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The Critical Perspective in the Health Social Sciences

In the aftermath of this transition, and with the rise of a new set of conventional perspectives within the social sciences, those individuals who still attempted to promote a critical political economic orientation tended to be marginalized within their respective disciplines. As Navarro (1986) argues, even the terms of political economic discourse have been tainted. In mainstream scholarship, concepts and terms such as class struggle, capitalism, and imperialism are frequently treated as rhetorical and are dismissed by the dominant schools. Further, such terms often are written between quotation marks, presumably to alert the reader that they are under suspicion. Marxists who submit papers to social science journals commonly are instructed to rewrite their papers using fewer value-laden terms that are more attune to prevalent sociological thought.

Nine Fundamentals Of Biomechanics

Nine Principles Biomechanics

Cation based on what is often less-than-con-clusive data, or they might be concerned about receiving less recognition for applied scholarship. Practitioners contribute to this gap as well by refusing to recognize the theoretical nature of science, by not reading widely to compile the necessary evidence for practice, and by demanding simple how-to rules of human movements when these simple answers often do not exist.

The Creationists Persistence Jurisprudence and

Years before nietzsche's apocalyptic announcement that god is dead, James Mill had confided to his more famous son that there is no God, but this is a family secret. Nevertheless, over 100 years later (and much like Mark Twain's obituary), the announcement that God is dead remains as premature and as controversial today as it was then. As well as being a direct onslaught on Christianity, Nietzsche's broadside was targeted at all claims to some Absolute Truth or Authority. He maintained that the effort to fix some eternal set of values or to discover an immutable essence to mankind was not only futile but also dangerous. While the effects of that chilling obituary are felt everywhere and in everyway across academe, there is still massive resistance to its challenge. This is particularly true in the world of jurists and jurisprudence. Indeed, a reader of much contemporary legal scholarship and jurisprudence could be forgiven for thinking that there is still a conspiracy of silence...

Cultural And Religious Perspectives

Scholarly and popular thought alike have typically assumed that the human body is a fixed, material entity subject to the empirical rules of biological science. Such a body exists prior to the mutability and flux of cultural change and diversity, and is characterized by unchangeable inner necessities. Beginning with the historical work of Michel Foucault and Norbert Elias, the anthropology of Pierre Bourdieu, and phenomenological philosophers such as Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Hans Jonas, Max Scheler, and Gabriel Marcel, however, scholarship in the social sciences and humanities has begun to challenge this notion. Late twentieth-century commentators argue that the body can no longer be considered as a fact of nature, but is instead an entirely problematic notion (Vernant, p. 20) that the body has a history insofar as it behaves in new ways at particular historical moments (Bynum, 1989, p. 171) that the body should be understood not as a constant amidst flux but as an epitome of that flux...

Relative Status of Men and Women

Much scholarship on northern Athapaskan societies, including the Chipewyan (Oswalt & Neely, 1996, p. 94), has noted the inferior or subordinate status of woman in traditional or historical circumstances. The vivid experiences of the Hudson's Bay Company explorer Samuel Hearne (1795), who traveled and lived with the Chipewyan extensively in the late 1760s and early 1770s, has become part of the received wisdom on female-male relations in that society. While certain behaviors, such as wife beating and female infanticide, might be taken at face value, others require judicious interpretation. Much of the discussion on status and subordination flows from an external European male perspective, with perhaps too little insight on gender differences, their meanings, and arenas of female and male influence from an insider's or Chipewyan view.

Leadership in Public Arenas

Vouvali is not the exception that proves the rule, as there are many other examples of women on Kalymnos in the past who have risen to prominence and influence economically, or in the fields of education, local scholarship, or religion, and whose names resonate in local memory (e.g., Vakina Soulounia, The Teacher ). This continues to be the case today.

