Improving Your Sex Life

Revive Her Drive

Be ready to go through a complete transformation in the way that you think and feel about having sex with your wife or girlfriend! Revive Her Drive is like a Cheat Sheet to woo your woman the way she secretly wants you to, and simply cant express. The solution is based on female-friendly, easy-to-learn strategies that she will love! How nice will that moment be when shes lying in your arms, happy and spent, and she actually Thanks You for helping her to rediscover her sensual self? Shell be grateful that you, Her Man, now that you have the vision and skill to guide her into new, electrifying experiences even if she fights you or resists you now. Women Are sensual creatures. We women want pleasure, intimacy, connection, sensation as much as you do! Ill prove this to you. Once you know how to captivate her, you can turn her into a pleasure-seeking device within 24 hours. Getting that kind of responsiveness is the feedback you need to feel confident this program is working. Discover how Robert rekindled his relationship with Lauren using the tools within Revive Her Drive by watching this short presentation that lays out the whole strategy youll use to transform your intimate life into one of passion, surrender and fantasies-come-true. More here...

Revive Her Drive Summary


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Highly Recommended

All of the information that the author discovered has been compiled into a downloadable ebook so that purchasers of Revive Her Drive can begin putting the methods it teaches to use as soon as possible.

As a whole, this e-book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

The History Of Sex Therapy

Modern sex therapy was founded by Masters and Johnson (1970) using the model of a 2-week intensive therapy, the couple treated by a male-female co-therapy team, and sexual exercises done between therapy sessions. The core concepts adopted by the cognitive-behavioral sex therapy model are (1) sexual dysfunction is best conceptualized, assessed, and treated as a couple issue (2) sexual comfort, skill, and functioning can be learned utilizing a series of sexual exercises (3) the couple develops a sexual style that is comfortable and functional for both partners and (4) a relapse prevention program is integral for successful sex therapy (McCarthy, 2002). For a more thorough understanding of the growth of cognitive-behavioral sex therapy, the contributions of Barlow (1986) and LoPiccolo and Friedman (1988) are essential.

Assessment In Cognitivebehavioral Couple Sex Therapy

The feedback session is the core intervention in sex therapy and has three focuses (1) present a way of understanding the sexual problem which motivates the couple and provides hope for change and resolution (2) propose a therapeutic plan which focuses on specific individual and couple changes, as well as potential traps to monitor and (3) give a sexual homework exercise and the assignment to process and clarify material from the feedback session. The couple leaves the feedback session with a clear understanding of the individual responsibility intimate team model of change (each partner is responsible for his her desire, arousal, and orgasm and the couple works together as an intimate team to develop a comfortable, functional sexual style), motivation to address the sexual problem, and willingness to explore personal and couple vulnerabilities in a nonblaming manner.

Sex Therapy And Sexual Trauma

Another significant group consists of couples where one or both partners have a history of sexual trauma. The major forms of sexual trauma are childhood sexual abuse, incest, and rape. Negative sexual experiences can be broadly defined to include dealing with an unwanted pregnancy, contracting a sexually transmitted disease, experiencing a sexual dysfunction, being sexually humiliated or rejected, guilt over masturbation, shame about sexual fantasies, being exhibited to or peeped on, receiving obscene phone calls, or being sexually harassed. Negative, confusing, guilt-inducing, or traumatic sexual experiences are almost universal phenomena for both men and women, whether in childhood, adolescence, adulthood, or old age. The cognitive-behavioral approach to sexual trauma centers around two concepts. The first is that when the traumatized person is able to experience desire, arousal, orgasm, and feel intimately bonded, he she has taken back control of sexuality. The person has become a...

Sexual Performance Motivation And Stimulation Of Males

Within a species, motor patterns associated with courtship and copulation are species-specific and relatively invariant, although the sequence of behaviors exhibited varies within and among individuals. Large variation in the frequency or intensity of displays of sexual behavior does occur in farm animals and is likely due to relaxation of natural selection. 2,3 For example, single-sire mating systems enable animals with poor sexual performance to produce large numbers of offspring. This would not occur normally in wild animals, because competition among males would continue to exert intense selective pressure for high sexual performance. The number of males displaying inadequate sexual performance is significant, and this lack of performance has direct economic consequences. This variation in sexual performance has contributed to the need for animal scientists and producers to develop tests of sexual behavior in males. With animal agriculture the need still exists for males that...

Sex Therapy Process

A core strategy in sex therapy is the use of semistruc-tured sexual exercises to facilitate changing attitudes, behaviors, and emotions. A critical skill for the therapist is to describe, process, refine, and individualize sexual exercises. Exercises provide a continuous assessment to identify anxieties, inhibitions, and lack of skills. Behavioral exercises help the couple build sexual comfort and skill. Reading, discussing, and processing the exercises helps change cognitions, perceptions, and feelings (McCarthy & McCarthy, 2002). Therapy sessions are structured, especially at the beginning. The first agenda item is to discuss experiences and exercises of the previous week. The therapist does a fine-grain analysis of the positive and negative attitudes, behaviors, and emotions elicited by the exercises. Initiation patterns, comfort level, receptivity, and responsivity to specific pleasuring techniques, interfering anxieties or inhibitions, and subjective and objective arousal are...

Methodologies for Implicating Socialization Factors

Cognitive theories of the acquisition of sex roles may account for many sex differences. However, children begin to conform with these expectations, or stereotypes, before they understand about sex-appropriate behavior or even to which sex they belong. For example, the cooperative style of girls and the confrontational style of boys emerge before children come to believe that girls are supposed to be nice and boys rough. Even if children do understand a certain expectation for sex-typed behavior, they may not conform with it themselves (Serbin, Powlishta, & Gulko, 1993 Signorella, Bilger, & Liben, 1993), and may even exhibit a backlash against demonstrations of nontraditional behavior (Durkin & Hutchins, 1984).

Marriage Defining Marriage

Behavioral tie we call marriage involves several of the following behavioral elements, most of which were suggested by Murdock (1949). The idea that marriage consists of a sexual relationship plus several other traits also makes a useful working definition. These traits include a sexual relationship that is socially approved

Biosocial Models of Parental Investment

Individuals face trade-offs between investing in themselves (their own human capital, physical growth or immune system, etc.), in mating effort (initiating and or maintaining a relationship with a sexual partner), or in parental effort (investments in existing offspring) The evolutionary perspective emphasizes two reasons for parental investment in offspring. First, parents invest in genetic offspring because doing so increases their own genetic fitness, i.e., the number of copies of their genes present in future generations. Secondly, an individual may invest in an offspring because the investment influences that person's relationship with the offspring's other parent. (Anderson et al., 2001, p.6)

Differences in Deity Images

Studies have shown that women hold different images of God. For them God is seen more as a healer, as supportive rather than instrumental (Nelsen, Cheek, & Hau, 1985), and as loving, comforting, and forgiving, where males see him as a supreme power, a driving force, a planner and controller (Wright & Cox, 1967). Yeaman (1987), in a study of members of a radical Roman Catholic association, found that 73 of the women had a sex-inclusive image of God, that is, as neither male nor female, compared with 58 of the men. Hood and Hall (1980) tested a sex-related theory of religious experience with 220 students. They found that the females described both their sexual and their mystical experiences, when they had them, in receptive terms the males described their sexual experiences, but not their mystical ones, in agentic terms. Therefore the sexual model was supported for females but not for males. These findings indicate that women may experience the religious message in a feminine...

Empirical Studies

McGuire and colleagues in 1965 discussed the implications of their hypothesis for the treatment of sexual deviations. First, the authors stated that since the original conditioning was carried out in most cases to fantasy alone, treatment also need only be to fantasy. Thus, in the treatment of deviations such as pedophilia, it is not necessary to present the subject with children, but only with fantasies involving children. Another implication of this hypothesis is that therapists can warn their patients of the conditioning effects of orgasm on the immediately preceding fantasy. Finally, according to McGuire and colleagues, positive conditioning to normal heterosexual stimuli can follow the same lines as it is deduced that the deviation followed. A study conducted by Lamontagne and Lesage in 1986 nicely illustrates the use of covert sensitization in the treatment of exhibitionism. The subject in this study was a 37-year-old male who had been exposing himself several times per week....

Major Theoretical Paradigms

Sexual behavior is a cross-cultural universal. Across time and place, the vast majority of human beings engage in sexual relations. The biologically ubiquitous drive to engage in sexual activity is also transparently related to reproduction in our own and other species. Among human beings, however, different cultures also elaborate and interpret sexuality in different ways. Each of these three observations regarding human sexuality motivates one of three major theoretical perspectives regarding the study of human sexual attitudes and practices.

