Improving Self Confidence

Quantum Confidence With The Morry Method

Song Chengxiang is a psychologist, and the developer of Quantum Confidence With TMM, and this man also has experienced the Morry Method brainwave entrainment technology. With the Quantum Confidence System you get a series of recordings, dont confuse yourself. Its not music. Its a finely honed and sculpted frequency that have been carefully arranged in such a way as to have a profound and beneficial effect when used regularly with or without headphones. Your confidence is packed in CDs of four modules. Thats the entire Quantum Confidence System that is going to change your life forever. The Morry Method let learners release specific combinations of endorphins, neurotransmitters, together with hormones that bring specific results and benefits. Besides, The Morry Method utilizes unique, and more powerful isochronic and monaural tones. The author explains that these special brainwave entrainment tones have more uniform wave shapes. This system must be considered much in the same way, it is important once you get to the point where you want to be that you keep up a maintenance routine, a routine designed to maintain your results, without it you definitely run the risk of returning to the state that you were in previous to your use of the Quantum Confidence system. More here...

Quantum Confidence System Summary

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Nonemotional Feelings Confidence Pride and Self Esteem

In the final design (Comer & Laird, 1975), the participants were recruited for a study of psychophysiological reactions to various tasks. A few weeks before their actual participation, they responded to some questionnaires, including a self-esteem measure. When they arrived for the experiment, they were first reminded forcefully that they were of course free to terminate their participation at any time, for any reason. Then it was explained that we had a variety of tasks and that they would be randomly assigned to one. They would perform it, and then we would go into the adjacent room to obtain psychophysiological recordings of heart rate, skin conductance, and so on. Was that OK Everyone said yes, of course. Two of the three ways in which people made sense of the worm eating were to change directly their self-concepts and self-esteem. Some people thought of themselves as making sacrifices for science, and they endorsed items that described themselves in more positive terms after...

Selfesteem Social Comparison And Response To Personal Cues

After viewing their assigned picture set, the women responded to a self-esteem scale and a body satisfaction measure and provided an open-ended description of their feelings while viewing the pictures. Finally, they responded to a paper-and-pencil version of the expression manipulation procedure to determine the level of their response to personal cues. The women who were less responsive to personal cues apparently identified with the women in the pictures. When the women who were less responsive to personal cues viewed the superslender models, they reported higher self-esteem, higher body satisfaction, and more positive emotional reactions than did those who viewed the normal-weight women. The exact opposite occurred among the women who were more responsive to personal cues. They reported significantly lower self-esteem, lower body satisfaction, and more negative emotions if they viewed the pictures of su-perslender models. In sum, two studies have demonstrated changes in self-esteem...

Cognitive Model Of Low Selfesteem

The development and maintenance of low self-esteem can be understood in terms of a cognitive model (Fennell, 1997) closely based on A. T. Beck's original cognitive model of emotional disorder (Beck, 1976). The model, together with an example, is illustrated in Figure 1. It suggests that the essence of low self-esteem resides in negative core beliefs about the self (the Bottom Line), which derive from an interaction between inborn

Treating Low Selfesteem

Interventions are designed to target elements of the cognitive model in a systematic sequence. However, the exact order of events, and the relative emphasis given to different elements, will vary from patient to patient. The rule of thumb is to start with maintaining processes, relating specific day-to-day changes to background assumptions and beliefs, but waiting to work on these broader issues until the therapeutic relationship is firmly established and the patient has a sound grasp of the principles and practice of CBT and is able to work effectively with painful emotions. Specific, concrete changes are generally easier to achieve than transformation of longstanding cognitive structures, and so encourage engagement and hope. Equally, it may be the case that self-esteem is restored by working on presenting problems, especially if the implications of particular assignments are explicitly related back to assumptions and core beliefs (e.g., What does that experiment tell us about how...

Selfesteem

Enhancing the self-esteem of sexual offenders and other paraphilics is seen as essential to facilitating a commitment to the treatment process as well as bolstering the client's confidence that he can manage a problem-free life. Although currently available evidence indicates that these clients are lacking in a sense of self-worth, the enhancement of their self-esteem is both possible and facilitates changes in various other treatment targets. It is best to initiate procedures to enhance self-esteem as early as possible in treatment (or even in pretreatment programs) as it is difficult, for example, to challenge distortions effectively unless the client has the confidence to accept that there are other ways of construing his world.

Methodologies for Implicating Socialization Factors

Of sex-inappropriate ones, especially for boys. Across cultures, girls tend to be less different in their behavior than boys, and experience a less radical transformation upon entering adolescence (Schlegel & Barry, 1991). In many different cultures, mothers begin training daughters to behave properly and to help with tasks before they do so with sons (B. B. Whiting & Edwards, 1988). Girls are generally socialized to be nurturant, and boys to strive for achievement and self-reliance (Barry, Bacon, & Child, 1957 Hoyenga & Hoyenga, 1993 Welch & Page, 1981).

Emotional Sex Differences Not Based on Inventories

Sex differences are also evident in research that involves emotion-related behaviors. For example, Widen and Russell (2002) reported that the assignment of emotion to a figure in a story told to preschoolers depended on whether the figure was identified as male or female (e.g., disgust was more often attributed to the male figure by boys). In a different domain, MacGeorge, Clark, and Gillihan (2002) reported that women's provision of emotional support to a person in a troubling situation was more person-centered than that of men, and that women had a greater sense of self-efficacy in providing emotional support.

Metacognition and selfregulation

An important aspect of self-regulation is a sense of personal agency. Some see self-efficacy as integral to self-regulation, on the grounds that not only must the individual have knowledge of skills for appropriate functioning but they must also believe that they can perform these skills in the attainment of desired ends (Creer, 2000). Others, (e.g. Endler and Kocovski, 2000) see self-efficacy as an important factor in self-regulation, but do not conceive this as a subordinate or componen-tial element. Despite their different theoretical and conceptual positions, most researchers appear to agree that self-regulation should be viewed as a systematic process involving the setting of personal goals and the subsequent channelling of one's behaviour towards their achievement. Zimmerman (1995, 2000) points out that an emphasis upon personal agency helps us to distinguish between metacognition that 'emphasises only knowledge states and deductive reasoning when, for example, choosing...

Psychological Femininity

Is religiosity a matter of psychological femininity, rather than sex roles and gender Thompson (1991) found that both men and women who had a feminine self-image, on the Bem Sex Role Inventory, were more religious, especially as measured by prayer and other devotional activities. In a study of 411 undergraduates, Mercer and Durham (1999) found that those with a feminine or androgynous orientation, of both sexes, were higher on a mysticism scale.

Differences in Socialization

Just as important as personality styles may be the different ways in which boys and girls are socialized. Barry, Bacon, and Child (1957) found that nearly all cultures emphasize nurturance, obedience, and responsibility for girls, while boys are trained for self-reliance and independence. T he socialization of women is said to emphasize conflict resolution, submission, gentleness, nurturance, and other expressive values that are congruent with religious emphases. By contrast, the more instrumental emphases in male socialization are said to make religion less consonant with male roles, values, and self-images. (de Vaus & MacAllister, 1987, p. 472)

Methods For Studying Feelings

In fact, self-reports are like any measure of an entity that is not directly observable by the scholar's senses. Confidence in any measure of a complex, abstract entity develops through construct validation. That is, we make theoretically guided predictions about how the underlying entity and its measurement would relate to other measures or events in the world. To the extent that our measures behave in the way that the theory predicted, we gain some confidence in each component, the theory that made the prediction, the theoretical construct that was part of this theory, and the practical measurement of this construct. For example, self-perception theory predicted that women who were more responsive to personal cues would report feeling lowered self-confidence while reading women's magazines (Wilcox & Laird, 2000). When we found that after reading the magazine, the predicted group of women responded to a self-esteem scale with lower scores, we felt more confident about our theory,...

Adaptive Nonresponding Theory See Sleep Theories Of

In general, addiction relates to almost any substance or activity where individuals uncontrollably may be compelled drawn to things such as food, gambling, play, sex, smoking, buying, and work. In particular, addiction in our society originally was related to a state of periodic or chronic intoxication and cognitive-function disruption produced by the repeated consumption of a natural or synthetic drug for which one has an overwhelming need or desire compulsion, and involves the tendency to increase the dosage level, to show higher tolerances with increased usage, and to demonstrate difficulties when attempting to withdraw from the substance where there is always psychic and physical dependence on the effects of the drug or substance. There appears to be no single addictive personality type, and specific ethnic, familial, peer, inter- and intrapersonal, environmental, constitutional, and genetic factors contribute collectively to one's vulnerability to...