Food Science And Technology The Profession

The reason the specified curriculum became a standard arises from the fact the IFT put teeth into a related program. The IFT awards approximately 145 scholarships (4). IFT scholarships can go only to universities that have a curriculum conforming to IFT's minimum requirements, and, furthermore, not only must the scholarship holder be at a university conforming to the IFT's minimum undergraduate curriculum, s he must be following that curriculum. Many food science and technology departments have more than one curriculum. At the University of Georgia, for example, there is an environmental public health program administered by the Food Science and Technology

Toward a Useful Jurisprudence

Mapping and exploring the relation of law and politics. Although the useful kind of legal scholarship recommended is scarce, it is not entirely absent there is exciting work being done by - and this should come as no surprise -women and people of color. For instance, in the English context, for every Smith and Hogan, there is a Lacey and Wells for every Treitel and Beatson, there is a Wheeler and Shaw and for every Salmond and Street, there is a Conaghan and Mansell. In particular, in contrast to Smith and Hogan's scholarship, the feminist-inspired work of Nicola Lacey and Celia Wells is a breath of fresh air They are truly interdisciplinary, making explicit their operative assumptions, moving socially relevant issues from margin to center, and focusing on the theoretical in the best practical sense.28

Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

Reza Shah Pahlavi wanted to educate women and bring them into the public sphere as a significant symbol of Iranian modernization and westernization. His father even outlawed women's veils and scarfs for a time, forcing most women to stay at home rather than expose themselves. Until the Iranian Revolution of February 11, 1979, Iranian women, especially of the middle and upper classes, were gaining literacy, education, and jobs in the modern public sector, and even traveling abroad for education. Many women, especially in middle- and upper-class urban areas, wore chic Western fashions rather than veils or even scarves. Courtship, marriage, nuclear family organization, level of control of parents, status and power of women, gender and family laws, and women's public roles were all being transformed. Then, with the formation of the Islamic Republic of Iran, conservative clerics attempted to reverse the changes in gender and sexuality, reestablishing sex segregation, females' family roles,...

Patterns Of Perpetrators And Victims

This significant gender difference has long been a focus of scholarship in the area of therapist-patient sex but is still not well understood. Holroyd and Brodsky's report (1977) of the first national study of therapist-patient sex concluded with a statement of major issues that had yet to be resolved Three professional issues remain to be

The Culture of Divorce

The long history of family fragility notwithstanding, however, sophisticated scholarship now identifies divorce as a source of instability particularly threatening to children's well being. Sociological and ethnographic studies appearing since the mid-1990s suggest that the fate of the family of origin is of systematic and enduring importance to many central features of children's lives, and that the damage ensuing from divorce has a strong tendency to reach well into adulthood, at least in contemporary American culture. Judith S. Wallerstein, Julia M. Lewis, and Sandra Blakeslee argue in The Unexpected Legacy of Divorce (2000) that divorce impairs children's ability to consolidate their identities as mature adults and to form their own enduring intimate relations, in a way that is apparently different and seemingly graver than other forms of familial disruption and reconfiguration. Some of this damage would seem to be a function of features that often attend divorce the subsequent...

Jurisprudential Reading

A less celebrated but more explicit effort to utilize Gadamer's work in jurisprudence is that of Jay Mootz. In a series of learned and lengthy pieces, he has striven to present a sophisticated account of legal hermeneutics that plays out in more detail and rigor the implications of Gadamer's approach for law and adjudication. The great strength of Mootz's scholarship is that it has familiarized American theorists with Gadamer's work and has made a forcible case for its relevance to current problems of legal knowledge and judicial method he makes Gadamer's work accessible and useful, but he retains its subtlety and richness. For Mootz, Gadamer's major contribution to jurisprudence is the insistence that law is a rhetorical practice and that any effort to appreciate adjudication must recognize the important role that rhetoric plays in fashioning and critiquing legal knowledge. Nonetheless, although his earlier work retained the possibility of a more radical reading of Gadamer, his most...

Genetics and the Legal Conception of Self

Much feminist legal scholarship has attempted to critique the legal concept of selfhood for its reliance upon an artifice of physical boundedness and unity. Feminists who reject the law's embrace of a self produced in response to what Lacan called the lure of spatial identification 1 (Lacan 1977 5 Meek 1998) do so because the political, social, and legal consequences that follow from this ascription of selfhood work against the bodies of women. Women's bodies, it is argued, are least able to conform to an optics of the skin, particularly in the context of pregnancy. Unbounded corporeality is not however, confined to women's bodies. Haraway, for instance, points out that in these days of biotechnological seeing, even the most reliable Western individuated bodies . . . neither stop nor start at the skin, which is itself something of a teeming jungle threatening illicit fusions (Haraway 1991 215). The self is a construct that extends beyond the limits of the physical by simply being in...

