical ventricular assistance (DMVA). Schematic diagram of DMVA drive system and cup. Note the device actuates the ventricular myocardium into systolic (right) and diastolic (left) configurations. (From Anstadt MP, Anstad GL, Lowe JE Direct mechanical ventricular actuation A review. Resuscitation 21 7, 1991, with permission.)

Measurement of TCell Cytotoxicity

Cytotoxic Assays Ctl

Fig. 6.4 Schematic diagram illustrating the Lysispot assay. Here, ELISPOT plates are coated with anti- -galactosidase. Autologous B cells are loaded with peptide pools and transfected with herpes simplex virus-Lac amplicons added as target cells. Each pep-tide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) migrates in the medium to attack and kill Fig. 6.4 Schematic diagram illustrating the Lysispot assay. Here, ELISPOT plates are coated with anti- -galactosidase. Autologous B cells are loaded with peptide pools and transfected with herpes simplex virus-Lac amplicons added as target cells. Each pep-tide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) migrates in the medium to attack and kill

Development of a Telesurgical Robotic System

The needle is initially placed into the PAKY so that its tip is located at the remote center of motion. To confirm the position, the PAKY is equipped with a visible laser diode whose ray intersects the needle at the RCM point. The robot permits two motorized DOF about the RCM point (R1 and R2 on the schematic diagram) and is supported by a 7 DOF passive arm, which may be locked at the desired position by depressing a lever. A custom rigid rail allows the system to be mounted to the operating table to provide the fixed reference frame required to maintain the needle trajectory under the insertion force. Thus, the combined

The Hypothalamus And Neuroendocrine Regulation

Neurohumoral Regulation

Figure 2 The basic organization of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is illustrated in the schematic diagram. The anterior lobe of the pituitary is regulated by hypothalamic peptides and neurotransmitters that are released from parvocellular hypothalamic neurons into a vascular (portal) plexus and then travel to the anterior lobe to either stimulate or inhibit the release of hormones from cells in this portion of the gland. This is possible because the vessels at the neurohemal contact zone in the median eminence are fenestrated and large numbers of axon terminals terminate on the perivascular space adjacent to these vessels (bottom, right). Large magnocellular neurons project through the infundibular stalk (IS) to terminate in the posterior, or neural, lobe of the pituitary. ac, anterior commissure f, fornix OC, optic chiasm ot, optic tract III, third ventricle. Figure 2 The basic organization of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is illustrated in the schematic diagram. The anterior lobe...

Nonunions Of The Elbow

Figure 5 Schematic diagram of Ilizarov treatment of humeral nonunion. A to C. Treatment of bone defect with hybrid advanced frame and distraction osteogenesis. D to F. Treatment of a massive defect with pull wire technique and distraction osteogenesis. (Courtesy of Maurizio Catagni, M.D., Ospedale de Lecco, Lecco, Italy.) Figure 5 Schematic diagram of Ilizarov treatment of humeral nonunion. A to C. Treatment of bone defect with hybrid advanced frame and distraction osteogenesis. D to F. Treatment of a massive defect with pull wire technique and distraction osteogenesis. (Courtesy of Maurizio Catagni, M.D., Ospedale de Lecco, Lecco, Italy.)

Immunobiology of the Host Tumor Relationship TcRa and TcRS gene complex

Figure 19.11 Schematic diagram of the germline configuration of the four human T-cell receptor (TcR) gene complexes. The TcR-a gene complex consists of more than 50 Va gene segments, a long stretch of J gene segments, and 1 Ca gene segment. The TcR-S locus is located within the TCR-a gene complex as shown and consists of many fewer Vs (about 6), Ds (3), Js (3), and 1Cs gene segment. The TcR-p gene complex contains about 51 Vp gene segments grouped in 24 families and two Cp gene segments that are preceded by one Dp and six or seven Jp gene segments. The TcR-y gene complex consists of two Cy gene segments preceded by two or three Jy gene segments and a restricted number of Vy gene segments, which are grouped into four families as shown. (After Breit and van Dongen, 1994, with permission of the authors and publisher.) Figure 19.11 Schematic diagram of the germline configuration of the four human T-cell receptor (TcR) gene complexes. The TcR-a gene complex consists of more than 50 Va gene...