Beliefs About Appearance

The next step is to assess what the patient's assumptions are about the defects or the image they experience. What personal meaning does it have for him What effect does his failure to achieve the aesthetic standard he demands have on his life Patients may have difficulty in articulating the meaning but a downward arrow technique can usually identify such assumptions. After eliciting the most dominant emotion associated with thinking about the defect, the therapist inquires about what is the most shameful (or other emotion) aspect of the defect. For example, the patient might believe that having a defective nose will mean that he will end up alone and unloved. For another person, the meaning of flaws in his facial skin is the feeling of disgust at being dirty and the consequent fear of humiliation. It is important to identify such assumptions as they, rather than the immediate beliefs about the defect, are a focus of cognitive therapy and behavioral experiments. Some patients may have...

Value to Industry and Research

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition characterized by inattention and or impulsivity and hyperactivity that begins in children prior to the age of seven. Their inattention leads to daydreaming, distractibility, and difficulties sustaining effort on a single task for a prolonged period of time. Their impulsivity disrupts classrooms and creates problems with peers, as they blurt out answers, interrupt others, or shift from schoolwork to inappropriate activities. Their hyperactivity is frustrating to those around them and poorly tolerated at school. Children with ADHD show academic underachievement and conduct problems. As they grow older, they are at risk for low self-esteem, poor peer relationships, conflict with parents, delinquency, smoking, and substance abuse.

Cognitivebehavioral Model Of Bulimia Nervosa Precipitation And Maintenance

And manipulation of body weight and shape. BN-related dysfunctional beliefs occur in several domains, including (a) body weight expectation, (b) meaning of body weight and shape, and (c) food and eating pattern. In particular, persons with BN often hold unrealistic expectations for how low their own body weight should be, and believe that acquiring a specific (usually thin) body appearance will result in a host of desired consequences (e.g., increased interpersonal popularity and prowess, increased self-esteem, decreased negative emotion). Thus, obtaining the ideal body is viewed as a principal strategy for achieving idiosyncratically defined positive life outcomes and coping with or solving life problems. Dietary restriction is employed in an attempt to conform the body to ideal specifications. Dietary restriction typically includes restricting how often food is eaten, how much food is eaten, and what types of foods are eaten. This restrictive eating pattern results in both...

Description Of Treatment

There are important advantages to offering behavior therapy in a group setting. The first reason is efficiency More people can be helped with less therapist time, although it can require more administrative coordination and scheduling. In the case of relatively homogeneous groups that are organized around the primary disorder, there comes the reassuring sense of common, shared experience for many individuals. Perhaps the most important advantage of the group format is that the role of the therapist can be systematically decentralized and instead a self-help approach is encouraged. Group members can act as supportive coaches in reviewing and engaging in exposure exercises, and can work together in cognitive restructuring. Group cohesion and a self-help orientation can promote self-reliance and ultimately self-efficacy and mastery. Accordingly, terms like program may be preferable to therapy, and group member may be preferable to patient.

Female Inhibition in Mixed Sex Competition

The function of female inhibition in mixed-sex competition is probably reproductive, given its predominance during the reproductive years. Callan (1970) suggested that it enhances harmony with one's husband, in that it reduces competition in this relationship. Then too, a wife may benefit from bolstering her husband's self-esteem and consequent performance in public arenas. Another possibility is that female inhibition increases a woman's appeal by making her appear more feminine. However, this last explanation is thrown into question by a review of the literature by Harter, Waters, and Whitesell (1998). They concluded that adolescent girls tended to be less self-confident when talking with boys than with adults or other girls, but that boys were also less self-confident when talking with girls. Adolescents of both sexes may

Idealization And The Family Romance

Consciously, though, idealization has been detached from the parents and transferred either to fantasy figures or people whom the child knows. The fantasies serve to preserve the child's narcissism insofar as he elevates his self-worth by identifying with his grander imaginary parents. And the fantasies hold out the hope of rescue, of better times, against the disappointment of the present. Even in these early family romances, we can begin to see elements that will distinguish mature love the object who feeds (or loves) us must be idealized in order for him to validate our own worthiness, to gratify, by our identification with him, our longing for omnipotence. In the early romances, this takes the concrete form of our being related to the royal, rich, and famous. We are rescued from situations in which we feel unloved or unappreciated. And by virtue of our association with the exalted personages of our imaginary relationships, we find our true identities and are released from the...

Cognitive Approaches in Behavior Therapy

In one form or another, this combination of restructured irrational beliefs and behavioral exercises is the hallmark of most cognitive approaches to behavior therapy. Albert Bandura's social learning theory (1977), for example, aims at altering specific cognitive structures called self-efficacy expectations through teaching clients new behavioral skills and helping these clients practice them both in the therapist's office and in the daily world. Self-efficacy is assumed to determine, in part, whether or not a given set of environmental contingencies will be responded to with a particular behavior by the client. Therapy consists, in part, of designing graded behavioral exercises leading to both new behavior and a revision of self-efficacy expectations. Accomplishing these goals is presumed to facilitate a change in client behavior in previously problematic situations.

Applications And Exclusions

It is also important to consider the psychological sequelae of obesity. In American culture, there is a stigma associated with obesity. The obesity stereotype is that people who are overweight tend to be less socially competent, lazier, and less intelligent than normal weight individuals. In addition, most obese people have experienced various forms of discrimination and teasing about their weight. As a result, obese people often suffer from low self-esteem and may be very concerned about their body shape. In addition, many individuals may have attempted unsuccessfully to lose weight in the past, or they may have lost weight only to regain it later. A pattern of unsuccessful weight loss attempts frequently leads to frustration and lowered self-esteem. It is important that clinicians remain sensitive to these issues when treating obesity.

Theoretical Bases

Today, self-efficacy as propounded by Albert Bandura may be the theoretical base that most aptly accounts for the value of behavior rehearsal. Before venturing into any course of action, a person first needs to feel capable of achieving success. Entering a situation unprepared, unrehearsed, and feeling unskilled is unlikely to yield a successful outcome. Individuals' beliefs about their own degree of efficacy will determine whether they feel optimistic or pessimistic, what courses of action to pursue, how much effort to expend in trying to achieve specific goals, and the degree of perseverance likely to be displayed in the face of impediments. Many studies have confirmed the significant role of perceived self-efficacy in human adaptation, coping, and change. These findings extend far beyond the consulting room or the clinic and include educational systems, business organizations, athletic teams, and even the power plays in urban neighborhoods with violent crime. In the clinical arena,...

Leadership in Public Arenas

It seems that the principle of respect for personal autonomy allowed both men and women of ability and self-confidence to act as leaders in appropriate situations. Demonstrated knowledge and skill, self-disciplined dignity, restraint, and generosity, and what Wissler termed a mind keen to grasp and analyze, were qualities of leaders, man or woman.

Behavior Therapys Conception of Causation and Explanation

This conception of behavioral causation and explanation has been subject to its fair share of criticism. Chief among the criticisms are that this view of behavioral causation ignores the role of free will, beliefs or expectations, purposes and intentions, perception, knowledge, memories, ideas, thoughts, and feelings in guiding human action. Most psychologists, including those affiliated with strands of behavior therapy, give causal or me-diational primacy to such private events in explaining human behavior, and much of the psychiatric system of diagnosis is similarly construed in terms of private events as causes of human suffering. The mechanistic core of social learning theory and other neobehavioristic and cognitive positions explains why self-efficacy and other related phenomena are considered causal. For the mechanist, structural characteristics of the behavioral system are considered behavioral mechanisms, and thus causal entities. Yet, whether such events can be construed as...