Attitudes Toward Sex Range of Variation

The belief that sex is dangerous at least some of the time is shared by a majority of societies for which information on attitudes toward sex is available. In only 41 of a worldwide sample of 34 cultures is sex viewed as safe all of the time (Broude & Greene, 1976). Thus, for instance, sex is viewed as normal and natural among societies such as the Tibetan Lepcha, who think of sexual activity as wholesome, fun, and even necessary, much like food or drink (Gorer, 1938). Sexual secretions are seen as dangerous in 6 of the same 34 cultures (Broude & Greene, 1976). For the Kurd, is it not sex itself that is dangerous, but the body fluids produced during sexual activity are viewed as dirty, and therefore Kurd men bathe after sex (Broude, 1994). The Kimam of New Guinea believe that sperm has healing qualities, but sex can stunt the growth of boys (Serpenti, 1965). Sexual activity is always considered dangerous in 15 of the sample of 34 societies (Broude & Greene, 1976). For instance,...

Cross Culturally Recurrent Themes

If homosexuality is not a totally arbitrary construct of symbolic culture, then we should find some recurrent themes behind all of the cultural diversity. For example, are pathics like gays What about the typical men who have sex with them Are there perhaps universal cognitive associations with homosexuality Cross-gendered Individuals versus Typical Men and Women. People with experience in both gender-stratified and modern gay systems often compare pathics with gays, under the assumption that a man who became a pathic in one culture would become a gay if he had lived elsewhere. Williams (1985) interviewed Lakota Sioux Indians who automatically associated their traditional winktes with modern gays. They noted, however, that winktes would have sex with men, not with other winktes like gays do, and one Indian complained It makes me mad when I hear someone insult winktes. A lot of the younger gays, though, don't fulfill their spiritual role as winktes, and that's sad too. most concerned...

Ovulation and Ejaculation

During sexual intercourse, millions of sperm are deposited into the vagina. They travel through the cervix and uterus to the fallopian tubes. Sperm can live within a woman's body for up to three days. Each sperm contain three distinct parts, the head, mid-piece, and tail. Each of these parts has a distinct purpose. The head of the sperm is composed of the nucleus (containing the chromosomes), an acrosome cap (containing enzymes crucial in fertilization), and an outer membrane. The mid-piece contains energy-producing mitochondria, and the tail is the mechanism for movement. Despite the ingenious design, fewer than 1 percent of the sperm released in an ejaculation ever make it to the egg. Factors inhibiting the success of sperm include abnormal formation and premature death from exposure to acidic vaginal secretions. Sperm can also be blocked by excess mucus covering the cervix, or they may travel to the fallopian tube that does not contain the egg. Fortunately, only one sperm is...

Reconstructing Sex Australian and New Zealand Transgender Reform Jurisprudence

However, it is the genital factor that proves decisive.3 In relation to reform jurisprudence, on the other hand, it is the surgical removal and reconstruction of genitalia subsequent to birth that proves crucial. Moreover, it is not merely a concern with bodily esthetics that has led to this focus. Rather, legal analysis has also exhibited concern over postoperative sexual functioning. In the biological approach this has manifested itself in terms of judicial horror at the prospect of unnatural sexual intercourse. Within reform jurisprudence it is the capacity for penetrative heterosexual intercourse postoperatively that has been emphasized repeatedly. In New Zealand the judiciary have dispensed with the requirement of postoperative sexual function (Attorney-General v. Otathuhu Family Court 1995 1 NZLR 603). However, New Zealand law still requires genital reassignment surgery (see Sharpe, 2002).

The Law and Definitions of Rape

Herself to force her to consent to sexual intercourse (Siklova & Hradlikova, 1994, p. 112). Not protected by this definition are men and victims of domestic and child sexual abuse and violence. With this definition, children and adolescents who are forcibly raped qualify for inclusion in FBI rape statistics. As Russell and Bolen (2000, p. 21) point out, since carnal knowledge is understood to refer to penile-vaginal sexual intercourse, the FBI's definition excludes oral and anal penetration and penetration when a woman is unable to consent because she is unconscious, drugged, or incapacitated. It also excludes forcible rape by males on males, females on females, and females by males. Statutory rape is intercourse with a female who is below the age of consent. Although the inhabitants of different states are subject to state and not federal rape laws, the FBI's definition of rape determines which cases are included in their national crime statistics. Rape is defined as nonconsensual...

Parental and Other Caretaker Roles

Mothers are responsible for childcare, but the actual care of small children is often provided by older siblings (girls and boys) or hired girls who are not in school because their families are unable to pay school fees. Mothers are usually warm and affectionate with children, and their punishments are likely to be verbal mother-son and mother-daughter bonds are often very close. Fathers tend to be authoritarian and distant, are more likely to punish with beatings, and spend relatively little time with their children except for older boys, who usually eat the evening meal with their father if he is at home. Grandparents, especially grandmothers, tend to be indulgent with all their grandchildren, joke with them, teach them about sex, and give them treats. Many grandmothers are primary caretakers of children born to unmarried daughters or in situations where AIDS affects the parental generation they, like younger women, struggle to make ends meet.

The Sense of Merger and Transcendence

Sex informed by love results in heightened sexuality. It is in love that one is granted the most compelling sexual experiences of one's life. Every sexual act is informed with wonder, tenderness, and awe. Other women, other men cease to interest the lover. In the phase of idyllic love, the lover is passionately monogamous even if he in fact sleeps with someone else. (For some, object constancy depends on whom they think of when they make love, not whom they are with.)

Endocrinology and Pharmacology

Experimental demonstration of endocrine effects on body composition is extensive. 7,8 For example, excess gluco-corticoid hormones produce decreased muscle and increased fat deposition. Insufficient thyroid hormone leads to excess fat production. Sex hormones have marked effects on body composition with mammalian males being more muscular and less fat than females or castrated males. However, because of aggressiveness and sexual activity, males are usually castrated. In some countries, male pigs are raised but are marketed at a younger age to avoid behavioral problems and boar-taint (an off-flavor developing with sexual maturity). In the United States,

Courtship and Marriage

Almost all Bakairi men and women are married or have been married. Single people tend to be widows or widowers, and they express the desire to remarry. One typical pattern of male-female courtship and marriage is young people having sex with each other and gradually becoming closer and ceasing sexual relations with others. They then marry. Another equally acceptable pattern is parents deciding on unions between two adolescents who have known each other all their lives. The Bakairi report that love is part of a marriage, but that the degree of relat-edness and the industrious nature of the individual are also important considerations. Males and females consider that they have a choice in when and with whom they can marry. When a marriage occurs the men and kin of the groom accompany him to the house of his bride where he hangs his hammock below hers. The fathers of the two

Mechanisms Of Accountability

In some cases, psychotherapists and counselors may feel that these different standards clash. They may, for example, feel that the law compels them to act in a way that violates the welfare of the client and the clinician's own sense of what is ethical. A national survey of psychologists found that a majority (57 percent) of the respondents had intentionally violated the law or a similar formal standard because, in their opinion, not to do so would have injured the client or violated some deeper value (Pope & Bajt, 1988). The actions reported by two or more respondents included refusing to report child abuse (21 percent), illegally divulging confidential information (21 percent), engaging in sex with a patient (9 percent), engaging in nonsexual dual relationships (6 percent), and refusing to make legally required warnings regarding dangerous patients (6 percent). That almost one out of ten of the participants reported engaging in sex with a client (see Chapter Thirteen) using the...

Complications Of Penile Rings

Penile strangulation can occur from pressure around the entire penile circumference by rings, hair, or other devices. Since delay in relief of strangulation can lead to vascular compromise and other serious consequences, these devices must be removed rapidly. Penile-strangulating objects have been placed for masturbatory purposes, as adjuncts to vacuum erection devices, to prolong erections, enhance sexual performance, and often by children during experimentation. Such devices have also been used to prevent enuresis and nocturnal emissions. In the pediatric population, the possibility of child abuse must also be considered.

