Research misconduct is fabrication or falsification in proposing, designing, performing, recording, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results. Research misconduct does not include honest error or honest differences of opinion.
In a report by the US Office of Research Integrity of 1000 investigations received between 1993 and 1997, falsification was the most frequent type of misconduct and accounted for 43% of the investigations.2 In combination with fabrication3 and/or plagiarism, falsification represents the most frequent type of alleged misconduct. Half of the biomedical researchers accused of scientific fraud in the US and subjected to formal investigations were guilty of misconduct.
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