Control And Regulation Of Maternal Behavior

Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the neuroendocrine events occurring during pregnancy and at birth that lead to the onset of maternal behavior in mammals. (Derived from data given in Ref. 2 .) (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.) Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the neuroendocrine events occurring during pregnancy and at birth that lead to the onset of maternal behavior in mammals. (Derived from data given in Ref. 2 .) (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

Applications Of Temporal Coding In Signal Processing

FIGURE 2.10 Schematic diagram illustrating a potential tool for constructing a neuronal network-based data model. Data are encoded through either visual or olfactory networks, depending on the characteristics of the data. Associations between elements of the data are formed by the hippocampus. The user could define important types of associations that could be enhanced by the prefrontal cortex network by increasing the power of oscillations in the target brain regions. FIGURE 2.10 Schematic diagram illustrating a potential tool for constructing a neuronal network-based data model. Data are encoded through either visual or olfactory networks, depending on the characteristics of the data. Associations between elements of the data are formed by the hippocampus. The user could define important types of associations that could be enhanced by the prefrontal cortex network by increasing the power of oscillations in the target brain regions.

Fracture Reduction And Fixation

Figure 16 Schematic diagram of an H fracture. (From Ref. 39.) Figure 16 Schematic diagram of an H fracture. (From Ref. 39.) Figure 17 Schematic diagram of a medial lamda fracture. (From Ref. 39.) Figure 17 Schematic diagram of a medial lamda fracture. (From Ref. 39.) Figure 18 Schematic diagram of a lateral lambda fracture. (From Ref. 39.) Figure 18 Schematic diagram of a lateral lambda fracture. (From Ref. 39.)

Supercritical Fluid Extraction

A supercritical fluid extraction system consists of four basic components an extractor, a separator, a utility section and a temperature pressure control system. Additionally, other equipments such as system for the use of entrainer, valves, back pressure regulators, flow meters etc. are needed for the proper operation of the system. Schematic diagram of a supercritical fluid extraction unit is presented in Figure 1. The gaseous carbon dioxide is condensed and stored in the condenser, and brought to the required extraction pressure by a diaphragm metering pump. It is then heated to the required extraction temperature in a heat exchanger.

Integration Of Fermentation And Recovery

Which results in a large reactor and process stream volumes thereby making butanol fermentation noncompetitive when compared to butanol obtained from petrochemical sources. Simultaneous recovery and fermentation when using novel recovery techniques have solved these problems because concentrated sugar solutions (130-350 g L1) can be used in combination with economic product recovery systems (62,63,68-71). Product recovery techniques such as gas stripping, pervaporation, and liquid-liquid extraction have been applied to high productivity reactors (63,93,94) thereby making butanol fermentation and recovery much more attractive. These reactors offer the advantages of high productivity, use of concentrated sugar solutions, reduction in reactor size, and efficient recovery of product. With these developments only a few problems remain with the butanol fermentation (i.e., low ABE yield). It is anticipated that with the recent developments in integrated fermentation and recovery, the butanol...

Possible Roles Of Cyanobactreial Polysaccharides

The terminology associated with mucilaginous layers in cyanobacteria is quite dubious and confusing. As pointed out by Bertocchi et al. (21), the structural and functional differences between different sublayers of those mucilaginous layers are very arbitrary, and thus are often not evident in the literature. These structures are defined by Bertocchi et al. (21), further confirmed by De Phillipis and Vincenzini (22), and slightly modified by Adhikary (7). In general, the external envelope layers are divided into three structured or unstructured layers or zones (sheaths, slimes, and capsules), and can be observed under the microscope using Nomarski differential interference contrast photomicrography. The sheath is defined as a thin, electron-dense layer that loosely surrounds cells or cell groups, The layer is usually visible by light microscopy without staining. The capsule generally consists of a thick and slimy layer intimately associated with the cell surface, with sharp outlines,...