Choices for the Future

A renewal of a sense of community and a careful balancing of values will be necessary in achieving a reasonable solution. Although the future is unclear, the United States probably will reconsider policies for rational allocation between healthcare and other sectors of the economy, government regulation to require universal and equitable access to defined basic insurance policies, mandated employer-based insurance with a publicly financed safety net, payment based on capitation with some adjustment for the severity of illness in a specific group of patients, and incentives (including scholarships and loan forgiveness) for providers who choose to provide primary care in shortage areas.

Nurturant Supportive Affectionate Loving and Warm Parenting

Necessarily the same thing as caring about them. And contemporary scholarship frequently asserts that qualitative factors such as paternal warmth, support, or nurturance are more important for children's development than factors such as the simple amount of time fathers spend in child care (Cabrera, Tamis-LeMonda, & Bradley et al., 2000 Lamb, 1986, 1997, 2000 Lamb & Oppenheim, 1989 Lamb, Pleck, Charnov, & Levine, 1987 Pleck, 1997 Shulman & Collins, 1993).

A2 Short biographies of scientists mentioned in this book

Alper, Tikvah South Africa, 1909-1995. Born as fourth daughter of an immigrant from Russia she obtained a scholarship to study Physics at Capetown University, where she received her M.A. at the age of 20. She then moved to Germany, where she worked on the -rays from a-particles with L. Meitner but failed to obtain a PhD because growing

Programs Of The Institute

The IFT has had a strong, active awards program since 1942, when the first of the Nicholas Appert Awards was given, and a scholarship fellowship program since 1954 (1). In 1946 the Marcel Loncin Research Price carrying an award of 10,000 was initiated (2). Aside from the Nicholas Appert Award, considered the most prestigious of the awards, there are 11 other major awards for such things as excellence in teaching, significant contributions made to improved public health through nutrition, significant contributions to lipid or flavor science, international award for transfer of knowledge, and an award for technical contributions toward advancement of the food industry. Carrying no monetary award but considered a signal honor is election as a Fellow of the Institute. In 1997-1998, the IFT awarded 17 freshman scholarships varying from 1000 to 1500, 15 sophomore schol arships in the same award range, 63 scholarships to juniors or seniors with the range of 1000 to 2000 each, and 38...

Cultural Construction of Gender

One of the major problems with discussing gender among Puerto Ricans on the island is the limited research on gender as the central point of analysis across many subject areas. Some gender research areas such as women's and men's experiences and contributions to the labor force have amassed more attention and empirical research than other areas of gender scholarship, such as gender roles within marriage, the family, across the life-span, leisure, arts, sports, and sexuality. Moreover, there is a long history of scholarship that has created pathological models on Puerto Rican families. Although this scholarship is currently being challenged, it provides the basis

Anthropology and the Study of Biomedical Technology

A broad range of clinical issues and public health concerns have been addressed by anthropologists, including end-of-life decision making, definitions of death, human organ and tissue transplantation therapies, disclosure of medical information, informed consent for medical treatment, reproductive technologies, genetic testing and screening, human rights, and treatment of human subjects in biomedical research. Scholars working at the boundary of anthropology and the field of science and technology studies have been central to evolving scholarship. A systematic review of the contributions of anthropologists to bioethics, and to our understanding of the moral dimensions of human suffering more generally, is beyond the scope of this review (see Marshall and Koenig 1996). Instead, several areas in which anthropologists have focused a cultural lens on moral problems in medicine are highlighted.

The role of model systems

However, in order to study developmental mechanisms during the crucial stages of morphogenesis and organogenesis we are, of necessity, obliged to use animal model systems. In Chapters 7-17 you will find reference to work using embryonic systems as diverse as zebrafish, Xenopus, chick and mouse. Are we to view these simply as models or research surrogates for the human embryo (see discussion by Monk, 1994) In fact, developmental research is often driven by reasons of scholarship, and animal models are more typically studied for their own intrinsic interest, in the context of comparative biology and evolution (Bard, 1993). Nevertheless, several essential concepts that have significantly enhanced our understanding of human dysmorphol-ogy have emerged from analysis of animal model systems the developmental field concept, as applied to dysmorphogenesis (Opitz, 1985), and chromosomal imprinting (Harwell imprinting site plus Otago site for human imprinted genes Monk, 1994 see Chapter 2) are...

