Fat Burning Soup Recipes

Fat Burning Soup Recipes For Weight Loss

Fat Burning Soup Diet refers to an eating program that with recipes that contain limited calories and fats but has a high fiber content. It is an easy guide that can prove effective for individuals who may want to cut weight. This is a product of Dr. Anna Noel Harris, a licensed dietician, who designed these recipes to help you lose pounds in only seven days. The diet provides your body with foods with much lower calories compared to what you have been taking before. It is important to note that the program does not require you to change your eating habit but rather replace only one or two meals with the suggested ones. The program will empower you to acknowledge the principal secrets of effort free and bearable weight loss. It is a very effective guide and in just a week time, you will start to realize significant changes within your body. In fact, you can lose as much as ten pounds during this period. The product has a 60-day money back guarantee, meaning that your deposit is fully secured. In case it does not yield the results as expected, you can claim for a refund and cancel membership More here...

Fat Burning Soup Recipes For Weight Loss Summary


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The First Cell Was Probably a Chemoheterotroph

The earliest cells that arose in the rich mixture of organic compounds, the primordial soup of prebiotic times, were almost certainly chemoheterotrophs (Fig. 1-5). The organic compounds they required were originally synthesized from components of the early atmosphere CO, CO2, N2, CH4, and such by the nonbiological actions of volcanic heat and lightning. Early heterotrophs gradually acquired the ability to derive energy from compounds in their environment and to use that energy to synthesize more of their own precursor molecules, thereby becoming less dependent on outside sources. A very significant evolutionary event was the development of pigments capable of capturing the energy of light from the sun, which could be used to reduce, or fix, CO2 to form more complex, organic compounds. The original electron donor for these photosynthetic processes was probably H2S, yielding elemental sulfur or sulfate (SO _) as the by-product, but later cells developed the enzymatic capacity to use H2O...

Brief History Of Life

Primitive atmospheres in a sealed glass apparatus and produced aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and most important, amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. In the absense of life on early Earth, these compounds could accumulate until the seas consisted of primordial soup. These compounds could be further concentrated in drying coastal ponds or at hot springs. Experiments have shown that under realistic conditions, polymeric macro-molecules could be formed. Other steps along the way to a viable self-replicating cell have been reproduced, but many critical steps have not. Overall, the process is still a mystery.

Linking Evolution and Information

The origin of biological information holds the key to understanding the origin and evolution of life. Can we view evolution as a sort of computer algorithm that generates information step by step, through mutation and selection, or are there other principles at work Conventional wisdom has it that Darwinian processes are responsible for the information content of genomes each time natural selection operates to choose one organism over another, information is transferred from the environment into the organism. But two of this volume's contributors challenge this orthodoxy. William Dembski argues that the type of information found in living organisms, namely, complex specified information, cannot arise via an evolutionary algorithm of the Darwinian variety. In particular, he claims that a prebiotic phase of molecular evolution in a chemical soup cannot create anything like a living organism from scratch.

Linking Subunits into Chains

Mineral catalysts have also been useful in forming chains of RNA-like molecules from the activated precursors. James Ferris has focused on the ability of montmorillonite (a type of clay) to promote the assembly of the ribose-phosphate backbone, starting with a special, uracil-containing compound known as a phosphorimidazolide. Although phosphorimidazolides do not occur in nature today, they are highly reactive species and closely related to the modern building blocks of RNA. Most scientists do not maintain that these compounds were present in the primordial soup, but they are convenient substitutes for the natural precursors of RNA.

RNA or Related Precursors May Have Been the First Genes and Catalysts

Tion suggests that RNA or a similar molecule may have been the first gene and the first catalyst. According to this scenario (Fig. 1-34), one of the earliest stages of biological evolution was the chance formation, in the primordial soup, of an RNA molecule that could catalyze the formation of other RNA molecules of the same sequence a self-replicating, self-perpetuating RNA. The concentration of a self-replicating RNA molecule would increase exponentially, as one molecule formed two, two formed four, and so on. The fidelity of self-replication was presumably less than perfect, so the process would generate variants of the RNA, some of which might be even better able to self-replicate. In the competition for nucleotides, the most efficient of the self-replicating sequences would win, and less efficient replicators would fade from the population. Some time after the evolution of this primitive protein-synthesizing system, there was a further development DNA molecules with sequences...

Attainment of Adulthood

Her paternal and maternal relatives all contribute yams, coconuts, and other foodstuffs. Yam soup containing shredded coconuts is the most common fare. Guests are given yams and other provisions to carry away with them when they leave. While in the menstrual hut, the young woman is instructed in women's affairs, and rites are conducted from which men are banned. Traditionally, the young woman would have been scarified. A female specialist would cut standardized patterns on her breasts, stomach, and upper arms. After several days, the young woman emerges from the menstrual hut and is ritually washed in public. Standing naked, she is struck with stinging nettles and washed with special water from the forest (bangurengu). The next day, she leaves the menstrual hut, is decorated, and becomes naramtaakwa. She is given a special bowl-like haircut in which the hair is shaved from her sideburns and the back of her neck. She wears wristlets of shell and other shell necklaces and...