Correlates of Success and Failure

A number of maneuvers have been found to increase the chance of success in the application of the urine alarm. These included the use of a dummy run with the child allowing the child to do all the work but the parent to supervise keeping a daily diary no restriction of liquids the wearing of underpants rather than pajamas to bed the child testing the alarm prior to going to bed and rehearsing covertly or aloud the subsequent steps overlearning and parental praise and encouragement. In their 1998 summary of predictors of successful outcome Gretchen Gimple and colleagues noted the following fewer wet nights pretreatment, older children, absence of daytime enuresis, parental support, and negative child perception in the absence of any significant psychiatric psychological problem. Children with a negative self-image and who were exposed to parental intolerance had poor outcomes.

Case Management Strategies

(2) it may draw on the expertise of differently trained professionals (e.g., medical doctors, nutritionists), vital in the treatment of chronic ED (e.g., AN). Finally, other case management strategies are important for ED clients in coaching them to manage an often extensive health provider network and to build a sense of control and self-efficacy and thus to meet maturational and interpersonal goals.

The role of dairy products in preventing dental caries

An individual's dietary and social patterns are major contributors to one's oral health. The quality of life can be greatly impacted as a result of poor oral health leaving a negative impact on self-esteem, eating ability, and social functioning (Moynihan, 2005). Several oral diseases can be linked back to poor nutrition, and as teeth deteriorate the conditions are exacerbated. Studies (Johansson et al., 1994, Norlen et al., 1993) have shown edentulous individuals are more apt to have inadequate dietary intake (high carbohydrate, high fat, low nutrient density foods) than dentate individuals. Sugars, specifically sucrose, are recognized as being a major contributor to dental caries' etiology. Other social factors such as alcohol and tobacco use, drug abuse, poor hygiene, and poor nutrition are also cited as being major contributory factors to oral diseases.

N Psychosocial Aspects of Aphasia

The psychological reactions to aphasia are believed to be influenced to some degree by premorbid personality, level of achievement, and values. As a result of its negative effect on interpersonal activity and quality of life, aphasia is frequently referred to as a social disability. By far the most commonly mentioned psychological reaction is depression. Difficulty in coping with being socially different, feelings of loss, grief, and lowered self-esteem are also pervasive. Family members also suffer from the effects of role changes, caregiving, the impact on the family's sources of gratification, and difficulties in communication.

Psychological wellbeing

Twenty studies - nine RCTs, eight non-randomized studies, and three observational studies - found that exercise training - with or without other cardiac rehabilitation services -generally results in decrease in anxiety and depression and improved physical function.6 Exercise is therefore recommended to enhance psychological wellbeing, particularly when it is one component of a multifactorial rehabilitation program. Studies of exercise training in a supervised group setting as a sole intervention do not show consistent improvement in anxiety and depression. Studies of exercise training as a sole intervention are confounded by the consequences of group interactions, formation of social support networks, peer and professional support, and counseling and guidance, all of which may affect depression, anxiety, and self-confidence.

Courtship and Marriage

Interpret it as friendship and do nothing further. Even if he loves the girl, self-respect demands that he not jump too quickly. Meanwhile, the girl is tense with anticipation. If he has not accepted the proposal within a couple of weeks, she knows that she has been rejected. If he accepts, the families begin the wedding preparations. There is a feast and an elaborate exchange of gifts between the families, the bride's giving more to the groom's in a kind of groomwealth. I have heard Hopi women remark we paid for him about a young male in-law.

Submission In The Service Of Possession

Insofar as the lover can induce the beloved to depend on him, even exploit him, the lover feels indispensable and achieves a kind of security. The lover submits in order to hold on to his beloved and occasionally share in her power. He feels a sense of permanence and importance in being indispensable to someone important. But this mode of relating to the beloved necessarily carries with it a sense of self-impoverishment. The lover sacrifices himself to the security of the relationship. Unlike the impulse to surrender, where the aim is transcendence, the motivation here is not so grand. The lover does not seek to obliterate the self so as to be reborn, or enlarged, but seeks to secure the truncated self. Subordination is deeply damaging to self-esteem, so the lover may have recourse to covert equalizers, such as affairs.

Informationprocessing Model Of The Internal Clock See Scalar Timing Theory

Theoretical approaches have been the most influential in attempts by psychologists and sociologists to explain and understand the widespread tendency toward ingroup favoritism bias realistic group conflict theory -stresses the role of conflict, competition, and the struggle for existence when resources and goods are scarce in a given geographical region psychoanalytic theory - ingroup biases are traced to the motives and needs of individuals, rather than to group processes in the case of one specific concept (authoritarianism), it is posited that generalized hatred and distrust toward persons in outgroups (particularly prejudice against religious and racial minorities) stems from projection of repressed hostilities that originate in childhood experiences with parental authority and, thus, ingroup bias is a result of the individual's efforts to develop and maintain one's ego and self-esteem categorization theory - emphasizes the general cognitive processes by which humans structure,...

Experimenter Bias And Compliant Participants

Predictions were for opposite effects on self-esteem, and the experimenter was blind to the group membership at the time the manipulations were administered and the measures taken. In response to pictures of the slender models, the self-esteem of women who were more responsive to personal cues declined, whereas the self-esteem of situational cue women went up.

Identity Disruption Model

Identity disruption model (Brown & McGill, 1989) is a variant of self-consistency theory and states that life events impact negatively on one's health because they disrupt the individual's identity, causing disturbances in the self-concept. The model - when applied to positive life events - proposes that the occurrence of such events threatens the self-view of low self-esteem persons, and thus places them at risk for health problems. For example, if a student with a poor academic image experiences a positive college event (such as personal academic achievement), such an event would lead to a disruption of the poor student identity -creating uncertainty regarding the self - and have possible negative health consequences. However, for high self-esteem persons, the identity disruption model predicts increases in health for positive life events. See also SELF-CONCEPT THEORY SELF-CONSISTENCY SELF-ENHANCEMENT THEORIES. REFERENCE

Constructing Hierarchy

By demonstrating the different socialization patterns of European American and African American youth, anthropology has provided a context for understanding variances in health behavior and practice based on racial categories (Boone, 1989 Heurtin-Roberts & Reisin, 1993 Wilson, 1985). For instance, young African American women have a less stereotypical body image, and they are more comfortable with their own bodies (Parker et al., 1995). In addition, among African American women condom use is motivated not by economic considerations but by affective ties and notions of self-esteem (Sobo, 1995). Self-supporting women with strong kinship ties demonstrate a higher incidence of condom use, while those women who depended upon their male partners for both affection and or income are less likely to insist upon condom use. Variation in such behavior has definite implications for health status.

Personality Differences by Gender

It is important to recognize that in Italy there are currently a number of alternative views of masculinity and femininity, not least those promoted by the media, so that a number of different personality traits are quite acceptable in men and women. However, a fairly hegemonic form of masculinity (Cornwall & Lindisfarne, 1994) would usually entail some quite specific characteristics, such as assertiveness and self-confidence, virility, and the ability to support one's family. Depending on the context, this might also entail a certain verbal competence, or the ability to drink without losing control, or to display physical prowess in some field. The counterpart to such a hegemonic masculinity would be a gentle, submissive, and attentive woman, a good mother to her children, and a caring partner to her husband. The demands of such a model of masculinity can result in a dichotomous view of women, whereby the good and virtuous woman, ideally suited for motherhood, is contrasted with...

The Motivational Enhancement Phase

Motivation has been operationally defined as the readiness of the client to participate actively in the treatment process (as discussed by Miller and Rollnick in 1991). This can be assessed by therapist's observations of the level of self-disclosure and other forms of participation of a self-report checklist. Strategies for enhancing motivation have been developed and are implemented throughout the treatment process to maintain the client's ever-changing commitment to change. Although in 1991 Miller and Rollnick viewed motivation as an individual characteristic, one often observes in groups a phenomenon in which motivation of each mutually influences the motivation of others. There appears to be a shared or prevailing group level of motivation. Miller and Rollnick identified a number of principles to be considered in the process of enhancing motivation. Some of these principles include normalizing ambivalence, contrasting costs and benefits of changing or resolving problems, eliciting...