The Mutual Identifications Between Lovers

Definition participate in a double identity that is part of the power of their experience. Therefore the lover wants to gratify the beloved as much as he wants to be gratified by her. This is readily apparent in the lover's impassioned desire to provide for the beloved he wants to please her, care for her, and give her pleasure of the soul and body. In Endless Love, David, speaking of his love for Jade, recalls

Gender over the Life Cycle

Are usually gradual and are not typically marked by public ceremonies. Both males and females receive their citizenship card (obcanka) at age 15, but this is not marked by any special ceremony and the rights and duties of legal adulthood are obtained gradually. The legal age of consent for sexual intercourse is 15 for both males and females, heterosexual and homosexual. At 18, one can vote and can legally purchase alcohol and tobacco. There are several transitions in schooling, from kindergarten to basic school, and then to gymnasium college preparatory school or a technical vocational school in the teenage years, but all of these are the same for both sexes, and differ more by class and one's ultimate profession than by gender. The military is almost exclusively male. Men are expected to serve several years of military service or substitute civilian service at some point in their late teens or twenties many try to avoid it. Women can enter the armed forces, but it is not required and...

Adolescence 12 to 17 Years

PHYSICAL ASPECTS The teen years mark a second period of rapid growth, beginning at age 10 in girls and age 12 in boys. Secondary sexual development begins shortly after beginning the growth spurt, with menarche starting between 10 and 16 years in girls. Sexual activity and drug use are common during adolescence, and many teens are parents themselves, complicating both the differential diagnosis and issues of maturity and reliability in carrying out the follow-up plan.

Husband Wife Relationship

Extramarital relationships are not unusual. They are carried out with utmost discretion unless intended to openly provoke a spouse. Almost all sexual activity takes place in a woman's garden. The presence of visitors to a garden is usually indicated by the canoe that is left at the river-edge nearest the path to the garden.

Attainment of Adulthood

Attainment of adulthood varies with social and educational levels. For apprentices, adulthood is reached when the 3 years of apprenticeship training is finished (or at the earliest at the legal age of majority of 18). A student, possibly living at home and on a parental allowance, may be aged 25 or more before being considered an adult. Other indicators for adulthood are obtaining a driver's license, making a living, and renting one's own apartment in other words, standing on one's own feet . The Kohabitarche, i.e., the onset of sexual activity, is not an indicator of adulthood.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

We assume that the total population of sexually active males and females is constant. The number of susceptible males and females at time t is denoted by Si (t) and S2 (t), respectively, and the number of infective males and females by h (t) and I2 (t) . By assumption Si (t) + h (t) Ni, S2 (t) +I2 (t) N2, where N1 and N2 are constants. The number of susceptible males decreases in unit time by those who get infected by infective females and vice versa, the number of males getting the infection in unit time is supposed to be proportional to the number of susceptibles and to the number of infective females. The number of susceptible males females increases by those who recover from the disease-the number of those recovered in unit time is proportional to the number of infective males females. The number of infectives increases in unit time by those who get the infection and decreases by those who recover. This way we arrive at the following four-dimensional (4D) system of differential...

Extramarital Sex Norms of Extramarital

In every society around the world, the overwhelmingly majority of men and women marry, and married couples are expected to engage in sexual relations. Sexual activity outside marriage is also condemned in many societies. However, in a number of cultures, extramarital affairs are at least tolerated, and a majority of societies accept and even expect husbands to engage in them. Fifty-six percent of a worldwide sample of 112 societies do not officially condemn extramarital sex for males, while extramarital liaisons are condemned and may be punished in only 44 of these societies. By contrast, extramarital sex is overwhelmingly condemned for women across the world. Extramarital sex is condemned in 88 of a sample of 114 societies, while is accepted in only 12 of these cultures (Broude & Greene, 1976). Even when extramarital sex is condemned, some societies selectively lift the restraints on extramarital sexual activity. Sometimes, extramarital sex is permitted with certain specified...

Origin of the Practice

The early Romans, concerned about the consequences of sexual activity among female slaves, adopted the technique of slipping rings through their labia majora (Figure 1 4) to block access to the vagina. In the twelfth century c.e., Crusaders introduced the chastity belt in Europe for the same purpose the belt prevented girls and women from engaging in unlawful or unsanctioned sex. This method caused little permanent physical damage to the individual. Genital surgery was permitted in North America and Europe in the late nineteenth century with the intention of curing nymphomania, masturbation, hysteria, depression, epilepsy, and insanity. There is no evidence that such surgery was associated with any ritualistic activity. Elsewhere, the surgery has historical links with either religious or ethnic rituals. It is believed that the ancient Egyptians and ancient Arabs practiced this form of surgery. Genital mutilation seems to have been transplanted to Latin America from Africa during the...

Religion and Culture Intertwined

Anthropologists Lane and Rubinstein comment that, Although it is not a practice of the majority of Muslims in the world, among those who do practice it female circumcision is nonetheless often considered to be legitimized by religion (p. 34). Other reasons, often closely interwoven with religious ones, include the belief that without circumcision girls will run wild, become sexually active, and besmirch family honor (thus also flouting religious norms). The more extreme forms of genital alteration guarantee a daughter's

Cultural Construction of Gender

The ideal Hmong woman of one or two generations ago was nurturing, patient, forbearing, industrious, mature, quiet, and not given to gossip. She modestly avoided joking, or even talking, about sex. When faced with a serious tragedy, such as the death of loved ones, she displayed great emotion, but muted her feelings when dealing with the aggravating problems of everyday life. Rather than being assertive, she tended to withhold opinions that might contradict the views of others, particularly those of male leaders. Most of these qualities continue to be valued by Hmong in the United States, but the ascent of women into public positions of authority reflects a trend toward greater gender equality with respect to opinion sharing and problem solving (see Donnelly, 1994 Rice, 2000 Symonds, 1991).

Smell And Sexual Arousal

Of the olfactory mucosa external to the brain, which prevents odorant molecule binding, similarly causes impaired sexual function and reduced sex drive (38). Homologous lesions in mice cause impaired copulatory ability (39,40). Alternatively, in the female rat, lesion of the olfactory bulb leads to an increase in mating behavior suggesting indiscriminate sexual activity (41). This olfactory-sexual connection is further highlighted in lab animals since castration of the animal leads to not only impaired sexual drive but also impaired olfactory functioning (42). Alternatively, ovariectomy leads to not only impaired sexual functioning but also reduced olfactory ability (43,44). Lesions of the olfactory bulb, or even of the nasal cartilage alone, cause both olfactory deficit (45,46) and malformation of the developing animal's sex organs. These studies suggest a strong link among olfaction, olfactory organs, and sexual functioning. Further evidence for the existence of pheromones is based...

Courtship and Marriage Courtship

Persuade the girl to meet him elsewhere for a tryst, but success was unlikely. If the relationship developed into a strong romantic attachment, the boy asked his father and other close males relatives to visit the girl's family formally to propose marriage. Boys tried to act out their sexual desires, while girls were expected to resist and remain virgins until married. If caught in an apparent tryst, and even if sexual intercourse has not occurred, a couple will often be pressured by their respective families to marry in order to prevent scandal. As an alternative, a compensation payment may be demanded by the girl's side for damages caused to the reputation of the girl and her family.

Inbreedingdepression Theory

With their immediate children) is embedded in a universal principle practice that is difficult, typically, to explain. However, the following incest taboo theories have been offered to explain the phenomenon the functional theory - holds that the taboo creates and maintains networks of social relationships that are necessary to prevent societies from disintegrating into separate nuclear families this theory is based on the debatable assumption that without the incest taboo, people would normally want to mate with close relatives also, this theory fails to account for reasons why the taboo governs sexual intercourse rather than marriage the inbreeding-depress-ion theory -states that the practice of inbreeding results in the genetic deterioration and elimination of any society allowing it because deleterious recessive genes are more likely to flourish, and the taboo may have evolved via the principle of natural selection however, this viewpoint does not answer the questions as to why...

Personality Differences by Gender

Bateson (1936 1958) summarized the ethos of Iatmul men as histrionic, aggressive, competitive, and flamboyant. Women were more demur, nurturing, cooperative, and practical. Male personhood is expansive and public women are more domestic and personal. Women, too, take pride in male kin who uphold the showy self-important swagger of manhood (Hauser-Schaublin, 1977, p. 130). But since men tend to restrict their politico-ritual voice to the cult house, one hears in the village mainly women as they loudly talk, laugh, yell, and fight. The ethos of masculinity notwithstanding, women are far more likely to scuffle than men. In fact, men often attribute social tensions between groups to women, especially female sexuality, which men regard as divisive.