Principle of Operation

Schematic diagram of an atomic force microscope. The volume of a fluid-filled cell depends on the thickness of the O-ring and is approx 30-70 L. Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of an atomic force microscope. The volume of a fluid-filled cell depends on the thickness of the O-ring and is approx 30-70 L.

Structure Of The Voltagegated Na Channel

FIGURE 12 Schematic diagram of the apparatus used for singlechannel recording. A micropipette is positioned to touch the surface of the membrane. A tight seal develops, and the current flowing through individual channels can be monitored. FIGURE 12 Schematic diagram of the apparatus used for singlechannel recording. A micropipette is positioned to touch the surface of the membrane. A tight seal develops, and the current flowing through individual channels can be monitored.

Reverse Micelle Extraction

The extraction and purification of proteins using reversed phase micelle systems has been the subject of extensive study in recent years (Luisi, 1985 Martinek et al, 1986 Fletcher and Parrot, 1988 Krei and Hustedt, 1992 Matzke etal, 1992). Reverse micelles are aggregates of surfactant molecules in organic solvents. The polar head groups of the surfactant are directed towards the interior of the micelle and form a polar core which can solubilize water and hence the proteins, while the lipophilic chains are exposed to the organic solvent. Figure 7 shows a schematic diagram of protein solubilization using reverse micelles. Here an electrolyte protein solution is contacted with an organic solvent containing oil-soluble surfactant. After the mixture is vigorously shaken and interphase equilibrium is achieved, the phases are separated by centrifugation. When a double tailed Figure 7. Schematic diagram of the phase transfer process for solubilization in reversed micelles Figure 7. Schematic...

Synaptic Transmission At The Neuromuscular Junction

The chemical synapse from which most of our information about synaptic transmission has been derived is the synaptic contact made by a spinal motor neuron with a skeletal muscle cell. Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of some of the general features of this synapse. The myelinated axon of a motor neuron whose cell body is located in the ventral horn of the spinal cord innervates a number of individual muscle fibers (Fig. 2A). At each muscle fiber, the axon branches further and forms a series of contacts with the muscle cell. An expanded view of one such synaptic contact, which illustrates some of the characteristic morphologic features of the chemical synapse, is shown in Fig. 2B. There are (1) a large concentration of small vesicles and

Compartmental Model

An overall integration of these autoregulatory control systems in the regulation of body weight and body composition during a cycle of weight loss and weight recovery is discussed with the help of a schematic diagram presented in Figure 4. This diagram embodies the finding that the control of body energy partitioning between protein and fat is an individual characteristic that is, individuals vary in their partitioning characteristic (Pc) during weight loss and weight recovery and takes into account the two distinct control systems for adaptive thermogenesis that can operate independently of each other.

Physical Characteristics

Ostreococcus tauri, with a diameter of only 0.8 micrometers, about the size of a typical bacterium. The human sperm is about 4 micrometers wide, but 40 micrometers long, while the egg is about 100 micrometers in diameter. Single neurons can be a meter or more in length. While schematic diagrams often picture cells as simple cubes or spheres, most cells have highly individual shapes. Human red blood cells are flattened disks indented on either

Transfer RNAs Have Characteristic Structural Features

FIGURE 27-13 Three-dimensional structure of yeast tRNAPhe deduced from x-ray diffraction analysis. The shape resembles a twisted L. (a) Schematic diagram with the various arms identified in Figure FIGURE 27-13 Three-dimensional structure of yeast tRNAPhe deduced from x-ray diffraction analysis. The shape resembles a twisted L. (a) Schematic diagram with the various arms identified in Figure

Mutations during Development

Renewing tissues typically have two distinct phases in the history of their cellular lineages. Early in life, cellular lineages expand exponentially to form the tissue. For the remainder of life, stem cells renew the tissue by dividing to form a nearly linear cellular history. Figure 13.1 shows a schematic diagram of the exponential and linear phases of cellular division.

Performing a successful ChIP assay

In order to guarantee the success of a ChIP-on-chip experiment it is important to optimize the conditions for the equivalent single-ChIP experiment. Many protocols describing ChIP assays (see a schematic diagram in Figure 14.2) have been published and are now easily accessible.

