A European code of practice developed with the support of a European body (for example, European Science Foundation) would help member states, including France, to establish their own system. This harmonised model of a national committee15 concerning scientific integrity should subsequently be adapted to the culture of each country and the type of research. It could include a common definition of fraud and misconduct; a framework for good science practice, ethics in sciences, guidelines and procedures on different items; it should also describe the activities, composition, functioning of a committee dealing with the allegations of fraud and misconduct. The Nordic model,16 which is the convergence of procedures of the four Nordic countries, would be a good basis. It would seem preferable that this national committee should function as an aid to the plaintiff, maintaining a purely consultative role.
An educational programme on ethics in science and good research practice should be a priority for the European countries who have not so far addressed this question. France is among these countries.
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