Elements of Psychoeducational Programs

Self-efficacy (after Albert Bandura), refers to the belief that one can perform a specific action or complete a task. Although this involves self-confidence in general, it is the confidence to perform a specific task. Positive changes can be traced to an increase in self-efficacy brought about by a carefully designed protocol that will advance the sense of self-efficacy. Exercise is an essential component of every protocol, and is the feature that is most often neglected by patients. Exercise helps ameliorate depression, raises the sense of self-efficacy, and promotes coping behavior. The patient should be encouraged to

Recommended Readings

Treatment for low self-esteem draws on established ideas and interventions widely described in the clinical literature. In addition to these classics, the following more specialized texts may be of use. Fennell, M. J. V. (1997). Low self-esteem A cognitive perspective. Behavioral & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 25, 1-25. Fennell, M. J. V. (1998). Low self-esteem. In N. Tarrier, A. Wells, & G. Haddock (Eds.), Treating complex cases The cognitive behaviour therapy approach (pp. 217-240). New York Wiley. Fennell, M. J. V. (1999). Overcoming low self-esteem. London Constable Robinson. Fennell, M. J. V., & Jenkins, H. (in press). Low self-esteem. In J. Bennett-Levy, D. Westbrook, G. Butler, A. Hackmann, M. Mueller, & M. J. V. Fennell (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of behavioural experiments. Oxford Oxford University Press. McKay, M., & Fanning, P. (1992). Self-esteem (2nd ed.). Oakland, CA New Harbinger.

Appendix Information on Recommended Measures Child Health Questionnaire

The IWQOL-Lite is a 31-item version of its parent instrument, the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQOL) questionnaire 63, 64 . Data collected from 996 obese patients and controls were used to develop the shorter measure 61 . Items were selected by predefined criteria. The items are divided among five scales physical function (11), self-esteem (7), public distress (5), sexual life (4), and work (4). Each item is scored on a 5-point scale (always true - never true). Lower scores indicate higher QoL. Exploratory factor analysis supported the scale structure.

Confidence And Behavior

A similar effect was observed in a study of self-presentation (Baumeister, Hutton, & Tice, 1989) in which one member of an interaction pair was asked to brag or to present him- or herself very modestly. This behavior in turn affected how the naive partners in each pair behaved, making them act less or more modestly to match. The interesting self-perception result was that this shift in self-presentation by the naive participants also changed their reports of their self-esteem. Nonconsciously adopting the

Three Examples Of Multiple Relationships

Bill has just opened a private practice office and has exactly two patients. One of them, Mr. Lightfoot, is an extremely successful investment analyst who is grateful to Bill for all the benefits he is getting from psychotherapy. The worst of Mr. Lightfoot's depression seems to be in remission, and he is now focusing on his relationships with those whose financial matters he handles. Bill, who genuinely likes Mr. Lightfoot, finds himself especially attentive when his patient talks about new investment opportunities. Unexpectedly Mr. Lightfoot says that Bill might make a great deal of money if he invests in a certain project that is now being planned. The more Bill thinks about it, the more this seems like a terrific opportunity. It will help Mr. Lightfoot's sense of self-esteem because he will be in the position of helping Bill rather than always receiving help from him. It will not cost Mr. Lightfoot anything. Finally it may allow Bill to survive in private practice and thus enable...

Definitions Of Cognitive Distortions

The development and maintenance of self-worth based almost exclusively on how the external world views one (Freeman & DeWolf, 1992 Freeman & Oster, 1999). Example My worth is dependent on what others think of me (Freeman & Lurie, 1994).

Cognitivebehavioral perspective

Other major concepts within the cognitive-behavioral perspective are that of self-efficacy and control. Self-efficacy, a cognitive factor, and a key component in social cognitive learning theory, refers to a person's self-perceived ability or confidence that he she can complete a task or cope with a given situation.36 This perception is strongly influenced by the individual's belief that he she can gain the motivation, use the cognitive resources and take the action needed to meet the situational demands.35 Increased self-efficacy has been found to be related to higher tolerance for other symptoms.37 Increasing perceived self-efficacy for coping with a symptom can reduce that symptom in several ways.38 People who believe they can alleviate a symptom, such as dyspnea, try management strategies they have learned and persevere in their attempts to decrease the symptom. On the other hand, those patients who do not feel confident in their ability to decrease their shortness of breath by...

Dbt Model Of Eating Disorders

DBT argues that the extreme weight loss seen in AN is an escape from tolerating primary or secondary affect in the absence of other more adaptive emotion regulation skills. These emotions may be generated by cues such as developmental challenges, perfectionist standards, low self-esteem, situations involving perceived loss of control (e.g., eating, interpersonal or familial situations), or an extreme desire to be thin. These cues may be multiple and may vary from individual to individual. Previous treatments for eating disorders have focused on various factors maintaining ED symptoms including the violation of dietary restraint (cognitive-behavioral therapy for BN) or interpersonal problems (interpersonal psychotherapy for BN), or maturational difficulties (Crisp's psychobiological theory of AN), or a combination of clinical perfectionism, low self-esteem, mood intolerance, and interpersonal difficulties (transdiagnostic theory of ED). Parsimoniously, DBT theory suggests that the...

Transferencecountertransference And Culture

Matching of therapist and patient also has its pitfalls. For example, African-American therapists can become overly concerned with the sociopolitical factors involved in their patients' dysphoria. This concern may result in emphasizing black political solidarity and perspective rather than focusing on the personal and familial problems unique to their client's life. Some therapists may reject white theories and propose theories that carry an overt or implicit political message. They may convey the message to the patient in a familiar moralizing, preacher fashion attempting to enlighten the patient regarding the social injustices he or she has endured. Some authors refer to the blacker than thou stance manifest in such countertransference reactions. Some patients who reject their own blackness may also project their own lack of self-esteem onto the therapist whom they erroneously perceive to be lacking in ability Especially vulnerable may be patients who grew up in white neighborhoods....

The Social Problemsolving Process

The general disposition to (a) appraise a problem as a challenge (i.e., opportunity for benefit or gain), (b) believe that problems are solvable (optimism), (c) believe in one's personal ability to solve problems successfully (self-efficacy), (d) believe that successful problem solving takes time, effort, and persistence, and (e) commit oneself to solving problems with dispatch rather than avoidance. In contrast, negative problem orientation is a dysfunctional or inhibitive cognitive-emotional set that involves the general tendency to (a) view problems as significant threats to one's well-being (psychological, social, economic), (b) doubt one's personal ability to solve problems successfully (low self-efficacy), and (c) easily become frustrated and upset when confronted with problems in living (low frustration tolerance).

Major Depression In The Context Of Evolution

Fundamental to the understanding of any biological process, including mental illnesses, involves understanding their evolutionary context. There are few readily apparent evolutionary advantages for the development of a high prevalence of major depressive illnesses among Homo sapiens. Major depression frequently destroys peoples lives and has a chronic recurring course. Major depression is defined by DSM-IV diagnostic criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) by the loss of the ability to function in family or job life for at least 2 wk, as a a result of disturbances in mood, sleep, concentration, self-esteem, appetite, physical energy, and sexual energy or function. This disease not only directly reduces the likelihood of procreation but also causes significant disruption in social and family interactions. Prior to 1910, the prevalence of major depression may have been nearly 100-fold less than current rates (Klerman et al., 1985). The increased rates of prevalence of...

Demetrious integrated developmental model of the mind Description and intended use

The hypercognitive system is described as having an active self-knowing component (working hypercognition) and a self-descriptive component (long-term hypercognition). Working hypercognition (the efficiency of which depends on the processing capacities described above) is concerned with organising, monitoring and evaluating the responses and performances of the self and of others, while long-term hypercognition incorporates a model of the mind, a general model of intelligence and self-image. Working hypercognition 'is responsible for the management of the processing system' and 'carries over to the processing system, so to speak, both the person's personhood and the person's more general views about the mind' (Demetriou and Raftopoulos, 1999, pp. 328-329).

Homebound with supported outings

In this phase attention and distraction strategies can be reinforced and practiced, so they will become a 'habit' before, but also as, shortness of breath increases. Attention strategies might include monitoring of the symptom, advanced planning of activities, energy conservation and appropriate rests, and the use of a fan. Distraction strategies might include music, TV, the Internet, walks, reading, relaxation, guided imagery, self-talk, acupressure, or massage. This phase may require a change or decrease in the exercise regimen, however, optional exercises can replace walking, such as, daily weights, breaking up the exercise to smaller intervals, or chair aerobics. Support groups either organized or within the community can also help patients to learn strategies to cope with increasing dyspnea. Vicarious learning from peers who have developed ways to manage dyspnea is a potent source of self-efficacy or confidence that will help them to control their dyspnea. In the hypoxic COPD...