Shaken Optimism about Modern Medicine

In Western societies, where HIV infection is concentrated in homosexual men, injection drug users, and, increasingly, women sex partners of injection drug users and of men who have sex with men (CDC), its transmission has often involved stigmatized behavior. HIV, with the ugly image of a wasting, disfiguring, and dementing disease, has added vastly to the burdens of prior stigmas. Many people with HIV disease have experienced intense feelings of guilt, shame, and self-blame as an added dimension of their suffering (Klitzman). Moreover, many have experienced great loss. In social circles where HIV has become common, many individuals still in early adulthood have lost many friends and associates, an otherwise rare experience in modern societies, given the generally thorough control of death before old age. Many are burdened by the survivors' guilt typical of people who live through disasters that have claimed the lives of many others (Erikson). They often find that any attempt at a...

Patterns Of Perpetrators And Victims

According to these pooled data, about 4.4 percent of the therapists reported becoming sexually involved with a client. The gender differences are significant 6.8 percent of the male therapists and 1.6 percent of the female therapists reported engaging in sex with a client. Data based on therapists' reports of engaging in sex with patients or on therapists' work with patients who have been sexually exploited by a prior therapist have been supplemented with national survey data from patients who have been sexually involved with a therapist. In one study, about 2.19 percent of the men and about 4.58 percent of the women reported having become sexually involved with their own therapists (Pope & Feldman-Summers, 1992). Holroyd and Brodsky's landmark research (1977) was followed by a second national study focusing on not only therapist-patient but also professor-student sexual relationships (Pope et al., 1979) When sexual contact occurs in the context of psychology training or...

Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

Shifting relations between men and women have also given rise to new mating practices. Adolescent girls increasingly pursue older men as sources of economic support, eschewing boys of their age by saying that school boy have pocket change but big man have salary. At the same time, older men are seeking younger girls as part of the myth of the virgin cure for HIV. Unfortunately, these relationships are contributing to rising rates of HIV among adolescent girls. In recent years, economically successful single women, including higglers, have sought younger men for sexual satisfaction and status, keeping them in new clothes, lodging, and food. In sum, Jamaican gender relations are in flux, influenced by internal factors as well as transnationalism, industrialism, and globalization, producing a wide range of contradictory results confusion over gender roles, increased opportunities, status, and independence for women, burgeoning tension between men and women, and a decline in perceptions...

Mistaking Deductive Validity for Truth

Example I just read a book that proves that that book's author can have sex with his clients without causing any harm. He has done research with his own clients, kept careful records, and even interviewed them. His statistical analysis shows that the clients he has sex with are no worse off and some may be significantly better off than the clients he doesn't have sex with. He even has a chart showing how safe, ethical, and clinically helpful it can be to have sex with a client as long as it is done carefully and in accordance with his decision rules. Who am I to argue with scientific proof like that

Physical Contact with Clients

Therapists who do not otherwise typically touch their patients at a rate different from other therapists (except when mutually initiated). Sexual intercourse with patients is associated with the touching of opposite-sex patients but not same-sex patients. It is the differential application of touching rather than touching per se that is related to intercourse (p. 810). Our responsibility to be sensitive to the issues of nonsexual touch and explore them carefully extends to other therapeutic issues conceptually related to the issue of therapist-client sexual involvement. Our unresolved concerns with therapist-client sexual intimacies may prompt us to respond to the prospect of nonsexual touching either phobically avoiding in an exaggerated manner any contact or even physical closeness with a client or counterphobically engaging in apparently nonsexual touching such as handshakes and hugs as if to demonstrate that we are very comfortable with physical intimacy and experience no sexual...

Gender and Religion

Sponsors for the children involved and both contribute to gathering the necessary foodstuffs. The kwatyj of honored children are expected to make themselves available sexually to male celebrants during the night of the ritual climax. Rituals may also feature collective sexual intercourse in which younger unmarried women maintain relations with married men and married women do the same with bachelors. One researcher claims to have documented spikes in the birthrate 9 months after great name ritual celebrations.

When The Therapist Is Unsure What To Do

What can the therapist do when he or she doesn't know what to do The book Sexual Feelings in Psychotherapy (Pope et al., 1993) suggests a ten-step approach to such daunting situations, which are summarized here. A repeated theme of that book is that therapists lack easy, one-size-fits-all answers to what sexual feelings about patients mean or their implications for the therapy. Different theoretical orientations provide different, sometimes opposing ways of approaching such questions. Each person and situation is unique. Therapists must explore

Transmission of HIV

In the industrialized world, transmission occurs most commonly through men having sex with men and through sharing of infected works by injection drug users. Heterosexual transmission is on the rise in industrialized countries, and it is the most prevalent form of transmission in Africa and India. Transmission also occurs from infected mother to fetus and through the administration of contaminated blood products. The latter is no longer an important risk in industrialized nations but poses a continuing hazard elsewhere. From the standpoint of sexual transmission, both unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse constitute the most risky circumstances, with orogen-ital sex representing a fairly small risk and other activities such as kissing regarded as essentially risk free.

Hiring Screening and Supervising

Those who work within health maintenance organizations, hospitals, and other structures hiring clinicians have a responsibility to attend carefully to the risks that staff may sexually exploit clients. Carefully structured and adequately comprehensive forms and procedures (verifying education, supervision, licensure, employment, history of licensing or ethics complaints, and others) for screening potential personnel, establishing and monitoring policies prohibiting sex with clients, and so on have long been advocated as important in minimizing the risk that organizational personnel will sexually exploit clients (see Pope & Bouhoutsos, 1986 Pope, 1994). More recently, however, the usefulness of such forms and procedures that operationally define screening procedures and policy implementation has been recognized as an important component of malpractice risk management not only in hospitals but also in clinics, group practices, and similar settings. As defense attorney Brandt Caudill...

Str Multiplex Example

President William Jefferson Clinton had a sexual relationship with a young blue dress When faced with this indisputable DNA evidence, President Clinton found himself in a tight spot. Earlier statements that he had not had 'sexual relations' with Miss Lewinsky were now in doubt. The DNA results along with other evidence and testimony resulted in the impeachment of President Clinton on 19 December 1998 - only the second President in U.S. history to be impeached. This physical evidence played an important role in demonstrating that a sexual relationship had existed between Miss Lewinsky and President William Jefferson Clinton. Although during the Senate impeachment trial, it was determined that his deeds were not serious enough for him to be removed from office, President Clinton's career will always be tainted by the semen stain on the now famous blue dress.

Trichomonas Vaginalis

Trichomoniasis is caused by the protozoan T. vaginalis. Trichomonads are frequently found in the urethra and Skene glands and may be recovered from urine. It is estimated that 2 to 3 million American women contract the disease annually. Trichomonas is almost always a STD, and its prevalence correlates with the overall level of sexual activity of the population studied. 29 Recent epidemiologic surveys indicate a possible decline in prevalence. Vaginal trichomoniasis may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly PROM and preterm delivery.1 H Trichomoniasis is also reported to facilitate the transmission of HIV.

Frequency of Sex in Marriage

People living in different cultures report widely different incidences of sexual activity between spouses. In part, the differences are related to cultural attitudes regarding how often individuals ought to engage in sexual intercourse. In 17 of 70 cultures around the world, frequent sexual intercourse between spouses is viewed as highly desirable (Broude, 1976). Among the Lepcha, who typify this attitude, married couples claim to engage in sexual activity five, six, or more times a day when first married, although they acknowledge that a person would be tired afterward (Gorer, 1938). By contrast, 9 of the same sample of 70 societies believe that too much sex, even between married couples, is a bad thing (Broude, 1976). The Konso of Ethiopia believe that sex makes men weak, and therefore only engage in sex in moderation (Hallpike, 1972). The Yapese of Oceania believe that too much sexual activity will make a man ill, and tell legends of men who have died from an overactive sex life...

Female Homosexual Systems

In her study of lesbian relationships in Lesotho, Kendal (1998) pointed out how easy it is to ignore female homosexuality. Basotho women simply say that sex is impossible without a penis. Women have sex with their husbands, but simultaneously maintain affective ties with women (including grinding genital contacts) that they describe as loving. This has made it difficult for cross-cultural researchers to ascertain just how sexual women's relationships are. For example, women taking on the typically male roles of warrior or husband have been reported for many societies, but it is unclear whether these involved lesbian sex. the poet from Lesbos, addressed women in the language of erastes eromenos used for male homosexual relations. Since Sappho had a daughter, she obviously also had sex with a man. Female homosexuality also occurred in the form of a reverse catamite system in Japan, where girl dancers imitated men's behavior and served as prostitutes for female customers (Murray, 2000).

