Learn how to make soap

Guide To Creating Spa Products

The handcrafter's companion is a program designed to help everyone regardless of whether they have ever tried the making soap on their own and failed or whether they are newbies. This program uses step by step guide which contains information easy to read, understand and successfully apply to make your home-made soaps and spa treatments. All the techniques applied in this program have undergone through testing and results have proven that they work efficiently to guarantee you 100% positive results. When you enroll in this program, you will not strain in wondering where you will get the raw materials, how to package your product or where to supply the products as all these are already in place. This program has many benefits attached to it some of them being to ensure that your skin glows naturally and you save on the cost you could have otherwise spent on spa treatments. Continue reading...

Guide To Creating Spa Products Summary


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Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the writer was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

This ebook served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

Chemical Disinfecting Agents

Lister used phenol (carbolic acid) as a germicide in 1867. Although it is the parent compound of chemical disinfection, its use today is limited to substituted phenols, eg, the feis-phenols used in germicidal soaps. Both chlorine (in the form of hypochlorite) and phenol were used to deodorize waste materials in the early 1800s, before Pasteur established the germ theory of infection and putrefaction. The use of disinfectant chemicals began in clinical surroundings in the late nineteenth century. In 1908 the first large-scale use of chlorine (chloride of lime) in water purification started in Chicago, and its use for this purpose spread rapidly. Yet disinfectants were not readily accepted in food production until the 1940s, when hypochlorite treatment was permitted in the dairy industry as an alternative to steam sterilization. The range of antimicrobial chemical agents has been comprehensively reviewed (2).

Ivtotal Fatty Acid Recovery

A problem with the concentrated HCI, in addition to the obnoxious fumes, is that the glyceride lipids of Figure 3.1 are only partially hydrolyzed. Thus the free fatty acids will be increased, but the proportions of these are unpredictable. With alcoholic alkali digestion there is another problem that may be overlooked. The saponification reaction in the presence of ethanol and water will produce the free acids as alkali salts but may also produce a small proportion of ethyl esters of fatty acids, because alkali-catalyzed transesterification is a very fast equilibrium-type reaction. If separate recovery of sterols and fatty acids is an objective, some small part of the fatty acids bound as ethyl esters may be lost if the sterols are removed as unsaponifiables from the water-alcohol solution of soaps. Usually these esters are a representative part of the whole fatty acid mixtures, but on occasion they may be specific to some part of the lipid. Similarly, the addition of a fatty acid as...

Analysis Of Milk Fatty Acids

Extraction of milk fat in preparation for gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis is discussed by Jensen et al. (1997). For GLC analysis, milk FA are usually transesterified to FA methyl esters (FAME) with sodium methoxide or acids (H2SO4, HCl, or BF3) as catalysts. Kramer et al. (1997) evaluated the applicability of catalysts for converting milk FA to FAME. They recommended that sodium methoxide be used even though FA in sphingomyelin were not esterified. The amount of FA excluded (approximately 0.1 of total FA) is so low that there would be little or no effect on the amounts or proportions of FA measured. Acid catalysts were reported to cause isomerization of conjugated bonds, resulting in decreased recovery, whereas sodium methoxide did not lower the quantities of these. It is important to determine FA by appropriate methods if referencing Kramer et al. (1997), one must take care to specify which procedure was used, as these authors describe numerous combinations of methods for...

TABLE 785 Pruritus

Local irritants, if not the initial cause, commonly contribute to the incidence of pruritus. Fecal contamination, resulting from poor anal hygiene, is by far the most common irritant to the perianal skin. Lysozyme from intestinal mucous secretions, acting together with bacterial exotoxins to raise the stool and skin pH, will cause pruritus. Ironically, patients who compulsively clean their anus, particularly if they use perfumed toilet tissue, soaps, or detergents or hygiene sprays, cause pruritic reactions. Also, wearing of synthetic, tight-fitting underwear retains moisture that normally occurs in the perianal area, another leading cause of pruritus.

Portable analytical instrumentation in process monitoring

There are various applications in which an electronic nose may be used. For example, to monitor the characteristic odour generated by a manufactured product (e.g., drink, food, tobacco, soaps). The electronic nose research group has considerable experience in the analysis of coffee odours (e.g., roasting level and bean type), lager beer odours (lager type and malodours) as well as having analysed tobaccos, spirits, wines, transformer oils, plastics and drinking water. More recent work is on the use of e-noses for medical diagnostics and biotechnology.

Contact Vulvovaginitis

Contact dermatitis results from the exposure of vulvar epithelium and vaginal mucosa to a primary chemical irritant or an allergen. In either case, characteristic local erythema and edema occur. Severe reactions may progress to ulceration and secondary infection. Common irritants and or allergens include chemically scented douches soaps bubble baths deodorants perfumes, dyes, and scents in toilet paper, tampons, and pads feminine hygiene products topical vaginal antibiotics and tight slacks, pantyhose, and synthetic underwear.