Motivational monitoring

While the literature in this domain is more sparse than that for metacognitive awareness and monitoring, it is reasonable to assume that to engage effectively in the control and regulation of efficacy, value, interest and anxiety, students need first to be consciously aware of their beliefs and feelings and to monitor them. Approaches that have been employed in the scientific literature include attempts to make explicit, and subsequently change, students' maladaptive self-efficacy and attributional beliefs. Other studies have sought to reduce student anxiety by increasing coping skills or by showing how one may change aversive environmental conditions.

Motivational control and regulation

Pintrich lists several methods that students can employ to heighten their motivation. These include increasing your sense of self-efficacy (e.g. telling yourself that you can succeed in the task) promising yourself extrinsic reinforcers (e.g. going to the pub once the assignment has been completed) or attempting to heighten intrinsic motivation by restructuring the task to make it more interesting. Other strategies involve overcoming the tendency to avoid working hard because of a concern that poor performance may suggest a lack of natural ability, a phenomenon known as self-worth protection (Covington, 1992).

Oppositional Defiant Disorder Odd And Conduct Disorder Cd

It is extremely rare that ODD does not appear at home, but it does definitely happen that its expression in other frameworks is minor. Generally the start of the clinical expression is at home, and at a later stage it spreads to educational and social frameworks outside the home. In this case, the child is likely to suffer from relatively lower academic achievement than his her ability warrants and social isolation. Then, damage to self-esteem, mood disorders and substance abuse are liable to appear.

Psychosocial Aspects Of Mood Disorders

Psychosocial factors have been correlated with the development and maintenance of mood disorders. Psychoanalytic theories of the etiology of depression concentrate on Freud's belief that the grievance of unresolved early losses undermines the patient's self-esteem. This theory explains that depression is an adult reaction that occurs when the patient is unable to tolerate the negative side of the ambivalence created from early lost objects.

Using Cbt With Children And Adolescents

Clinicians can use this knowledge to help conceptualize and design interventions for students. When working with children and adolescents, the treatment may initially focus on building social skills and problem solving through psychoeducation. It is essential that the psychoeducational components facilitate skill building and the correction of maladaptive practices in order to promote protective factors while minimizing risk factors (e.g., strengthening peer relationships, increasing self-monitoring skills, improving parent-child interactions, and increasing school success). For instance, building social-cognitive skills in angry and aggressive children has been identified as an effective mediator in the reduction of angry or aggressive outburst (Kazdin & Weisz, 1998). Furthermore, CBT strategies such as cognitive restructuring have the potential to raise a child's protective mechanisms (e.g., cognitive skills) while lessening risk such as emotional dysregulation and low...

Ethical Considerations

Before carrier screening can be offered to a high-risk population, the population must be educated about the disorder being screened, the basic tenets of carrier screening, and the potential benefits and risks of carrier screening. Screening for inherited disorders raises many complex issues. For example, screening raises a number of psychosocial issues, such as how an individual's self-esteem might be affected if he or she was found to carry a non-working gene). There are also implications for nonscreened family members if an individual is identified as a carrier. For instance, how will other family members be notified that they are also at risk for being a carrier. In addition, there is the potential for discrimination other people may inaccurately infer that an individual who is a carrier has the inherited disorder.

Cognitive Distortions

This descriptor is used here to refer to cognitive processes (i.e., structures, propositions, operations, and products) that mediate or translate incoming stimuli within the context of stored memories of past experience and motivational states that may be enduring or transient. Included here are schemas, attitudes, and beliefs, as well as current feeling states, that bias the interpretation of information in a self-serving way. Cognitive restructuring approaches are typically employed to challenge the client's views, identify the bases for and costs of such views, and offer alternative views that are more likely to serve the long-term needs of the client. Since these views are often dependent on the client's current desires and feelings, it is helpful when challenging these views to have the client role-play a scene that re-creates, to some degree, these influential desires and feelings. The relevant desires are related to the particular client's problematic behaviors, while the...

The Self Efficacy Theory

According to the self-efficacy theory of Albert Ban-dura, published in 1977, therapeutic change can be brought about by experiences of mastery arising from successful performance. Bandura has proposed that phobic behavior is influenced more by self-efficacy judgments than by outcome expectations. He argues that a person's self-efficacy can be improved by those psychological procedures, which enhance the level and the strength of the self-efficacy. Implicity, he states that an exposure procedure is not a necessary condition to obtain therapeutic change. Self-efficacy can be improved by various treatment procedures. Field mastery experiences are, however, considered a critical ingredient of treatment of phobic disorders. Thus, in the self- efficacy theory, the psychological mechanism of change is a cognitive one, whereas the most effective psychological procedure is a behavioral one (performance-based). According to Bandura, perceived self-efficacy through performance successes depend...

Addressing Nutrition in Refugees

From the international community and host government. In some cases, refugees may live in open situations in which they integrate into the local community. In almost all cases, refugees are dependent on outside assistance, although the level of need depends on the level of self-reliance the refugees are able to achieve. In some instances, refugees are able to bring some material goods with them when they flee and or have some sort of income-generating activity, such as access to land and labour and employment. However, this very much depends on the policies of host governments. In these cases, refugees are not totally dependent on food aid, and nutrition management response takes these factors into account by adjusting humanitarian assistance and the food aid ration to meet the assessed needs.

Triangles And The Oedipus Complex

Triangulation may be used to punish a disappointing or errant lover, or to even out the score. A husband may believe he has forgiven his wife after she confesses a prior affair, only to feel himself drawn into a love affair of his own shortly thereafter. Triangulation may also be used to re-establish a sense of gender adequacy when one's femininity or masculinity has been damaged by a competitive defeat, either erotic or non-erotic. For example, a man who has received a shattering blow at work may be more than usually vulnerable to the ministrations of his adoring secretary. Alternately, triangulation may be used to alter not one's own self-image, but one's image in a lover's eyes, with one lover hoping to pique the other's interest and coax fading love back to full intensity through the agency of jealousy. Triangulation may even be used as a self-punishment. A lover who is radiantly happy in love may experience guilt at his great good fortune, and he too may embark on a triangular...

Shared Precursors For An And Bn

Certain trends in contemporary Western and increasingly Eastern society 15 increase the risk for an essential precursor to occur, namely food restriction or dieting. Foremost among those trends is slimness as a beauty ideal for contemporary women. Thinness as a personal goal, linked to expectations that it will bring social approval and improved self-confidence, presents a challenge to all female adolescents who do not fit the ideal shape. Societal attitudes sensitize these young women to body dissatisfaction, enhancing chances for dietary restriction to bring about body weight loss. An equally important factor is the simplistic belief that everyone can ultimately attain a ''perfect'' body shape. This challenge to reshape the body is keenly experienced by female adolescents, who accumulate adipose tissue with the growth spurt of puberty. By contrast, male adolescents welcome weight increases and tend to exercise to increase muscle strength.

Reprocessing Information

Pathological personality characteristics are understood to be entrenched in dysfunctionally stored information. Therefore, it is assumed that when this information is adequately processed, there is a concomitant shift in clients' sense of self-worth and efficacy, with structural alterations in related personality characteristics, evident in changes in self concept, interactions with others, and behaviors.

Acceptance of Controlled Drinking

During the assessment, J. stated that he desired a goal of controlled drinking rather than abstinence. His age (young adult), abusive (but not dependent) drinking history, lack of commitment to abstinence, and social stability suggested that he was a good candidate for a controlled drinking goal. Discussing with his therapist the advantages of explicit limit-setting, J. decided to moderate his drinking to not more than two or three drinks per night, and not more than three drinking episodes per week. Other therapy goals included increased self-confidence and self-esteem, increased as-sertiveness, and decreased reliance on alcohol as a coping skill to deal with interpersonal problems. Initially, several additional components of BSCT (basic alcohol education, goal setting, functional analysis of drinking behavior, generation of coping strategies to be employed in high-risk drinking situations) were employed to help him moderate his drinking. Although the quantity consumed per drinking...