Leisure Recreation and the Arts

Prior to contact, elite 'Enana devoted most of their time to leisure, while even commoners enjoyed more leisure than does the average Western worker. The younger set engaged in ball games, top-spinning, kite-flying, making string figures, and playing at the activities of adults (e.g., cleaning house and having sex). All 'Enana enjoyed swimming and bathing frequently. Men also engaged in mock-fighting and stilt-walking competitions. But the single most important form of entertainment was that of singing, drumming, and dancing. Men did much of the drumming and singing at the large-scale koika festivals, while both genders danced women sang in other settings (Ferdon, 1993 Handy, 1923). At present, 'Enana enjoy far less leisure as children attend school for large portions of the day, and mature men and women lay constant claim to working hard. However, when not in school, children enjoy a number of pastimes swimming, surfing, and imitating the occupations of their elders, as well as...

Relative Status of Men and Women

Women appear always to have taken some joy in and had some say as to their premarital and marital partners. However, in some situations parents or groups of males appear to have forced the decision to couple and or cohabit. Women's choice of extramarital partners was once hedged by the threat of being killed if they strayed in ways unauthorized by their husbands. Women rarely had recourse to anything but suicide if their husbands sought extramarital relations without their consent. Finally, men appear to have had easier access to dissolving a sexual relationship than did women (Ferdon, 1993 Handy, 1923 Suggs, 1966).

Clinical Conditions in Adolescents

GENITAL TRAUMA Vaginal injuries following intercourse is one of the most common injuries. The majority of coital injuries result from vigorous voluntary sexual activity, although violent involuntary sexual activity should be considered. The most common site of injury is the posterior vaginal fornix. Misdiagnosis of coital injuries occurs frequently because either the physician fails to take an adequate history or the patient does not admit to the antecedent activity prior to the injury. Most of the coital injuries are minor, but severe injuries may lead to complications, including hemorrhagic shock.

Dementias With a Prominent Dysexecutive Syndrome

A history from a reliable informant often reveals major changes in the patient's personality and social conduct, with inappropriate, embarrassing, or impulsive behaviors. Such disruptions often punctuate behaviors that are otherwise characterized by apathy and withdrawal. Changes in appetitive behavior such as eating or sexual activity are common. Patients tend to present in the presenile years (less than 65 years of age). Mental state examination often reveals compromise of the so-called executive functions, including attention, judgment, and insight. Compared to patients with probable AD, patients with

Lotzes Theory Of Local Signs

In general, two contemporary notions of love that may, or may not, carry sexual connotations are internal feelings of strong liking affection for some specific thing or person, and enduring sentiments toward a person providing a desire to be with that person and a concern for the happiness, welfare, and satisfactions of that person. An earlier conception of love, however, seemed strongly to imply a sexual component a feeling or sentiment of attachment toward some person, often growing out of sexual attraction, relations, or situations, and exhibiting a great diversity of psychological and physiological manifestations cf., the Coolidge effect - named after the 30th American president John Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) and based, perhaps fictitiously, on a semi-salacious joking interchange (concerning the mating sexual behavior of roosters) between Coolidge and his wife - refers to the high continuous sexual performance shown by males of many species for extended...

Clinical Features

The sudden appearance of jaundice in a previously healthy young person, especially if preceded by a brief prodrome of fever, malaise, and myalgias, is likely to be caused by a viral hepatitis. Inquire about body fluid exposure over the previous few months, including transfusion of blood products, intimate contact with someone with hepatitis or jaundice, promiscuous sexual activity, intravenous drug use, accidental needle-stick injuries or mucosal contact with body fluids, travel to countries where hepatitis is prevalent, raw shellfish ingestion, and recent tattoos or body piercing. Many times, however, no history of exposure can be elicited. Right upper quadrant pain and tenderness and hepatomegaly may be present, but pruritis is usually absent. Examine for needle tracks, since patients may not volunteer a history of drug use.

Male Homosexual Systems

In gender-stratified systems men who take on a pathic (passive or receptive) role in sexual relationships are culturally distinguished from typical men, but the men who take on active (inser-tor) roles are not. Unlike gays, pathics do not typically have sex with other pathics. This system is widespread on all the world's continents. In many societies pathics are known for their special ceremonial roles. Among the Siberian Chuckchee a youth begins his transformation when he receives a shamanic calling. He gradually Gender-stratified homosexuality is also common in Latin America. Although some pathics may adopt special religious roles, like the Brazilian pai de santo, most do not, and homosexuality is not necessary for these positions. In his study of a Brazilian fishing village Cardoso (2002) found that most men had had sex with the village's paneleiros (pathics), some of whom were transvestites. Lack of heterosexual opportunities could not explain why men...

Chlamydia Trachomatis

Routine screening of asymptomatic, sexually active adolescent females undergoing pelvic examination is recommended. Annual screening should be done for women age 20-24 years who are either inconsistent users of barrier contraceptives or who acquired a new sex partner or had more than one sexual partner in the past 3 months. II. Gonorrhea. Gonorrhea has an incidence of 800,000 cases annually. Routine screening for gonorrhea is recommended among women at high risk of infection, including prostitutes, women with a history of repeated episodes of gonorrhea, women under age 25 years with two or more sex partners in the past year, and women with mucopurulent cervicitis.

Clinical evaluation

Human papillomavirus is the most important factor contributing to the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. Other epidemiologic risk factors associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer include history of sexual intercourse at an early age, multiple sexual partners, sexually transmitted diseases (including chlamydia), and smoking. Additional risk factors include a male partner or partners who have had multiple sexual partners previous history of squamous dysplasias of the cervix, vagina, or vulva and immunosuppression.

Sexuality and Hivaids

How people categorize their sexual encounters also affects their perceptions of risk. Parker (1987) shows how the sexual categories of Brazil are based on notions of passivity and activity and are not absolute. He noted that the very notion of safe sex runs counter to Brazilian notions of eroticism and that campaigns that depend on homosexual identity would be limited in their impact. Studies of commercial sex workers also point to the need to understand sexual networking and how sex workers differentiate between clients and intimate others and factors contributing to the use of condoms (Renaud, 1997).

Scenarios For Discussion

You have been working with a fourteen-year-old client for several months. During one session, the client suddenly discloses having sex with a parent for the past four years. The client, who has been chronically depressed, threatens, If you tell anyone about this, I will find a way to kill myself. You believe that this is not an idle threat. You are working with a client who engages in unprotected sex with a variety of partners. Two months ago, the client became infected with HIV. Recent sessions have focused on many topics, one of which is the client's decision not to begin using protection during sex and not to disclose the HIV status to any partners. The client shows no likelihood of changing this decision. 3. Under what conditions, if any, would you act against the client's wishes and communicate information about the client's HIV status and sexual activity to third parties What information would you disclose, to whom would you disclose it, and what are the likely or possible...

Some Elements of an Ethics of the Family

A second notable feature of families is that not all of its relationships fit comfortably under what has come to be modern ethics' most favored image of relationship the contract. Children notoriously didn't ask to be born, and no one chooses one's blood relations. This fact has important implications for any theory that bases duties solely on consent indeed, families are perhaps the most plausible counterexample to such theories. It is sometimes claimed that parental duties toward children arise from the parents' having tacitly consented to the child's existence, first, by agreeing to have sexual intercourse and second, by choosing not to abort the fetus. But this analysis entails that where

General Considerations

Couples who have frequent intercourse (arbitrarily defined as more than two to three episodes of intercourse per week) should consider the more continuous, non-coitusrelated methods of contraception OCs, IUDs, implants, injectables, or if childbearing is completed, permanent sterilization. For less sexually active couples (those who have intercourse less than once per week), an episodic method, such as a barrier contraceptive, would provide protection without exposure to method-related risks at other times. NUMBER OF SEXUAL PARTNERS. Individuals who have multiple sexual partners, or whose partners have other partners, should be advised to consider one or more barrier methods, with the dual purposes of protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and prevention of pregnancy. For couples who desire an optimal degree of pregnancy prevention, a combined approach of a barrier method plus a highly effective contraceptive will compensate for the...

Initial patient education

Frequency of prenatal visits, recommendations for nutrition, weight gain, exercise, rest, and sexual activity, routine pregnancy monitoring (eg, weight, urine dipstick, blood pressure, uterine growth, fetal activity and heart rate), listeria precautions, toxoplasmosis precautions (eg, hand washing, eating habits, cat care) should be discussed.