Control of Vertical Gaze in the Midbrain

Figure 7 Schematic diagram of the final common pathway for vertical saccades. X marks the location of a cut in the posterior commissure (PC) that would produce the dorsal midbrain syndrome (see Table II). See Table I. Figure 7 Schematic diagram of the final common pathway for vertical saccades. X marks the location of a cut in the posterior commissure (PC) that would produce the dorsal midbrain syndrome (see Table II). See Table I.

Laboratory NIR instrumentation

For laboratory-based analysers, optical filter technology is also used however, clearly this restricts the choice of wavelengths, especially for a device that may be used for research and development. Full spectrum analysers are commonly used these are based upon scanning monochromators or Michelson based interferometers. In many cases for solids measurement the optical configuration is based on reflectance. However, devices do exist which operate in transmission mode at wavelengths short of 1.5 m these have been principally used for analysing whole cereal grains, meat and liquids or slurries. They incorporate silicon detectors for greater sensitivity at the extremely short wavelengths (0.8-1.0 m) necessary to achieve penetration (or forward scatter) through the sample. The schematic diagram of a typical laboratory reflectance analyser in Fig. 5.7 shows the key elements of the device and the difference in the collection of reflected radiation.

Adsorption of Sugars onto a Solid Support

Schematic diagram of the SCCO2 apparatus used. 1 Liquid CO2 tank 2 cooler 3 high pressure pump 4 20.5-MPa security disk 5 valve 6 manometer 7 thermocouple 8 reaction vessel 9 temperature-controlled room. Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the SCCO2 apparatus used. 1 Liquid CO2 tank 2 cooler 3 high pressure pump 4 20.5-MPa security disk 5 valve 6 manometer 7 thermocouple 8 reaction vessel 9 temperature-controlled room.

Surveying Health Executives

From this definition, a schematic diagram for the technology management framework emerges, as shown in Figure 13.1. The final step in the framework, organizational success, can be defined differently in each organization. Business success in health care could, for example, be expressed as improved patient care within given resources. Alternatively, the performance goal may be, for example, the protection of the five health care principles of the 1984 Canada Health Act comprehensiveness, universality, portability, accessibility, and public administration.

Bromocriptine

Schematic diagram of the possible sites of action of drugs that modify dopaminergic function in striatal and other non-mesocortical regions of the mammalian brain. PCM protein 0-methyltransferase, which catalyses the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to the calmodulin-dependent regulatory protein and may regulate calcium-calmodulin dependent transmitter synthesis and release. ( ) inhibition (+) stimulation DA dopamine. Sites of action of drugs are underlined.

The nitrogen cycle

As with other key elements (Case Study 5.1) nitrogen undergoes a complex sequence of biologically-driven transformations in the freshwater environment. These are known collectively as the nitrogen cycle, a schematic diagram of which (with particular reference to standing waters) is shown in Figure 5.10. The cycle can be considered as five major routes of nitrogen transformation nitrate

Elispot Assay

Enzyme Linked Immunospot Assay

Fig. 6.1 Schematic diagram illustrating the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay. Antigenically stimulated T lymphocytes are triggered to produce cytokines, for example, IFN-y. The secreted cytokine is captured by an immobilized anti-cytokine antibody on the surface of a nitrocellulose membrane the bound cytokine is detected by a second anti-cytokine antibody and cytokine spots are visualized by enzyme substrate. Fig. 6.1 Schematic diagram illustrating the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay. Antigenically stimulated T lymphocytes are triggered to produce cytokines, for example, IFN-y. The secreted cytokine is captured by an immobilized anti-cytokine antibody on the surface of a nitrocellulose membrane the bound cytokine is detected by a second anti-cytokine antibody and cytokine spots are visualized by enzyme substrate.