Germplasmcontinuity Theory

In addition to formulating reality therapy (a clinical approach that emphasizes one's basic needs such as the needs to belong, to be loved, and to gain self-worth and recognition), the American psychiatrist William Glasser (1925 ) asserts that most human misery is caused by people trying to control others, whereas, in

Individual Psychological Traits and Personality Features

A reliable assessment of pre-illness personality traits is difficult to make without prospective studies. As it is, most personality research has been done retrospectively and some studies have relied on the patient's memory alone, with its subjective bias, instead of obtaining information from independent interviews of parents or other relatives. It is also difficult to judge personality features during the acute stage of the disorder, since the starvation state tends to reinforce rigidity and controlling tendencies 25 . Other manifest features may be a consequence of a comorbid psychiatric disorder for instance, depressive symptoms affect self-esteem 25 . On the other hand, the overall stability of personality traits into adulthood makes it possible to obtain valid information from patients after full recovery 26,27 . More recently, studies have focused on personality traits reflecting ''perfectionism'' as a risk factor, albeit different studies have measured different components of...

Irene Henriette Oestrich

Keywords social skills, self-esteem, schizophrenia, group therapy Feeling good about oneself, often called self-esteem, is not a static structure, but rather a continuous process. Personal development has its basis in change and requires both basic and complex cognitive and emotional processes. The vulnerability related to effective social functioning often causes pain and prevents the development of a constructive social repertoire and consequently impacts the ongoing process of developing self-esteem. Social competence is also connected to cognitions. In relationships with others, the personal meaning attached to those relationships and to the process of relating is especially important. Relationships are often influenced by strong emotional factors. The nuances in relationships are almost limitless and the meaning we connect to what happens in these relationships is important for the concept of self, how we interact in life, and to our self-esteem. The healthy mind develops an...

Background And Research

Social skills training has been shown to be effective for a variety of mental health problems. It has been used in different forms throughout the past 20 years in the treatment of social anxiety, panic, depression, shyness, and low self-esteem as well as schizophrenia. The more severe the psy-chopathology is, the more structured and behavioral the interventions would be. Social skills deficit seems to foster psychopathology, and also contribute to the development of psychological dysfunction. Social skills deficit has been linked to a number of psychiatric diagnoses and with all of them, in particular to low self-esteem. Skills acquisition was significant in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia, and group therapy for schizophrenia may reduce the number of inpatient days, when the aim is to balance education with emotional support for chronic patient groups and there have been promising aims to teach psychiatric patients to cope in the community using group treatment. In depressive...

Principle Ii Responsible Caring Values Statement

In order to carry out these steps, psychologists recognize the need for competence and self-knowledge. They consider incompetent action to be unethical per se, as it is unlikely to be of benefit and likely to be harmful. They engage only in those activities in which they have competence or for which they are receiving supervision, and they perform their activities as competently as possible. They acquire, contribute to, and use the existing knowledge most relevant to the best interests of those concerned. They also engage in self-reflection regarding how their own values, attitudes, experiences, and social context (e.g., culture, ethnicity, colour, religion, sex, gender, sexual orientation, physical and mental abilities, age, and socio-economic status) influence their actions, interpretations, choices, and recommendations. This is done with the intent of increasing the probability that their activities will benefit and not harm the individuals, families, groups, and communities to...

Behaviour interventions in CR

This guideline recommends that physical activity counselling should include an evaluation of the individual's current physical activity level, stage of change for exercise behaviour, self-efficacy, barriers to increasing physical activity and social support in making positive changes. Interventions should include providing support, advice and counselling about physical activity needs, and setting goals to increase physical activity to 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity on at least five days a week. In addition, patients' daily schedules should be explored in order to suggest how physical activity can be incorporated into their daily routine, e.g. parking further away than usual from entrances, walking up two or more flights of stairs and walking for 15 minutes during lunch breaks. In addition, the use of behaviour change interventions for structured exercise and other health behaviour is recommended in the UK (SIGN, 2002).

Aims of treatment

Treatment provides control of the muscle inflammation and allows the patient to return to normal function the patient might otherwise become disabled from the weakness. The skin disease is often symptomatic and is cosmetically displeasing, therefore the goal of therapy is to relieve the symptoms and improve the patient's self-image and ability to interact with other people. Some patients with dermatomyositis have an associated malignancy, and treatment of the malignancy might in some patients result in a control of the disease process. In children with dermatomyositis, treatment also aims to prevent calcinosis, or to eradicate calcinosis if it does occur.

Empirical Studies

Five behaviors with both male and female clients as consistent with the following (1) paying attention to clients' experiences of discrimination, (2) adopting a collaborative role with clients, (3) reframing problems to include an emphasis on socialization, and (4) enhancing self-esteem by emphasizing clients' unique and positive qualities. Marcia Hill and Mary Ballou's 1998 survey of 35 feminist therapists also revealed the following themes (1) attention to power differences, overlapping relationships, and therapist accountability

Future Directions

Models containing the effective elements of CBT as well as more creative and developmental-oriented ingredients can make a real difference to different groups of people suffering from social skills deficits and low self-esteem. We have valid assessment measures and research designs for continuing testing the effectiveness of these treatments, but it is necessary to use the same measures and the same model for comparison in future research studies. It is known that SST needs to be integrated into an individualized treatment plan to maximize benefits however, using a more creative and comprehensive SST model included self-esteem training still needs to be examined in valid studies. This treatment belongs to the recent concept of positive psychology, focusing less on warfare against psychopathology and more on positive emotions, building of skills, and the global healing factor of self-esteem. See also Low self-esteem, Schizophrenia

Application of the TTM in the general population

In summary, the transtheoretical model proposes that by identifying an individual's stage of exercise behaviour change, key components such as the processes of change, exercise self-efficacy and decisional balance can be influenced to encourage stage progression and relapse prevention. For example, maintaining physical activity and preventing relapse may require continued use of behavioural processes and enhancing self-efficacy. A description of how each component of the TTM is addressed during exercise consultation is provided in Table 8.3 (p. 204).

Nature of Psychopathology

The therapist's stance on the categorical-dimensional debate can affect the formulation in a number of ways. First, it may affect the terminology appearing in the formulation. Dimensionalists tend to think in terms of a relatively small set of dimensions, such as the five-factor model of personality. The categoricalists use a broader range of terms, including those in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV), which is categorical in nature. On the other hand, categoricalists may be more prone to stigmatize patients by reifying what is actually a theoretical construct. For example, being told one has a personality disorder may inadvertently damage self-esteem and confirm pathogenic beliefs rather than be therapeutic. Finally, some argue that the categorical approach is easier to use than the dimensional approach because many clinical decisions are categorical in nature (e.g., treat or not, use intervention A or B). Ease of use is an important...

Stages of Change Michael J Dolan

Can augment the client's strengths and self-esteem while developing more effective and efficient coping resources and social support leading to a greater sense of hope (Hanna, 1996). As in other dynamic systems, destabilization is viewed as a necessary and natural process that allows for growth and change. It would be through this shaking up process that change can occur. Mahoney (1991) described destabilization as a period of systemwide disorder marked by increased variability in such domains as thought patterns, affect, behavior, intimacy, sleep, appetite, and somatic functioning. Given the organism's natural movement toward stability and balance, the system in disorder will attempt to move toward order or adaptation as defined by Piaget (1966). According to Mahoney (1991), the therapist needs to assess and then enhance the client's readiness for change. Providing a secure, supportive therapeutic environment and strengthening internal and external resources can prepare the client to...

Behavioral Case Formulation

Arthur Nezu and colleagues have articulated a four-step case formulation process centering on a problem-solving approach. Step one is to identify the problem. Nezu advocates a comprehensive, systematic approach in order to reduce clinical judgment error. Problems may occur either within the individual or the environment. Within the person, problems may occur in the behavioral, cognitive, affective, or biological realms. Problem behaviors reflect deficits (e.g., lack of social skills) or excesses (e.g., ob-sessive-compulsivity). Problematic cognition may reflect deficiencies (e.g., failure to appreciate the responses of others to one's actions) or distortions (e.g., arbitrarily inferring lack of self-worth based on a single mistake). Environmentally, problems may be identified in the physical realm (e.g., housing, financial) or social realm (e.g., dangerous neighborhood, nature of social support). A behavior therapist may also view problems from a temporal...