Barry McCarthy and L Elizabeth Bodnar

Keywords sexual dysfunction, impairment in desire, arousal, orgasm, or level of satisfaction, couple sex therapy, assessment of sexual problems, sexual exercises, sexual trauma, relapse prevention The operational definition of healthy sexuality is the ability to experience desire, arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction. The prescription for healthy sexuality is that both the man and woman value intimacy, nondemand pleasuring, and erotic scenarios and techniques. Sexuality has a number of

Correlates of Attitudes Toward

Beliefs about whether sex is harmless or dangerous are predictably associated with other sexual beliefs and practices. In cultures where people believe that sex is dangerous, extramarital affairs for women are condemned and the incidence of both premarital and extramarital sex is low. Interestingly, attitudes about sex are not predictably related to beliefs about the desirability of frequent sexual activity within a marriage, so that people in a particular culture may think that sex can be harmful but nevertheless advocate frequent sexual activity between a husband and wife. It is common, however, to find taboos associated with menstruation in societies that equate sex with danger (Broude & Greene, 1976).

Changing Your Lifestyle When You Have Endometriosis

Living well despite endometriosis Making changes in your work life Lowering the stress in your life Taking in the good, leaving out the bad Getting up and exercising Detoxing your world Adding some spice to your sex life Finding the right job, decreasing your stress, and improving your sex life may not make you forget your endometriosis, but they can add to your life in a way you didn't think was possible. Even little choices like eating right and exercising regularly can change your outlook on life (and even help reduce the pain). In this chapter, we're your cheerleaders, encouraging you to make some positive changes that can help decrease the hold endometriosis has on your life.

Samburu Woman Giving Birth

The Samburu are sexually permissive toward young people. It is expected that girls and Imurran will be sexually active, and a mother will sometimes formally sanction a relationship between her daughter and an Imurran, who will give the girl a large gift of beads (Spencer, 1965 Straight, 2002). Lmurran and their beaded girlfriends are from the same exogomous clan, and thus cannot later marry. Lmurran and girls avoid pregnancy through the withdrawal method, as it is considered an abomination for an uninitiated girl to give birth. However, should a girl become pregnant, the women in her family will usually assist her in aborting, or else initiate her quickly. These days it is a common precaution to initiate girls early if they are attending boarding school. Samburu view sex after marriage as oriented predominantly toward procreation. Sex is considered pleasurable for both partners, but it is considered a strenuous job for men (who are bulls ) but little work for women. These attitudes...

Phallic Oathpenis Holding

The French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan (1901-1981) formulated the phallus theory according to which the phallus penis is a symbol of desire where the Freudian Oedipal complex is revised to involve a conflict between being versus not being a phallus (or having versus not having a phallus), and where it plays a different role in the desires of each of the three parties (child, mother, and father) of the complex (cf., phallic oath penis holding - according to anthropological evidence, this refers to the swearing of an oath, or a greeting, accompanied by one's own hand on one's own penis or testicles, or on someone else's penis, as a sign of respect and or a gesture of solemnity). The erect phallus penis is considered, traditionally, as a symbol of masculinity, potency, or generation (cf., the term linga, which is the Hindu equivalent for the phallus and is manifested in the phallic image of the Hindu god Shiva). According to Freudian theory, during the phallic stage of...

TABLE 903 Cost Comparison of Urinary Antimicrobial Agents 10Day Course

One should be suspicious that Chlamydia is responsible for symptoms in these settings a woman with a recent, new sexual partner a partner with urethritis examination findings of cervicitis or when there is low-grade pyuria with no bacteria seen on urinalysis. A seven-day course of doxycycline or a single dose of azthromycin is the preferred treatment.

Case presentation 3

A 27-year-old man is seen in the outpatient department for symptoms of diarrhea over the last 3 months. He reports stools every 2-3 hours that are watery or consist of poorly digested food he had consumed over the previous day. Occasionally the stool has an oily consistency. He has noted no fever, blood in the stool, tenesmus, or other abdominal complaints. He is known to be HIV-positive, although had declined close monitoring of his immune and virological status, and has not been receiving antiretroviral therapy. He is taking no regular medications apart from multivitamins and a herbal supplement. He has not travelled recently, has not been sexually active for several months preceding the onset of symptoms, and has no pets.

Stringsuperstring Theories

STROOP EFFECT INTERFERENCE EF-FECT STROOP TEST. This phenomenon is named in honor of the American psychologist John Ridley Stroop (1897-1973) who designed a test in 1935 that measures an individual's degree of cognitive control. The original test consisted of a series of colored cards on which names of colors - rather than the color of the cards - was printed. The participant was asked to name the color of the card rather than to read the name written (cf., Ligon, 1932 DuBois, 1939). The degree to which individuals are subject to the interference of the printed words is the measure of cognitive control. In another version of testing materials, the Stroop effect is the process by which a printed color word (such as the word red) interferes with a person's ability to name the color of ink in which the word is printed if the ink color is not the color named by the word. Psychologists studying attention processes are interested in highly practiced cognitive and motor tasks such as...

Case Illustration

Other issues included difficulties trusting others, feelings of inadequacy, dysfunctional eating, and alcohol use. During initial sessions, Briana's therapist also asked questions about family and relationship interaction patterns, paying special attention to shoulds and beliefs that appeared related to gender dynamics in her family, friendships, and school experiences. When the therapist (Jean) inquired about the presence of past trauma or victimization, which is one aspect of gender-role analysis, Briana reluctantly revealed being the target of sexualized comments during her high school and college years and an unwanted sexual experience during her second year in college. After inquiring further about these experiences, Jean hypothesized that Briana coped with these unresolved events by minimizing the significance of these events. Her use of alcohol, eating issues, and her anxieties represented survival skills related to Briana's efforts to cope with events that might be...

Gender over the Life Cycle Socialization of Boys and Girls

Boys and girls begin sexual experimentation at an early age. If brothers and sisters are caught engaging in sexual activity, they are punished with a few blows to the back with a bow stave, and made to sit away from the fire. However, sexual behavior is considered a normal part of life and little attention is paid to sexual play among children as long as it is not actual intercourse with a sibling. Even so, among adults, sexual alliances and actual or perceived misconduct (see below) are often the cause of violence among the Yuqui and is a constant source of intrigue and gossip.

Puberty and Adolescence

Prior to contact, the Yuqui believed that a girl must engage in sexual intercourse if she were to yecuaquiu, or menstruate and come into adulthood. Thus, girls became sexually active at an early age, and the man or boy with whom she had sex at the time of her first menses was credited with causing this to happen. When a girl first menstruated, she was painted black with Genipa (Genipa americana), and if she had already paired with a young man, he would be painted as well. The Yuquibelieved that this would encourage the growth of pubic hair. Her forehead would also be newly plucked and she would be placed at some distance from the camp, behind leaves. All menstruating and postpartum women were segregated from the group by requiring them to remain behind leaves for the duration of the menstrual period. This involved remaining behind a few palm fronds that had been broken off at the base and then planted in the ground to form a screen. Other than playing a role in the sexual maturity...

Beyond Diagnosis and Treatment

Since the 1800s, the debate about the pathology of homosexuality has occupied center stage in the relationship between homosexuality and medicine. That focus notwithstanding, the vast majority of homosexual men and women never wanted, sought, or received therapy for their sexual orientation. Each one of these men and women has, however, other healthcare needs. At the very least, males who have sex with males and females who have sex with females have specific risks to their health, and this is especially true for homosexual youth who seem to be at increased risk of suicide (Gibson). Against this background, it is important to ask whether health professionals have the knowledge and communication skills necessary to meet the health needs of this group. Certainly some health professionals and academic commentators have paid attention to the healthcare needs of homosexual people (Solarz). However, medicine's own history in regard to homosexuality can stand in the way of appropriate...

Early odour acquisitions can persist in later childhood and adulthood

Several studies carried out on animals indicate the possibility of long-term memorisation of odours acquired during infancy. Infantile olfactory memory has been examined particularly in relation to the orientation of social and sexual preferences. In domestic dogs, maternal odour is retained by puppies, and even after two years of total separation, they remain capable of recognising their mother's odour (Hepper 1994). This 'olfactory imprinting' process has been analysed more thoroughly in rodents. Young female mice raised in the absence of adult males do not display, as adults, a normal attraction for male mice (Mainardi 1963). This effect is due to an olfactory mechanism female mice whose mothers were odorised with Parma violet odour throughout the nursing period, when sexually mature, manifest a preference for males with this odour compared with test males. On the other hand, females raised in a normal environment prefer non-odorised males (Mainardi et al. 1965). This early effect...