Disorders of the Labia

Prepubertal labia minora, covered by a very thin hypoestrogenized epithelium, are easily inflamed and denuded following infection, local trauma, or irritation. Often, the source of irritation is an environmental source previously tolerated during the diapered neonatal period and during earlier infancy (e.g., bubble bath, baby shampoos, and soaps). In addition, the anterior progression of labial agglutination from its origins at the posterior fourchette may lead to a significant pocketing of voided urine behind the agglutinated tissues, serving as a nearly constant source of additional irritation.

Water And Wastewater Disinfection Treatment

Wastewater Disinfection

One of the unique disinfection features of the bactericidal quaternary compounds is that they have a distinctly higher level of effectiveness with many gram-positive bacteria, probably due to the added depth and complexity of their membrane structure. Conversely, gram-negative cells as a whole are often similarly considered to be somewhat more resistant, perhaps due to the added depth and complexity of their membrane structure. Indeed, Pseudomonas probably tops the list in terms of durability, under conditions that would foil the vast majority of other cells (e.g., growth in distilled water). Similarly, gram-positive Mycobacteria species, as well as spore formers, also tend to exhibit this resistant nature when challenged with quaternary disinfectants, apparently based on the protective capacity of their respective outer cell coatings. Finally, given their chemical nature, these quat compounds also bear a unique sensitivity to inactivation when exposed to complexing soaps, detergents,...

Biotechnology and the Developing World

However, as an article in Foreign Policy observed, biotechnological innovations that create substitutes for everything from vanilla to cocoa and coffee threaten to eliminate the livelihood of millions of Third World agricultural workers. Vanilla cultured in laboratories costs a fifth as much as vanilla extracted from beans and thus jeopardizes the livelihood of tens of thousands of vanilla farmers in Madagascar. A rapeseed (canola) engineered to express high levels of laurate, an ingredient in soaps and shampoos, allows growers in Canada to take markets away from producers of palm oil in developing countries. In general, genetic engineering of crops leads to biosubsititution, biorelocation, and bioreplication, enabling industrialized countries to produce the equivalent of traditionally tropical products and thus cease importing those commodities from developing countries. Developing nations by virtue of the same technology

Components from skimmed milk and weight loss 121 Calcium and weight loss

Whey And Satiety Hormones

Dietary calcium and magnesium have a modest impact on overall energy balance through inhibition of fatty acid absorption via formation of calcium and magnesium soaps (Vaskonen, 2003). A randomized crossover study (Jacobsen et al., 2005) evaluated the short-term effect of dietary calcium on fat absorption. A total of 10 subjects consumed a low calcium and normal protein diet, a high calcium normal protein diet or a high calcium and high protein diet. The high calcium normal protein showed a 2.5-fold increase in fecal fat excretion compared to the other two diets. Another study (Shahkhalili et al., 2001) compared the absorption of cocoa butter with calcium (900 mg day) or without calcium in a chocolate supplement. In this randomized, double blind, crossover study 10 men were fed control diets with or without the calcium supplemented chocolate. The results of the study showed a 2fold increase in fecal fat excretion and a 9 decrease in absorbable energy. These two studies (Jacobsen et...

Definition and diagnostic criteria

Atopic eczema is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterised by an itchy red rash that favours the skin creases such as the folds of the elbows, behind the knees and around the neck. The morphology of the eczema lesions themselves varies in appearance from vesicles to gross lichenification on a background of poorly demarcated redness. Other features such as crusting, scaling, cracking and swelling of the skin can occur.1 Atopic eczema is associated with other atopic diseases such as hay fever and asthma. People with atopic eczema also have a tendency to dry skin, which makes them vulnerable to the drying effects of soaps.

Adverse effects

Soaps are of alkaline pH and are known irritants, causing itching, dryness and redness acidic soap-free cleansers may therefore be preferential. Aggressive use of abrasives may irritate skin and for that reason common sense suggests that they should not be used in conjunction with topical agents such as benzoyl peroxide, which sensitise the skin, unless tolerance has initially been demonstrated. Dermatological reactions are idiosyncratic and cannot be predicted and the patient should be advised to discontinue use immediately if irritation develops. Like any topical agent, it is possible that antibacterial cleansers and abrasives are less suitable in individuals with sensitive skin. The literature does not support a link between the use of topical antimicrobials and the emergence of antiseptic or antibiotic resistance.22

Tallow And Lard

Tallow provides a beneficial and wide array of products such as various soaps. Oleic acid (18 carbon fatty acid) is extracted from tallow and is used to make lubricants, textiles, shampoo, emulsifiers, and cleansing cream. It is an excellent source of glycerin and is used to manufacture inks, glues, solvents, antifreeze, and explosives. Stearic acid (18 carbon saturated fatty acid) is used in rubber tire manufacturing to provide a means of cooling the rubber when driving, and it is also used in lubricants for airplanes and cars. Linoleic acid (omega 6 fatty acid) is used to make certain lubricants and paints. 2


Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is an important cause of hypocalcemia. Pancreatic lipase breaks down fat into fatty acids and glycerol. The fatty acids combine with calcium to form insoluble calcium soaps and reduce serum calcium levels. The combination of necrotic fat cells plus calcium soaps makes up much of what is recognized as the fat necrosis of pancreatitis. In addition, as protein moves into the inflammatory exudate, the resultant hypoproteinemia may cause total calcium levels to fall. Pancreatitis can also reduce PTH secretion and the response of tissues to it. If total calcium levels fall below 7.0 or 8.0 mg dL, there is an increased chance of severe complications from pancreatitis.

Caustic Ingestion

Ingestion of base-containing substances produces the most significant injury because bases cause liquefactive necrosis, which allows deep penetration of the caustic material.28 Such substances include lye (NaOH and KOH), ammonia (NH4OH4), hair relaxers, hair straighteners, and electric dishwasher soaps. Small amounts of caustic materials can cause significant injury.28 The injury associated with alkaline substances is completed almost immediately on mucosal contact. Acidic substances cause less severe injury because they cause a coagulation necrosis, which tends to limit extension into the muscular layer. 28

Harts tongue ferns

Culture and comments Hart's tongue selections are almost infinite, but whatever choice makes it to the garden should be cultivated, if possible, in basic soil, with a certain amount of lime enrichment and that magic ingredient, good drainage. My plants are prospering, with a minimum amount of coddling, as sentinels along the walled perimeters of a concrete foundation. I used to give them a cocktail of eggshells and water, but have not done so for quite some time. They do not appear to miss it. The bad news, at least in the Pacific Northwest, is that they do attract strawberry root weevils (black vine weevils) both as grubs and man-eating adults. Their nocturnal chewing begets frond edges that are severely notched. Try carefully timed early spring applications of beneficial nematodes as a control. Indoors, with their succulent fronds, they are also magnets for aphids, which in turn transmit viruses in greenhouses and propagation sites. These attacks are easy to manage with a method of...

Squab Young Pigeon

Squab Producers

Century pigeons and squabs were hunted, not raised. As squabs became more popular, they were harvested from nests. As a result some species became extinct despite their initial huge numbers. One of the unlucky species was the passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius), which at the beginning of the nineteenth century was the most abundant bird in North America. A report by the famous bird artist and naturalist John James Audubon describes a huge flock, estimated at 1.1 billion birds, in Kentucky (1813). When the flock became airborne, it eclipsed the sun. Flying at 60 mph the flock took 3 hours to pass him by, with a flock width estimated at 1 mile. When the birds nested in trees, more than 100 nests per tree were counted. The passenger pigeon was killed in huge numbers for food and hauled by trainloads to urban centers. The surplus was fed to hogs or rendered for fat to make soap. The expanding agriculture and the shrinking forests added to the disaster, turning the passenger pigeon...


The Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) is a bony, oily fish that is of commercial importance for oil, fish meal, and fertilizer products. It belongs to the family Cludeidae. It is a major protein component in commercial feed fed to cultured fishes. Livestock and poultry feed may also contain menhaden meal. The production of paints, soaps, and certain lubricants may use the menhaden oil. It is not consumed by humans because it has a lot of bones and its oily nature gives off an unpleasant odor when cooked. It is a particularly important fishery from Massachusetts to the Carolinas. It resembles the herring in appearance except for several features. The menhaden is deeper in the body, being more elliptical from a lateral view. It has a large head and lacks teeth. It also has a distinctive black spot posterior to the gill covers with more spots of irregular shapes and sizes along the ventral halves of the flanks. It has silvery sides with a back that can have a blue, brown, or green...


Used Frying Oil Spme Chromatogram

Although SPME has been widely used for highly efficient extraction of food components, little is known about the applicability of this technique for monitoring fragrance materials in household cleaning products, soaps, detergents, cosmetics, toiletries, etc. (61-63). Until recently, costly and laborious sample preparation techniques were required to isolate, separate, and identify fragrance components in perfumery matrices.


Phenolics act by combining with and denaturing proteins, as well as disrupting cell membranes. Their advantages include the retention of activity in the presence of organic substances and detergents, and their ability to remain active for some time after application hence their effect increases with repeated use. Familiar disinfectants such as Dettol, Lysol and chlorhexidine (Hibitane, Hibiscrub) are all phenol derivatives. Hexachlorophene (Figure 13.5) is very effective against Gram-positive bacteria such as staphylococci and streptococci, and used to be a component of certain soaps, surgical scrubs, shampoos and deodorants. Its use is now confined to specialist applications in hospitals since the finding that in some cases, prolonged application can lead to brain damage.

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