Rural Emergency Medical Services

The provision of lifesaving services on a volunteer basis entails particular obstacles. Daytime coverage for service is a challenge because most volunteers or part-time personnel have other full-time employment. As a result, many services hire a cadre of full-time providers to respond during business hours. Dispatching volunteers from home or work directly to the scene may be one method of providing daytime coverage and reducing response times.18 Recruitment and retention of providers is an ongoing problem. To address it, volunteer services may be able to provide incentives, such as retirement benefits, death benefits, and scholarships for volunteers and their children. Undoubtedly, the most powerful incentive for EMS volunteers is the fellowship bonds that develop within volunteer EMS agencies.

Awards Programs

AOAC provides annual awards for scientific achievement, scientific potential, and service to the association. AOAC's most prestigious award, The Harvey W. Wiley Award, is presented each year to a scientist (or group of scientists) who has made an outstanding contribution to analytical methodology in an area of interest to the Association. AOAC's annual scholarship award is given to a worthy upper-level undergraduate or graduate student majoring in a field of study that supports the mission of the Associ-


Sergey Ilyin graduated with distinction from the St. Petersburg State University in Russia with a combined B.Sc. M.Sc. degree in 1993. Following a fellowship at the Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, he received an award from the Soros Foundation and accepted a full scholarship at the University of Delaware. Ilyin graduated from the University of Delaware with a Ph.D. degree in molecular biology neuroimmunology under the mentorship of Professor Carlos R. Plata-Salaman, D.Sc., M.D., an expert in neurosciences with a focus in brain cytokine research. In this research, Ilyin described, for the first time, the integrative regulation of the brain interleukin-1 system under various pathophysiological conditions and in the induction and progression of anorexia in various models.

Workin Progress

In contrast to traditional accounts, I want to provide an account of the common law that is thoroughly profane and that cleanses the strong flavour of secularised theology, noble alchemy, and occult science 21 that still lingers in traditional renderings of the common law's performance and development. While I still want to emphasize the dynamic quality of the common law as a historical process, the claim that the common law is or ever was a rational body of organized rules enforced by the doctrinal dictates of stare decisis is entirely belied by the historical data, the sociological record, and philosophical analysis. Resorting to precedent and its binding procedural force is often a convenient tool to preserve the status quo for other more substantive reasons. When it is viewed from a more robustly pragmatic stance, a better understanding of the common law's operation is found in an account that emphasizes how its development is contingent upon social and historical circumstances...

The Controversies

The anthropological study of life-course transitions has not been without a history of controversy, particularly in the research on male adolescent initiation rites. J. W. M. Whiting, Kluckhohn, & Anthony (1958) first viewed the rituals as related to certain psychological factors. In response to criticism of this interpretation and as a result of further analysis, and also reflecting a changed approach within anthropology itself, a later publication (J. W. M. Whiting, 1964) took other, especially ecological, variables into account. Today's scholarship on life-course transitions is also involved in anthropological controversies. The first is between scholars who advocate a more evolutionary biological approach and those whose approach stresses the cultural. Following the example of Ember (1981), the present essay will attempt to present both views. The second controversy concerns ritual observances (largely outlawed in their own countries) such as the genital mutilation of girls and...


In recent years a growing number of anthropologists have turned their attention to the discipline of biomedical ethics. Bioethics traces its origins as a distinct field to the styles of reasoning and reflection found within analytic philosophy and legal scholarship. In its early decades, work in bioethics relied heavily on principle-based analysis, an approach that often led to critiques of the moral dimensions of healthcare practice divorced from underlying social, cultural and political context. Often called the empirical turn in bioethics, social scientists utilizing diverse theoretical and methodological programs have questioned approaches to healthcare ethics that fail to account for context (Weisz Hoffmaster, 2001 DeVries and Subedi Brodwin, 2000).