Catastrophe Theorymodel

This notion, as developed in psychology by the Hungarian psychoanalyst Sandor Fer-enczi (1873-1933), states that the act of sexual intercourse is destructive - in a psychodynamic sense - to the male's penis that is, the neurotically anxious patient may hold a belief that sexual intercourse is damaging to his penis. In his ontogenetic and phylogenetic catastrophe theory of coitus, Ferenczi notes that in the normal coitus of non-neurotic men, the inner tension-seeking for discharge overcomes any extant anxiety even though small traces of anxiety may still be present. In his early active therapy approach to the treatment of neurosis, Fer-enczi advanced Sigmund Freud's theory of privation. For example, when patients resisted the psychoanalyst's techniques and procedures, such as the requirement to en

Reicherwheeler Effect

Lated a dissident psychoanalytic theory called the orgone theory, which is based on the assumption that a specific form of energy called orgone energy fills all space and accounts for all life (cf., bioenergetics theory - deals with the energy relationships in living organisms, and is a psychotherapeutic technique developed by the American psychiatrist Alexander Lowen (1910- ) and Reichenbach phenomenon - named after the German chemist Baron Karl Ludwig von Reichenbach (17881869) - refers to a force or emanation, called the od, odic, or odylic force that a sensitive person can, allegedly, see coming out of all matter this and N-rays and auras proved to be cases of self-deception). Reich argued that not only are patients' symptoms evidence of neurosis but their character structure itself may be neurotic. Reich called his therapeutic approach character analysis and he often elicited intense emotions from patients with the result that changes occurred in their bodily attitudes, tonus,...

Theories on the Cause of Homosexuality

Experiential theories of homosexuality encompass four major perspectives. One view focuses on the nature of an individual's early sexual experience and posits that through the process of operant conditioning an early pleasurable experience with an individual of the same sex will result in same-sex attraction. This theory has provided the basis for the seduction and first-encounter theories of homosexuality, which assert that individuals are recruited into a homosexual lifestyle. Other experientialists focus on the importance of family dynamics, theorizing that male homosexuality results from the influences of a strong mother and a distant father. This theory has served as the basis for many of society's stereotypes about the development of homosexuality and the characteristics of homosexuals and their families. Childhood gender roles are also a focus It is believed that gender-atypical children such as girls who are tomboys and boys who are sissy boys develop into homosexuals. Only...

Overall Patterning of Sexual Attitudes and Practices

Interestingly, extramarital sex norms are not related to these attitudes or behaviors. Neither are premarital and extramarital sex norms and behavior predictably related to another cluster of behaviors related to sex. In particular, male concerns about or incidence of impotence, male boasting about sexual exploits, and incidence of homosexuality are all unrelated to the patterning of premarital and extramarital sex. However, these three aspects of human sexuality are related to each other, so that in societies where male impotence is a theme, males boast about their sexual exploits and homosexuality is absent, while, by contrast, where male impotence is not an issue, homosexuality is present and boasting is absent (Broude, 1976). Thus there seem to be three independent clusters of sexual attitudes and practices one concerned with premarital sexual norms and behavior and with extramarital sexual activity, a second concerned with attitudes toward extramarital sex, and a third concerned...

Periaqueductal Gray PAG

Periaqueductal Grey Anatomy

The role of the periaqueductal gray in gating pain information arising from the spinal cord has been known for at least 30 years. Electrical stimulation in the midbrain periaqueductal gray produced a level of anesthesia that was compatible with performing an exploratory laparotomy in a rat. Similar endogenous'' analgesia has been demonstrated during such activities as environmental stress, long-distance running, or sexual activity. Analgesia may also be modulated by mood and circadian rhythms. How are these functions organized

Their Nature and Extent

Date Rape and Acquaintance Rape on College Campuses. A study of students at 32 American institutions of higher education showed that 28 of the women had experienced a rape or rape attempt since age 14, and that 8 of the men admitted having committed at least one rape (Koss, Gidycz, & Wisniewski, 1987). Investigating a fraternity rape at the University of Pennsylvania, Sanday (1990b, p. 9) argued that sexual aggression is the means by which some men display masculinity and induct younger men into masculine power roles. The campus party culture that encourages group sexual aggression against lone college women promotes their seduction with alcohol and drugs, defines a drunken woman as asking for it, and labels men who object to this kind of behavior as wimps and faggots (p. 11). The community supports such behavior. The Penn case settled out of court and the fraternity house closed for one semester. Some fraternities are more dangerous for women than others. Boswell and Spade (1996)...

Urinary tract infections in men

A 40-year-old man presented to his physician with a 3-day history of dysuria. The pain was moderately severe but only present during voiding. He had no urethral discharge and he had no pelvic pain. He had not been sexually active for over 1 month prior to his dysuria. On examination, his temperature was 37-4 C and the general physical exam was normal. The rectal examination showed a mildly enlarged but non-tender prostate. Urine analysis showed pyuria and bacteriuria. Urine culture was obtained and he was given ciprofloxacin 750 mg every 12 hours pending culture results. The culture eventually showed 105 colony forming units per milliliter of Escherichia coli susceptible to ciprofloxacin.

Does Icsi Hurt And What Are The Risks

The man experiences essentially no risk or discomfort when sperm is collected, usually through masturbation or sexual intercourse with a special collection condom. However, as previously stated, in the case of severe male fertility problems, a testicular biopsy may be required to obtain sperm.

Ruling out other problems

Many doctors incorrectly assume that a teen with pelvic pain is having sex. This assumption can be embarrassing for a teen who isn't sexually active and can lead to a lack of trust in a doctor who jumps to conclusions. However, if a teen is sexually active, she needs to be honest otherwise, the doctor may overlook an important problem. Doctors can diagnose STDs by taking a blood sample (for syphilis) or a cervical swab (for chlamydia and gonorrhea). If a teen has been sexually active, the speculum may be easier to insert into the vagina than with a teen who isn't sexually active. A Pap test is also necessary if a teen has had intercourse because the test can detect changes in the cervix that may lead to cervical cancer, which the doctor can then treat relatively early and easily.

The Origins and Meanings of Disease Pattern Categories

The category of time also covers a wide set of processes. Calendar time measured as days, years, or other periods plays its own role in disease distribution, measured through variables such as the time between moment of exposure and appearance of symptoms, or duration of infectivity, or age at onset, or life expectancy after onset. But the cultural practice of dividing time into weekdays versus weekends itself influences disease, since the meaning of these time periods structures activities like drinking, sexual activity, recreation, and work. Time can be a marker of biological influence for example, in the seasonality of disease fluctuations due to underlying variations in number of mosquitoes (for malaria or yellow fever), ticks (for plague or Lyme disease), or infected raccoons (for rabies). Time also enters studies through so-called cohort effects, where people born during a certain period or of a certain age have similarly patterned illnesses. And time as history also influences...

Cross Cultural Review of Responses to Bodily and Behavioral Differences

Joan Ablon (1996), for example, exploring the differential access to intimacy and sexual experiences for men and women with neurofibromatosis found that two thirds of the women she interviewed were married, as opposed to only one third of the men. The single men in her sample were much less likely to have had sexual experiences than the women. Ablon notes the persistence of women in finding a partner. She hypothesizes that they continue strategizing to connect with a man because in U.S. society women are socialized to be interpersonal communicators. However, the lack of achievement by many of the men, due to early learning disabilities and social failures, negatively impacts their gender identity, which significantly contributes to their social withdrawal. Nayinda Sentumbwe working in Uganda (Sentumbwe, 1995), provides another instance he found that cultural beliefs that blindness is incapacitating contributed to the fact that sighted men will have sexual relations with blind women...

Religious and Moral Issues

Most people today, along with philosophical ethicists, religious ethicists and organized religions, generally accept the morality of contraception within marriage, often appealing to the need for family planning. While recognizing a link between marital sexuality and procreation, many concede that marital sexuality also has other significant purposes such as expressing and enhancing the love union of the partners and thereby the good of the marriage. Unlimited procreation, or at times any procreation, could be harmful to one of the spouses, the marriage itself, the good of already existing children or the needs of the broader society. Judgments about the ethical use of contraception outside of marriage depends upon one's understanding of the morality of extramarital sexual activity. As a matter of fact, many unmarried people today are sexually active. Indeed, the majority of adolescents in the United States have had sexual intercourse by the time they are nineteen years old (Demetriou...

