The concept of scientific misconduct was defined by the experts as follows: "Scientific misconduct can vary in its seriousness, from insufficient rigor in collecting or presenting data through the deliberate intention to falsify scientific findings or the conditions under which the data were gathered, which constitutes fraud." Even if misconduct does not result from a wilful act, it reveals incompetence that must be analysed and dealt with.
Treatment of such misconduct must be appropriate to its gravity, either by establishing preventive procedures to avoid minor violations or by disciplinary procedures in cases of serious misconduct.
The UK Medical Research Council, on the other hand, defines11 "scientific integrity... concerned with being true to the vocation of science and not engaging in plagiarism, selection, enhancement or fabrication of results." This difference in the definition and approach of the question emphasises the difference between the British and French cultures in handling the problem of scientific misconduct.
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