While it might be true that law and legal scholarship, like all stories, are haunted by the ghosts of the stories they might have been, 42 law remains thoroughly spooked by the jurisprudential phantoms of what it could and should never be. A more appropriate response to such jurisprudential fantasizing is not awe-induced toleration but a defiant and decisive act of ghost busting. The hold of Creationism rests on the fear that evolution undercuts all traditional values and suggests that everything is up for grabs. It is somehow assumed that, without values to ground them, people will be lost and adrift. Yet, without fealty to God or other lesser deities, there need be

Of Darwin and Dogs

Although, like Wilberforce, Thomas Henry Huxley was a thoroughly nineteenth-century man, his life followed a different Victorian trajectory. Born in 1825 to a large and relatively poor family, he lived to achieve great success and widespread popularity until his death in 1895. Despite his lack of formal education, he managed to become proficient in a range of subjects -science, history, philosophy, and German - and, with the help of his brother-in-law, secured a medical apprenticeship. With a scholarship to Charing Cross Hospital, he set out on a career that was take him both across various disciplines and up through the hierarchy of nineteenth-century science. Having graduated in 1846 from London University with a gold medal for anatomy and physiology, Huxley entered the Royal Navy and worked as an assistant surgeon on the H.M.S. Rattlesnake. In a parallel move to Darwin's own life path, his four-year voyage took him through the South Seas, where he examined and collected an...

Radical Charges

In making this plea for a more useful jurisprudence, I ought not to be taken as part of the mainstream chorus for a shift in legal theory and scholarship. Although some maintain that the past twenty years have been a golden age for legal scholarship, others have argued strenuously that it has been a lamentable phase in which practical relevance has been sacrificed to theoretical indulgence. For instance, Justice Bastarache of the Supreme Court of Canada urges a move away from the kind of analytical legal theory that functions in terms of abstract, logically coherent, formal conceptual systems and promotes stability and coherent changeability by affecting the substantive content of rights and by providing a rational basis for judicial decision-making. He laments such a preoccupation on three grounds. First, he maintains that such a jurisprudential perspective presupposes a metaphysically untenable idea of objective moral truth. Second, he highlights the fact that such theorizing is...

Conceptual Analysis

In the United States and other Western societies, the values of privacy, confidentiality, and privileged communications are closely tied to the values of personal rights and self-determination. These rights include freedom from the intrusion of others into one's private life, thoughts, conduct, or relationships. Interest in protection of personal rights has grown in response to public and private surveillance of individuals through the use of data bases to collect, store, and transmit information about individuals (Flaherty). In the United States the ideas of privacy and confidentiality have generated much legal and philosophical scholarship, influenced important judicial decisions, and prompted federal and state legislation (Winslade and Ross). The legal doctrine and ethical ideal of informed consent in healthcare reinforces the importance of personal autonomy (Beauchamp and Childress). The right to informed consent, applied specifically to confidentiality, gives patients clients the...


In traditional legal scholarship, commentators analyze a large number of cases for trends or focus on a few leading cases to suggest both the doctrinal implications of the decisions or ways in which the decision could be improved. In litigation, not all cases are created equal. Some cases, by virtue of the reputation of the particular court or judge, because they may set precedent, are the subject of extensive scholarly commentary, or are cited by other courts, become more important than other cases. We used both methods in our analysis, in part because of Fox v. HealthNet's large influence and public prominence.

Truths and Methods

Casaubon's Ghosts The Haunting of Legal Scholarship, 21 Legal Studies 65 (2001). Hermeneutics concerns itself with language and thought. It is an attempt to explore that space between words and thoughts in which confusion and misunderstanding can take hold. It is not only that there is an ineradicable gap between ideas and utterance, it is that each seems to inhabit the other so thoroughly that one does not stand prior to or independent from the other. Ideas and words are, if not entirely reducible to each other, so intertwined that any attempt to concentrate on one without the other is destined to result in less, not more, understanding. All of this would be difficult enough if such efforts took place in immediate, face-to-face encounters in a static world, but they become even more problematic when it is recalled that they occur in a world constantly on the move. This means that intentions, words, meanings, and ideas begin to slip and slide. As communication is a social practice,...