Diagnosis of Underlying Causes

New-onset diabetes should be a diagnosis of exclusion as a cause of acute hyperglycemia. In the presence of a previously established diagnosis of diabetes, poor compliance may be a factor, particularly among youth but, again, it should be reserved as an etiology of exclusion for the adult presentation. A thorough history documentation and physical examination should guide the evaluation and, based on history or clinical findings, might include electrocardiogram and determination of the levels of cardiac enzymes, such as CK-MB and troponin I or T, to rule out ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction complete neurologic exam and computed axial tomography (CAT) of the head to exclude cerebral vascular accident chest radiograph to assess for pneumonia and urinalysis to rule out infection or rhabdomyolysis. Cellular and skin abscess should be sought. In sexually active females, the pelvis should be examined to rule out cervicitis or pelvic inflammatory disease as an occult...

Early Ethnographies and Surveys

Regarding the regulation of postpartum sexuality, Whiting notes that in many societies, a brief period following the birth of a child is identified during which sexual intercourse is taboo, to allow the mother to recover from childbirth (Whiting, 1964, p. 518). In those societies practicing a more extended period of sexual abstinence, the explanation usually focuses on the well-being of the infant, suggesting that if a nursing mother were to become pregnant, her breastmilk would be contaminated, thus placing the infant at risk. The prolonged postpartum sex taboo may thus represent a cultural means of protecting the well-being of infants by prolonging the nursing period and encouraging adequate spacing between births.

Growthactualization Theory

Area is stimulated, the woman more easily releases female ejaculate and or achieves orgasm. The G-spot is usually located about halfway between the back of the pubic bone and the cervix, along the course of the urethra and near the neck of the bladder. It swells when it is stimulated, although it is difficult to palpate when in an unstimulated state. In 1981, the G-spot was named by John Perry and Beverly Whipple to commemorate the research of Graefenberg who - in 1944, along with Robert L. Dickinson - described a zone of erogenous feeling located along the subure-thral surface of the anterior vaginal wall. Although Graefenberg and others had written about this phenomenon effect, it was virtually ignored until Perry and Whipple gave renewed attention to it. Initially, Graefenberg benefited from the much earlier work in the 1600s of the Dutch physician anatomist Regnier de Graaf (1641-1673) who referred to such an area spot and its effects. The G-spot is not felt normally during a...

Physical Examination

Older patients with a history of pelvic pain and bleeding should undergo a full gynecologic examination. Degenerative changes to the lumbar spine and hips may make the traditional lithotomy position difficult. Alternatively, the patient may be examined supine with knees flexed and legs dropped to the side, or lying on her side with the lower arm behind her back and thighs flexed (the Sims position). A small speculum (e.g., a 1- to 1.5-cm Pederson) should be used if the vulva and vagina appear atrophic. Physicians must remember that the vaginal walls may become adherent in individuals who are not sexually active, and a gentle digital examination may be required to ensure that a speculum examination is possible. Vaginal examination is generally well tolerated in women who are on estrogen replacement. Documentation of the size, shape, and mobility of the uterus is especially important when making a diagnosis in this population. Ihe normal ovary should not be palpable 5 years after...

Hormonal Theory Of Hunger

The German-born American physician and psychiatrist Karen Clementine Danielson Horney (1885-1952) was trained originally in the method of Freudian psychoanalysis theory but she broke away eventually from the standard Freudian orthodoxy over the issue of female sexuality. Where Freud emphasized the concepts of penis envy, jealousy of the male, libido theory, and feelings of genital inferiority as determinants in the psychology of women, Horney argued that lack of confidence and overemphasis on the love relationship are at the heart of feminine psychology. Horney retained many of the basic Freudian concepts and methods, such as free association, transference, repression, and resistance, but she - like other analysts (e.g., A. Adler, E. Fromm, and H. S. Sullivan) - stressed the importance of environmental and social factors in developing the personality. She also kept the Freudian doctrine of unconscious motivation and psychic determinism. Horney redefined...

Urinary Tract Infections

Different risk factors have been discussed maternal age, socioeconomic status, antecedents of UTI, sexual intercourse, hemoglobinopathies, diabetes, immunodepression of HIV infection, multiparity, and race (Connolly and Thorpe 1999 Ovalle and Levancini 2001 Pastore et al. 1999a, b).

Reproductive Tract Infections

Reproductive tract infections, including sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major cause of infertility, genital cancers, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, poor pregnancy outcomes, and infections in neonates, and are often less symptomatic, more easily contracted, and have more serious and life-threatening consequences for women than for men. For example, chlamydia infection is a common STD with serious consequences for women's health including increasing risk of ectopic pregnancies, infertility, and neonatal morbidity (Millar, 1987). Human papilloma virus, the causative agent of genital warts, is associated with cervical cancer. STDs are socially influenced by such factors as the number of sexual partners, use of contraceptives, sexual behaviors, and general health care practices. Beliefs and meanings surrounding gender and sexuality, fertility, STDs, hygiene, and health care are all crucial to developing prevention strategies and reducing the impact of STDs,...

Muslim Dietary Laws Food Processing And Marketing

Muslims constitute almost 20 of the world population (1). With 1.2 billion adherents, Islam is the world's second-largest religion, after Christianity (2). In a area extending from the Atlantic Coast of Africa to Pakistan and from Central Asia to the Sahara, Islam is the religion of 90 of the population (2), as it is also in Bangladesh and Indonesia. Although the Muslims are concentrated in Asia and North Africa, they are also present as minorities throughout Europe (32 million), North America (5.5 million), Latin America (1.4 million), and even Oceania (0.4 million) (1). The basic tenets of Islam or the primary duties of Muslims are the belief in the oneness of God (Allah) and His messenger (Muhammad) performing the prayers, five times a day almsgiving, or contributing to the welfare of the poor fasting (abstaining from eating, drinking, having sex) from dawn to dusk during the 30 days of the month of Ramadan and a pilgrimage to Makka in Saudi Arabia once in a lifetime, if physically...

Endometriosis and your cervix and Vagina

1 Irregular bleeding, especially after sex The cervix is often contacted during sex, and endometriosis can make the cervix tender to touch. As a result, women with endometriosis of the cervix often have pain with deep penetration and then bleeding after, or even during, sexual intercourse. These endometriosis lesions on the cervix can also cause irregular spotting or heavy bleeding at any time during the cycle.

TABLE 901 Etioloqic Aqents in Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection

Frequent and complete voiding has been associated with the reduction in recurrence of UTI. 5 Studies have found that the concentration of bacteria in the bladder may increase tenfold after sexual intercourse due to a milking action of the female urethra during intercourse. The use of a diaphragm and spermicide is also associated with recurrence in some patients, probably because the spermicide enhances vaginal colonization with E. coli.6 It is recommended, although unproven, that prompt voiding after intercourse may lessen the frequency of UTI. An increased urinary flow also dilutes the bacterial inoculum that occasionally occurs from sexual intercourse.5,6

Cohesion species concept

Introgressive Hybridization

The cohesion species concept defines species as ' the most inclusive group of organisms having the potential for genetic and or demographic exchangeability' (Templeton 1989). Templeton (1989) argued that one of the main weaknesses of the biological species concept was its lack of applicability to either asexual organisms or to taxa belonging to syngameons. In Templeton's (1989) terminology the difficulty resulted from either 'too little' or 'too much sex'. Templeton (1989) proposed the cohesion species concept to address problems with the biological species concept as well as other species concepts. The cohesion species concept was thus designed to accommodate all of the microevo-lutionary processes thought to contribute to specia-tion (Templeton 1989). 'Genetic exchangeability' incorporated the process of gene flow and 'demographic or ecological exchangeability' the processes of genetic drift and natural selection (Templeton 1989). Specifically, '. genetic exchangeability is the...

Nutrients in the soil in the absence of permanently cultivated fields hotcold health systems See humoral medicine human

The organism produces its own antibodies in response to a pathogen or it may occur artificially with a vaccine. incest taboo. Prohibition of sexual intercourse or marriage between mother and son, father and daughter, and menstrual seclusion. A mandated time that women must avoid all or some others (e.g., men) during their menstruation. Seclusion is often in a special menstrual hut or house. menstrual taboos. Proscriptions about what women may or may not do during menstruation (e.g., must stay in a menstrual hut or avoid cooking for others) rules may also apply to men (e.g., they may not have sex with their wives during menstruation).

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