Kidney Development

Kidney Branching Morphogenesis

Development of the permanent mammalian kidney. Schematic diagram illustrating the development of the mammalian excretory system. The pronephros and mesonephros are transitory and degenerate. The metanephros forms when the ureteric bud grows (UB) laterally from the nephric (Wolffian) duct to induce the metanephric mesenchyme (MM) the caudal portion of the nephrogenic cord (grey). Figure 1. Development of the permanent mammalian kidney. Schematic diagram illustrating the development of the mammalian excretory system. The pronephros and mesonephros are transitory and degenerate. The metanephros forms when the ureteric bud grows (UB) laterally from the nephric (Wolffian) duct to induce the metanephric mesenchyme (MM) the caudal portion of the nephrogenic cord (grey).

Connectivity

Figure 4 Schematic diagram of the laminar patterns of corticocortical connections among visual areas in macaque monkeys used to define ascending, descending, and lateral types of connectivity. The cell bodies of projection cells are found in one of two common patterns, unilaminar (left) or bilaminar (B) (right). Unilaminar projections can originate from supragranular layers (S) or infragranular layers (I). Ascending terminations tend to be focal in layer 4 (F). Lateral terminations tend to be columnar (C). Descending terminations tend to be multilayered (M). (From Felleman and Van Essen, 1991.) Figure 4 Schematic diagram of the laminar patterns of corticocortical connections among visual areas in macaque monkeys used to define ascending, descending, and lateral types of connectivity. The cell bodies of projection cells are found in one of two common patterns, unilaminar (left) or bilaminar (B) (right). Unilaminar projections can originate from supragranular layers (S) or infragranular...

Hypothalamus

Figure 5 Photomicrographs of coronal sections from the human hypothalamus demonstrating the distribution of NK3 in different subcompartments of the paraventricular nucleus (A and B). Scale bar 0.35 mm. (C) The schematic diagram shows the parts of the Pa from which these sections were taken. (Reproduced from NeuroReport 11(14) with permission from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000). Figure 5 Photomicrographs of coronal sections from the human hypothalamus demonstrating the distribution of NK3 in different subcompartments of the paraventricular nucleus (A and B). Scale bar 0.35 mm. (C) The schematic diagram shows the parts of the Pa from which these sections were taken. (Reproduced from NeuroReport 11(14) with permission from Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000).

Product

A schematic diagram showing a typical affinity separation. The affinity ligand is represented by the black squares attached to the round support particles. The complementary structure of the target protein is represented by the square cavities carried by some feedstock components. Only these compounds can bind to the immobilized ligand while unwanted materials are washed through. Bound product can then be recovered in an elution step.

Incidence

Schematic diagram of the cochlear duct. Organ of corti outlined by dashed rectangle. The endolymph is formed by stria vascularis. Scala vestibuli and scala tympani contain perilymph. Reprinted by permission from Essential Otolaryngology, K. J. Lee editor, Appleton & Lange Publishers. FIGURE 2. Schematic diagram of the cochlear duct. Organ of corti outlined by dashed rectangle. The endolymph is formed by stria vascularis. Scala vestibuli and scala tympani contain perilymph. Reprinted by permission from Essential Otolaryngology, K. J. Lee editor, Appleton & Lange Publishers.

Auditory Nerve

Figure 6 A schematic diagram of the traveling wave for three frequencies. The solid line is an instantaneous traveling wave, whereas the dotted curve represents the envelope of the traveling wave outlining its overall shape. The cochlea is shown as if it were unrolled. For low frequencies, the traveling wave travels to the apex, where maximal stimulation occurs. For high frequencies the wave travels a short distance from the base and maximal displacement is at the base (from Yost, 2000). Figure 6 A schematic diagram of the traveling wave for three frequencies. The solid line is an instantaneous traveling wave, whereas the dotted curve represents the envelope of the traveling wave outlining its overall shape. The cochlea is shown as if it were unrolled. For low frequencies, the traveling wave travels to the apex, where maximal stimulation occurs. For high frequencies the wave travels a short distance from the base and maximal displacement is at the base (from Yost, 2000).

