Shock horror start of the modern story 1974 and Summerlin

The modern story really starts only in 1974 when, at the Sloan-Kettering institute in New York, William Summerlin faked transplantation results, darkening transplanted skin patches in white mice with a black felt-tip pen, and alleging that human corneas had been successfully transplanted into rabbits. Sir Peter Medawar, who was present at the latter demonstration, has given a good and amusing account of prevailing attitudes at the time, which led fellow scientists to keep quiet about results...

The concept of scientific dishonesty ethics value systems and research

I have been interested in the problem of scientific dishonesty ever since the classic cases occurred in the USA and elsewhere from the mid-1980s onwards, and later with my involvement in the formation of the Danish central committee (undertaken before we had ever had a recent major case in the country). Here, however, I want to take a much broader look at the whole question, in particular trying to put it into the broader context of biomedical ethics. The three concepts in my subtitle appear...

Man of Australia humbled 1988 and William McBride

Among the first to describe the teratogenic effects of thalidomide on the human fetus,William McBride, a Sydney obstetrician, had been honoured by a national subscription enabling him to set up and direct a private research institute, Foundation 41. Here in 1982 a junior scientist, Phil Vardy, asked his boss about a large number of discrepancies between the details printed in a paper in the Australian Journal of Biological Sciences and those in the experiments on rabbits he had participated in....

5 Scientific Misconducts With Reference

Joint consensus conference on misconduct in biomedical research. Proc R Coll Physicians Edinb 2000 30(Suppl. 7). 2 Kevles DJ. The Baltimore case a trial of politics, science, and character. New'York Norton, 1987. 3 Medawar P. Advice to a young scientist. Cambridge Harper and Row, 1979. 4 Broad W,Wade N. Betrayers of the truth. New York Simon and Schuster, 1982. 5 Kohn A. False prophets. Oxford Blackwell, 1986. 6 Association of American Medical Colleges. The maintenance of high...

Motivation and pressures that may have a role in research misconduct

In the UK the relatively recent introduction of the peer reviewed rating of research, the Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) within academic institutions and the consequent effect on the allocation of resources brings its own new scrutinies and pressures on research performance. Furthermore, the number of publications rather than any inherent assessment of quality is often used in NHS and academic appointment committees, so that financial pressure becomes inherent in these processes. Until the...

Methods for detecting problems

Haemoglobin Pattern Analysis

In some senses the methods for detection of problems are simply an extension of the usual methods for checking data, combined with an awareness of the characteristics shown by altered and fabricated data. There are some purely statistical methods, and some graphical methods, which supplement the numerical ones. Familiarity with the research subject is also important, which will be true from medical investigator and referee, but may not be true for the statistician analysing the data. This...

Stefanie Stegemannboehl

In 1997 the German scientific community was stirred by strong suspicions that 47 papers by two high-flying cancer researchers, Friedhelm Herrmann and Marion Brach, included fabricated data.1 So far, misconduct in science had been considered a sign of decadence of the New World. But all of a sudden, the topic aroused the interest of prestigious German research organisations as well as of journalists, deans, rectors, presidents, and even public prosecutors. Several local commissions and a joint...

References

Forged consensus science, technology, and economic policy in the United States, 1921-1953. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press, 1998. 2 Kleinman DL. Politics on the endless frontier postwar research policy in the United States. Durham, NC Duke University Press, 1995. 3 Smith BLR. American science policy since World War II. Washington, DC Brookings Institution, 1990. 4 Bush V. Science - The endless frontier, a report to the president on a program for postwar scientific research....

Erosion of trust

Acts of faked or misrepresented scientific and technical data, falsified professional credentials, misidentification of authorship, and plagiarism are neither contemporary inventions, nor limited to any one research field or national research system.712 When problems have been uncovered, scientists around the world tend to act much the same they characterise the offender as aberrant, the episode as isolated, and the behaviour as probably prompted by stress, bad judgment, moral corruption, or...

Who commits fraud and their motivation

Anyone who has access to or is responsible for collecting, transcribing, reporting, or monitoring data and is motivated to cheat may commit fraud. The motivations to commit fraud are as varied as human personalities. Since the 1960s, more than 300 allegations have been reported to federal officials, including 40 clinical investigations audited by the FDA that have been classified as false information. Unfortunately, there is limited public awareness of fraudulent scientific medical research...

Examination of recent cases of clinical research fraud in the US3

Dr Robert Fiddes, President of Southern California Research Institute, falsified multiple clinical studies during 1992-96. Dr Fiddes ignored protocol inclusion criteria and either enrolled patients into the trial by falsifying medical history and consequently endangering patients or Table 7.1 FDA regulatory actions clinical investigators. Table 7.1 FDA regulatory actions clinical investigators. Notice of Initiation of Disqualification Proceedings and Opportunity to Explain. bOne resolved in...

The case of the Liverpool GP

In 1990 and early 1991 a pharmaceutical company undertook a multicentre Phase II III clinical trial, intended as a pivotal registration study, for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.The trial was conducted to standards of Good Clinical Research Practice, and included an assessment of haematology and biochemistry patients were required to complete diary cards.10 The company recruited a number of general practitioners to conduct this study including a Dr P Daengsvang of...

The case of the partners in Leeds

During 1989, a contract research organisation was commissioned by three different pharmaceutical companies to undertake a series of clinical trials in general practice. The first of these was on a new product for the treatment of hypertension the second was a multicentre paediatric asthma trial and the third was also a multicentre trial on a product for the treatment of asthma.10 The contract research company recruited Drs CJ Chandnani and CJ Vishin, in partnership in Rothwell, Leeds, amongst...

Three classic US cases 1979 and Vijay Soman 1981 and John Darsee 1985 and Robert Slutsky

Soman was an assistant professor of medicine at the Yale School of Medicine, who plagiarised parts of a manuscript sent in 1978 by the New England Journal of Medicine for peer review to his boss, Philip Felig, who passed the job on to him. Subsequently Soman and Felig published an article on the same topic, insulin binding in anorexia nervosa, in the American Journal of Medicine. Accused of plagiarism and conflict of interest, Felig seemed to settle the difficulties by stating that the work had...

Regulations on scientific misconduct lessons from the US experience

DRUMMOND RENNIE, C KRISTINA GUNSALUS In November 2000, a conference was held in Bethesda, MD, to present research into scientific integrity.1 The research presented was modest, but the importance of this conference was not in the quality of the research. It lay in the fact that the conference was being held at all. In 1988, one of the authors DR had proposed, at a meeting of the National Academy of Sciences NAS in Washington, DC, some modest experiments to determine the prevalence of major...