Relative Status of Men and Women

Subsistence made marriage an important institution, and although both genders could exist without a spouse, they were then dependent on family and kin who were not obligated to provide what a spouse would normally provide (i.e., meat or manioc). Although there was sharing of food in families, this was not an ideal situation because self-reliance and independence were so highly prized, and most men and women hastened to remarry after the death of a spouse. In addition, the surviving wives and children of a man killed in a raid were often killed as well if there was no wife shortage because they had no one to hunt for them. As already indicated, it was elder relatives who decided on marriage choices for youth, but, once married, they were relatively free to decide to remain together or not. Because marriage was an economic necessity, bachelors who could not attain a wife by such traditional means sometimes resorted to stealing a woman from her family. In these cases, a raid was mounted...

Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

The Waorani maintain their traditional egalitarian gender relationships and women still have equal status in the community, in marriage, and in day-to-day activities and decision-making. Both genders are still expected to be self-reliant, independent, and autonomous. The influence of the less symmetrical gender relationships of the larger Ecuadorian society is evident, however, in the political organization of the Waorani and in employment in non-traditional occupations, which are more likely to be dominated by men. It is also evident in literacy. Although both boys and girl go to school, young males are more likely to go on to secondary school and university, and are more likely to be bilingual in Spanish and to be able to read and write well. It is unclear how much this is due to expectations of the kowodi, to the kind of jobs available (e.g., manual labor for the oil companies), or to the early marriage and child-bearing patterns of young Waorani women (e.g., more closely spaced...

Prevention And Intervention Protocols Incorporating Information About Precursors

Recently, Wade et al. 63 have reported on the outcome of a school-based media literacy programme, an interactive exercise examining the effectiveness of media messages and a self-esteem enhancement programme for reducing three ''risk'' factors (weight and shape concerns, focus on weight and shape and dietary restraint) in an unselected sample of 8th grade boys and girls. The media intervention produced a reduction in weight concern only, while the self-esteem enhancement programme failed to affect any of the risk measures compared to the control condition.

Unique Chance Has Been Created by Nature

For a long time, the role and function of the sub-organoid structures in man were underestimated, but today it has been proven that almost all organs and systems are built up by multiple, identical, functionally self-reliant, structural units. Interestingly, these sub-organoid units are ofvery small dimensions, ranging from several cell layers to a few millimeters. A small selection of examples of such human sub-organoid structures, all with a prominent functionality and highly variable conglomerate geometry, are listed in Table 11.1. Due to distinguished functionality, a high degree of self-reliance and multiplicity of such micro-organoids within the respective organ, their reactivity pattern to drugs and biologics seems representative of the whole organ. Nature created very small, but sophisticated, biological structures to realize most prominent functions of organs and systems. The multiplication ofthese structures within a given organ is Nature's risk-management tool to prevent...

The Fundamental Moral Question Do People with Dementia Count

The fitting moral response to people with dementia, according to western ethical thought as informed by Judaism and Christianity, is to enlarge our sense of human worth to counter an exclusionary emphasis on rationality, efficient use of time and energy, ability to control distracting impulses, thrift, economic success, self-reliance, self-control, language advantage, and the like. As Alasdair Maclntyre argues, too much has been made of the significance of language, for instance, obscuring the moral significance of species who lack linguistic abilities, or human beings who have lost such abilities (Maclntyre). It is possible to distinguish two fundamental views of persons with dementia. Those in the tradition of Stoic and Enlightenment rationalism have achieved much for universal human moral standing by emphasizing the spark of reason (logos) in us all yet when this rationality dissipates, so does moral status. Those who take an alternative position see the Stoic heritage as an...

Effectiveness of Brief Intervention

Many models for brief intervention have now been tested. A review of 32 controlled trials of brief counseling, primarily in the alcohol field, found that not only was brief counseling more effective than no treatment, but it compared favorably with more traditional treatments in 11 of 13 randomized trials. 15 The elements common to these trials were feedback, responsibility, advice, menu or choice, empathy, and self-efficacy (FRAMES). A World Health Organization study evaluating heavy problem drinkers across 12 nations with very different cultural orientations and social circumstances confirmed these results. 16 A randomized, controlled trial of brief intervention in 17 community-based primary care practices involving 64 physicians and 723 subjects in 10 Wisconsin counties demonstrated significant reductions in alcohol consumption.17

Malpractice Litigation

Universally, physicians feel the need to expend significant resources to prevent malpractice litigation (as opposed to the resources used to prevent malpractice). For those unfamiliar with the process, a medical malpractice lawsuit can be frightening. It seems to strike at one's very being and self-worth. Many physicians will respond with disbelief, then anger, and finally depression. The process of meetings, testimony, and eventually the trial can be dehumanizing. Physicians who succumb to the emotional trauma of a lawsuit respond in such a consistent manner that it has become known as malpractice stress syndrome (MSS).

Clinical Features

An important direct question to put to the patient is, Are you happy at home, or have you experienced any recent changes in mood or sleeping or eating patterns Look also for the sudden onset of behavioral signs and symptoms that suggest victimization depression, fear, withdrawal, confusion, anxiety, low self-esteem, or helplessness.

Schematic Change Potential

By compensating particular EMS, Young states that the individual can overcome the EMS and replace it or them with healthier schemas (reconstruction). We would argue that the manner in which the schemas are addressed is what makes them maladaptive. For example, a child in grade school may be in constant trouble for demanding attention. The difficulty would be subsumed under what Young labels insufficient limits. The student might call out in class, fool around, and generally make a nuisance of him- or herself. The schemas, It is important to be noticed, Public recognition helps me to build self-esteem, or To be noticed is to be liked loved respected, all may contribute to a less than successful school career. The same schemas may later contribute to a successful professional career as a teacher or writer wherein the schemas have been used adaptively. The maladaptive expression of those same schemas would be for the individual to be the world's greatest failure, or a front-page criminal.

Psychological Consequences

Among obese people were the topic of a literature review that reported that weight cycling was not associated with depression or other psychopathology or depressogenic cognitive styles. It was observed, however, that weight cycling was associated with decreased perceptions of health and well-being, decreased eating self-efficacy, and weak increases in binge eating severity. Subsequently, it was concluded that an individual's perception of being a weight cycler may be more related to psychological problems than the actual number of pounds lost and regained over time. In 2000, the National Task Force on the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity concluded that concerns that dieting induces eating disorders or other psychological dysfunction in overweight and obese adults are generally not supported by empirical studies. This is in contrast to the wide belief that dieting is a necessary precursor for subsequent development of eating disorders.

Negative Effects Of Psychotherapy

Treatment, and low motivation were more likely to worsen when treated with psychoanalysis and purely supportive therapies, whereas patients treated with supportive-expressive psychotherapy obtained better outcomes. Deterioration is not unique to individual therapy, however. Reviews of group psychotherapy outcome have reported a positive correlation between treatment failure and patient variables such as low participation, poor self-esteem, poor self-concept, and more significant needs for fulfillment. Additional personal characteristics associated with patient deterioration include hostility, interpersonal dysfunction, and negative expectations of treatment.

Roelofs Effect See Appendix A Rogers Theory Of Personality

Rogers' theory of self was later expanded and published as a more formal theory. The dynamics of Rogers' personality theory focuses on the selective tendencies of the organism to grow, actualize, enhance, and maintain its experiences where the major motivating force is the self-actualizing drive, and the main goal of life is to become a whole (i.e., self-actualized) person (cf., the growth principle - Rogers' view that in an atmosphere free of coercion and distortion, one's creative and integrative energies lead the individual to optimal self-esteem, fuller insight and adaptation, and realization of one's potential). Rogers' motivational theory of personality emphasizes the two learned needs of positive regard and self-regard. Rogers' client-centered therapy is an established and widely used method of treatment, and his person-centered theory has become a significant stimulus for research in personality psychology. On the other hand, criticisms of Rogers' theory include the...

Educational Psychology and Attention Remediation

Occurs when the patient can choose task features such as difficulty level or presence of additional auditory cues when doing a visual vigilance exercise. Intrinsic motivation, depth of engagement in the task, amount learned, and self-efficacy can all be increased when task design incorporates educational principles.