Nucleolus Overview

FIGURE 2 A schematic diagram illustrating the relationships of the three major components of the nucleolus. An FC contains the active rRNA genes (blue) with the nascent transcripts of pre-rRNA (red) extending into the surrounding DFC, embedded in the GC. See text for further details. Reproduced with permission from Huang, S. (2002). Building an efficient factory Where is pre-rRNA synthesized in the nucleolus J. Cell Biol. 157, 739-741, with copyright permission from the Rockefeller University Press and with the kind consent of the author. FIGURE 2 A schematic diagram illustrating the relationships of the three major components of the nucleolus. An FC contains the active rRNA genes (blue) with the nascent transcripts of pre-rRNA (red) extending into the surrounding DFC, embedded in the GC. See text for further details. Reproduced with permission from Huang, S. (2002). Building an efficient factory Where is pre-rRNA synthesized in the nucleolus J. Cell Biol. 157, 739-741, with copyright...

Base Excision Repair

Schematic diagram of the base excision repair pathway. The damaged base (in this case, guanine) is removed by a glycosylase enzyme. This creates an AP-site, which is recognized and cleaved by AP-endonuclease. DNA polymerase fills in the gap. DNA ligase links the broken strand together again.

Spectral Profiles

The spectrum of the sound from one source will differ from that of another source. Experiments in spectral profile analysis measure the auditory system's sensitivity to changes in the amplitudes of the spectral components of a complex sound. The schematic diagrams on the bottom of Fig. 16 display different spectra used in a spectral profile experiment. The spectra consist of several tonal components logarithmically spaced in frequency. As can be seen, the center

Visual System

Figure 6 Schematic diagram of the localization of sensory and motor functions in the cerebral cortex. (A) Connections of the somatosensory system. (B) Connections of the visual, auditory, vestibular, gustatory, and olfactory sensory areas. (C) Connections of the somatomotor system. Numbers indicate Brodmann's areas. MI, primary motor area SI, primary somatosensory area SII, secondary somatosensory area. Figure 6 Schematic diagram of the localization of sensory and motor functions in the cerebral cortex. (A) Connections of the somatosensory system. (B) Connections of the visual, auditory, vestibular, gustatory, and olfactory sensory areas. (C) Connections of the somatomotor system. Numbers indicate Brodmann's areas. MI, primary motor area SI, primary somatosensory area SII, secondary somatosensory area.

FiFoATPases

A FiFo-ATPase from yeast mitochondria, crystallised with polyethylene glycol in the presence of ADP and the non-hydrolysable ATP-analogue AMP-PNP (PDB-code 1QO1). Resolution is 3.5 A, allowing only the carbon backbone to be traced, and that only in some of the subunits. B Schematic diagram. a- and ,3-subunits (3 each, red and magenta) form the bulk of the Ft-head, the 7 and e subunits (green and blue) connect this head to the hollow transmembrane cylinder formed by 10 molecules of subunit c (yellow, in some other species up to 14 c-subunits are present). During turnover the 7-subunit rotates around its long axis. The proton channel is formed by subunits a (cyan) and c (yellow), the subunits b (white) and 5 (kaki) prevent rotation of the Ft-head. C Reaction cycle of the Ftpart of ATP-synthase. Rotation of the 7-subunit (driven by proton flow through the Fo-part) makes each of the a -protomers assume 3 different conformations in sequence An open, substrate binding...

Estuaries

Figure 2.18 Schematic diagram of the upper reaches of an estuary, emphasizing freshwater input into the system. A number of physical processes contribute to the temporal and spatial variability of the estuarine system. In addition to tidal currents and river discharge, which interact to determine periodic bulk flow, water movement is also caused by vertical estuarine circulation (within the water column), tide-induced residual circulations at the headlands, groundwater inflow, and run-off from surrounding land at times of high rainfall. Anthropogenic input (agricultural, industrial, and domestic) contributes to the river discharge. Physical and climatic processes controlling water movement modulate the freshwater saltwater exchange with fringing marshes, mudflats and the adjoining coastal region. Biological transport within the pelagic zones can be passive (e.g., phytoplankton) or active (e.g., fish migration). Mudflats and marshes provide important sites for benthic microorganisms,...

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