As the golf coach for a university, you have many parents sending you videotapes of their children for potential scholarship consideration. These daddy videos can be a nuisance, but you qualitatively analyze the swings of the golfers on them for potential players you might have missed. This information combined with the player's performance in high school and tournaments will help you decide what athletes should be offered scholarships. The technique points and biomechanical principles of the full golf swing you use to analyze swings are presented in Table 10.4. For the player

Paint It Black

Much legal scholarship continues to operate within the cramping and pervasive spirit of a 'black-letter' mentality. By this, I mean the tendency of lawyers to focus almost exclusively on formal material in a way that rarely gets beyond a taxonomic stock taking. Originally a typographical term, 'black-letter law' was used to refer to rudimentary principles that were printed in boldface type in traditional law texts.12 However, it has come to designate an approach to law that claims to concentrate on narrow statements of what the law is and eschews resort to any extradoctrinal considerations of policy or context The textual formulation of the law is regnant and is treated as a world unto itself. In scholarly terms, the limited aim of black-letterism is to identify, analyze, organize, and synthesize extant rules into a coherent and integrated whole there is much talk of As and Bs in illustrative exegesis with almost no reference to political context or social identity....

Making Sense

Insofar as reported cases comprise the residual depository of common law wisdom, the system amounts to little more than chaos with an index. 5 However, I maintain that it is possible to offer a sensible account that suggests that there is little global coherence to law even if there are local and contingent patches of sense. While the law takes shape by virtue of a series of creative and purposeful local interventions, the sheer number of these interventions and the bewildering complexity of the changing circumstances in which they are made render them unpredictable. Of course, it is merely sloppy scholarship to announce without more that law is chaotic, undisciplined, and unpredictable. Any account that suggests that law is beyond rational and compelling organization bears a heavy burden of demonstration. However, it is not simply a cop-out to urge that law is indeed chaotic and undisciplined, provided that this conclusion is reached after extensive study and scrutiny. It is my...


We are grateful to a number of colleagues for their assistance with the ever changing taxonomy of fungi, and drawing attention to relevant literature Manfred Binder, Jack Fell, Ludmilla Marvanova and Peter Molitoris Jack Fell for his willing assistance and readiness to answer questions on the ecology of aquatic yeasts to Aisyah Alias for permission to reproduce data on the ecology of mangrove basidiomycetes from her Ph. D. thesis to Kaoru Yamaguchi, Yousuke Degawa and Akira Nakagiri for permission to refer to their data on Peyronelina glomerulata to Tsutomu Hattori for the tentative identification of Phellinus species on Xylocarpus granatum to Morakot Tanticharoen and Kanyawim Kirtikara (BIOTEC) for continued support and for the financial support of BRT research grants R_245002 and R_248002 to enable the study of Thai marine fungi. RC thanks TIGIST for the award of a research scholarship and Somtawin Jaritkhuan for her continued support.

The Ift Foundation

The newest of the IFT's endeavors was the establishment of a foundation to provide financial support for IFT programs such as scholarships and the Science Communications Program, to augment funds going into the Career Guidance Program, and, most recently, to underwrite the expenses of the IFT funding a Science Congressional Fellow. So far, the Congressional Science Fellows have spent one year each as an assistant to a senator or a representative. The foundation supports jointly with the IFT 129 scholarships fellowships and recently provided most of the funding to distribute 5312 career videos to schools. During the past year the science communicators responded to more than 1000 inquiries from the media. More than 20 continuing education courses were given, and a food science course has been established on the World Wide Web.

Wayne A Bower

The future of CT with inpatients is very uncertain. With changes in treatment philosophies and a continued drive to reduce inpatient length of stay, there will need to be a reanalysis of how to implement CT in a shorter-term framework. It may be more fruitful to design CT interventions for specific disorders based on what outpatient care will be offered when an individual is discharged from a hospital. Additionally, its use with depression and or anxiety disorders may be more beneficial when CT is integrated into a day or partial hospital program. There is also a need to produce more research in this area. Specifically, in the United States there will be a need to draw on our current resources to assess if there remains a useful role for CT for depression and or anxiety in a short hospital admission. More scholarship is also needed to understand the role of CT with inpatients and the expansion of CT into the newly created models for health care. CT will remain a force in health care...