The Physiological Differences of Addiction

Defining drugs as substances other than those required for normal health is a way of finessing this attribution of unnaturalness (Johns 1990 5). As I have argued elsewhere, it puts in place a distinction between therapeutic substances like insulin, which work to restore health in cases of disease, and recreational drugs. However, identifying normal health and normal biology, and assessing whether a drug is being used to restore or disrupt function, is based on normative judgments about proper and improper bodies as well as proper and improper substances (Keane 2002 18-19). Is a body in pain functioning normally or in a disrupted state Is pain relief a disruption of normality or a restoration of normal functioning Does it depend on whether the analgesic is aspirin or heroin and whether it has been medically prescribed or self-prescribed How are drug therapies for conditions like social anxiety different from the routine use of alcohol and cocaine to deal with lack of self-esteem and...

History And Overview Of Cognitive Distortions

DeWolf (1992) and Freeman and Oster (1999), include externalization of self-worth comparison and perfectionism. Most recently, Gilson and Freeman (1999) identified eight other types of cognitive distortions in the form of fallacies fallacies of change worrying fairness ignoring being right attachment control and heaven's reward.

Arthur A Freeman and Bradley Rosenfield

By presenting a cogent rationale for how each homework activity is relevant to the patient's treatment goals, the therapist can increase both the salience of the goals and the probability of homework adherence (Beck, Rush, Shaw, & Emery, 1979). It is vital to reframe each collaboratively generated homework assignment as a positive incremental step on the road to increasing social skills, mood elevation, anxiety reduction, and other desirable goals. Simultaneously, the therapist and patient collaboratively test problematic thoughts, beliefs, assumptions, and schemas. The therapist must socialize the patient to the cognitive model (Addis & Carpenter, 2000). In this way, new skills replace lifelong deficits increasing self-efficacy, reinforcing treatment attendance, and gradually challenge mal-adaptive core beliefs.

Winnie Eng and Richard G Heimberg

Bulimia nervosa has been treated with CBT for many years, beginning with the work of Christopher G. Fair-burn in the 1970s. CBT has been associated with reductions in frequency of binge eating and purging, levels of dietary restraint, and concern over shape and weight. Furthermore, CBT for bulimia has been shown to improve general functioning (including social functioning) and to increase self-esteem. As in the case of the anxiety disorders, CBT for bulimia seems to be effective in the long term, suggesting that clients learn skills that they can continue to apply on their own once treatment has ended. In comparison studies, CBT has been shown to be more effective than alternative therapies, drug therapies or a combination of drug therapy and CBT. The one treatment besides CBT that seems to hold particular promise for individuals with bulimia is IPT (described above). Fairburn and his colleagues compared CBT and IPT and found that although CBT seemed to work more quickly than IPT, the...

Klinefelter Syndrome

Physical manifestations of KS result in impairment of normal genital and sexual development. Although persons with KS enter puberty at the typical age, inadequate testosterone levels prevent normal pub-ertal progress. Hypogonadism is present with a slowed development of or lack of secondary sexual characteristics. In addition, KS leads to smaller than normal testes that often contribute to infertility. Cognitive abilities range from mild mental retardation to above-average intelligence. In general, persons with KS have deficits in verbal abilities, whereas nonverbal abilities are typically in the average range. Behaviorally, individuals with KS may be reserved, withdrawn, and immature, and they are at risk for having poor peer relationships. Self-esteem problems also have been described. In contrast, they also have been described as being easygoing, underactive, compliant, and, consequently, well liked by teachers.

The Illness Autobiography

Disease on work, family life, identity, and self-image as well as to recount their experiences with impersonal, bureaucratic, medical institutions. While such narratives have been written by people from various walks of life, and deal with a variety of different medical conditions, the stories share many common narrative elements mystery (disease is unexpected or difficult to diagnose), betrayal by one's own body, conflict with medical professionals or medical bureaucracies, the failure of medical science to heal, the need for self-reliance, and, generally, but not always, a return to good health. An early and successful prototype of the new genre was Norman Cousins' Anatomy of an Illness (1979), a poignant account of the author's struggle with a painful collagen disorder which sat atop the New York Times best seller list for more than 40 weeks. In Anatomy, the former editor of the Saturday Review, not only questions the value of high-tech medicine by describing how he substituted...

Hasan Aziz and Zarin Mogal

Epilepsy is a worldwide problem with a major impact on the personal, family, and social life of the affected individual and also on the society. The reported prevalence rates of epilepsy in various epidemiological studies vary from 1.5 to 19.5 per 1,000 population with higher prevalence rates in developing countries.1-5 The average accepted prevalence rate is 5 per 1000.2 Stigmatization, low literacy, sub-optimal employment, and social and economical marginalization are the commonly faced problems by people with epilepsy, both in developed and developing countries. This attitude of the public significantly contributes to high rates of anxiety, depression, dejection, feeling of deprivation, and low self-esteem in people with epilepsy.6,7 This is much more so in developing countries.8-11 Even in the present era when the civic sense of tolerance and acceptance to accommodate people with handicaps is high, people with epilepsy are socially isolated and discriminated.12,13 However, in the...

Habituation and Extinction Models

Forward to explain what is learned during extinction of phobic behavior. For example, it is postulated that what is learned is disconfirmation of outcome expectations, or enhanced self-efficacy, or the fact that the arousal associated with exposure is not dangerous. These cognitive-oriented theories will be discussed in more detail in the following paragraphs.

Exercise as a strategy for changing central perception of dyspnea

Based on these findings and those from social cognitive learning theory35 this author tested a dyspnea self-management program that included exercise. We hypothesized that similar to phobias and other symptoms, repeated exposure to dyspnea in a safe, monitored environment would result in increased and more effective coping skills, a change in the appraisal of the symptom, an increased tolerance for the symptom and finally a reduction in anxiety and distress associated with the dyspnea.110 The dyspnea self-management did increase patients' control or self-efficacy for walking and managing dyspnea and the dyspnea intensity was less for a given level of ventilation.32' 113 The precise mechanism of the decrease in dyspnea relative to ventilation after exercise is still unknown. Desensitization or another cognitive mechanism for reducing dyspnea may be especially important in advanced disease as the reduction occurs regardless of the patient's ability to improve physical exercise...

Jesse H Wright and D Kristen Small

In a preliminary study, Rothbaum et al. (1995) observed that virtual reality exposure therapy (VR) for height phobia was more effective than a wait-list control condition. This research group also has reported that VR was equal to standard exposure therapy and superior to a wait list in helping persons with fear of flying (Rothbaum et al., 2000). Another VR application was evaluated in a small controlled study that compared a multidimensional treatment approach (including a virtual reality component) with group CBT for binge eating disorder (Riva et al., 2002). Subjects in this investigation also received dietary counseling and physical exercise. There were no significant differences found between the groups in reducing binge eating behavior, but patients treated with VR had significantly greater improvement in measures of body satisfaction and self-efficacy (Riva et al., 2002).

Cognitivebehavioral Model Of Anorexia Precipitation And Maintenance

Vitousek and Ewald (1993) proposed a cognitive-behavioral model that highlights common pathways in the precipitation and maintenance of AN. According to the theory, a confluence of individual variables (e.g., perfectionism, low self-esteem, compliance, preference for simplicity), sociocultural variables (i.e., an environment that equates thinness with beauty and worth), and personal stressors (e.g., loss, failure, onset of puberty or young adulthood) combine to create dysfunctional beliefs regarding weight and shape that center around the theme that thinness and weight control are key to solving life's problems and achieving success. Consequent to such beliefs, behaviors designed to control weight and shape ensue, such as dieting, excessive exercise, or purging. Restrictive eating is maintained through both positive reinforcement resulting from attention from others and a personal sense of achievement, superiority, or self-mastery, and through negative reinforcement resulting from the...

Attributionattitude Boomerang Effect See Attribution Theory

The Austrian-American psychologist Fritz Heider (18961988) was preeminent in the formulation of balance theory in the study of attitudes (i.e., people are motivated to maintain balance, harmony, or cognitive consonance among their attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs cf., state of imbalance, disharmony, or cognitive dissonance) and of attribution theory in the study of social perception that originated in social psychology and is a general approach for describing the ways individuals use information to generate causal explanations for behavior and events Heider's term causal schema denotes a conceptual organization of a sequence of events in which some are identified as causes and others as effects. Heider argued the people continually make causal analyses about others' behavior where the behavior is attributed either to dispositions (internal factors or causes, such as one's personality) or to situations (external factors or causes, such as one's environment). For...

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