Griddle And Pan Frying Shortenings

Specialty colored and flavored shortenings are designed to replace butter or margarine in grilling, pan frying, and other applications (soups, sauces, gravies, basting, and bun wash). These may be liquid or solid, resist darkening, reduce waste (no water), and eliminate scorching (no milk solids). Other ingredients may be added. These include salt (flavor enhancement), flavorings (garlic), and even small amounts of butter itself (33-36). Coconut oil may be added for abusive, high-temperature applications (37).

Cytomorphologic infrastructure of exocytosis

Eukaryotic cells feature various membrane-delimited sacs embedded in a structured cytoplasmic matrix. These form a coherent set interconnected morphologically or via vesicular transport, thereby establishing a functionally continuous vectorial cisternal space (Figure 1), embedded within but topologicals distinct from the cytoplasm, 'outside' the cell much as our digestive tract is topologicals 'outside' our body. The cisternal space includes 1) the nuclear envelope, a perforated double-membraned sac continuous with 2) the endoplasmic reticulum, partly studded with ribosomes proximally (rough F.R, RER), but not so distally (smooth ER, SER), 3) the Golgi apparatus, a set of flattened sacs shaped like soup plates nested within each other that, among other functions, encapsulates cell products into 4) membranous intracellular transport vesicles. Free cytosolic polyribosomes synthesize constitutional proteins (cytoskeletal elements, cytoplasmic enzymes, dedicated proteins such as...

Thermal technologies retorts

Containers, to complex thermally efficient systems that use highly agitated but re-circulated water or steam air mixtures to transfer heat from indirect steam heated heat exchanger surfaces or by direct steam injection, to sealed food containers. Some retorts increase the rate of heat transfer from the container surface to the food by agitating the foodstuff inside the container. These retorts induce movement within the container by rotating the containers about their vertical or horizontal axis and either cause the food to move under the influence of gravity or move a gaseous headspace through the foodstuff, using its natural inclination to rise to the (current) top of the container. Not all foods are appropriate for this treatment, for instance, delicate noodle soups may incur mechanical damage or solid pack meats simply may not move at all. For those appropriate food products, rotation may also help minimise the degree of overcook delivered to perhaps heat sensitive products.

Gender Roles in Economics

Males are fishermen, while women are engaged in root crop production. Although men cut and burn new gardens, afterwards it is the work of women to plant, weed, and harvest the crop daily. Since manioc (Manihot esculenta) can be left in the ground and harvested as needed, women collect it on a daily basis. The poisonous manioc planted by Tukanoan women must be thoroughly detoxified by means of extensive cooking in which the soluble prussic acid is eliminated. Women prepare the manioc into a variety of dips, soups, beverages, breads, and flour. The last procedure is laborious but the flour is light and does not spoil it is used in journeys and may also be traded or sold to passers-by. (See C. Hugh-Jones 1979 for a thorough discussion of food processing.)

Emulsion Science In The Food Industry

Water Droplet Microscope Margarine

Many natural and processed foods consist either partly or wholly as emulsions or have been in an emulsified state at some time during their production such foods include milk, cream, butter, margarine, fruit beverages, soups, cake batters, mayonnaise, cream liqueurs, sauces, desserts, salad cream, ice cream, and coffee whitener (Friberg and Larsson 1997, Krog et al. 1983, Jaynes 1983, Dickinson and Stainsby 1982, Dickinson 1992, Swaisgood 1996). Emulsion-based food products exhibit a wide variety of different physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics, such as appearance, aroma, texture, taste, and shelf life. For example, milk is a low-viscosity white fluid, strawberry yogurt is a pink viscoelastic gel, and margarine is a yellow semisolid. This diversity is the result of the different sorts of ingredients and processing conditions used to create each type of product. The manufacture of an emulsion-based food product with specific quality attributes depends on the selection of...

Nano and microencapsulation from micro to nanoparticles and nanocapsules

In this respect, the release can be site-specific, stage-specific or signalled by changes in pH, temperature, irradiation or osmotic shock. In the food industry, the most common method is by solvent-activated release. The addition of water to dry soups, dry beverages or cake mixes is an example (Gibbs et al. 1999). Liposomes have been applied in cheese making, and its use in the preparation of food emulsions such as spreads, margarine and mayonnaise is a developing area.

The Cosmological Origin of Times Arrow

The history of the universe, then, is one of entropy rising but chasing a moving target, because the expanding universe is raising the maximum possible entropy at the same time. The size of the entropy gap varies sharply as a function of time. Consider the situation at one second after the big bang. (I ignore here the situation before the first second, which was complicated but crucial in determining some important factors, such as the asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the universe.) The universe consisted of a soup of subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons and neutrons, and radiation. Apart from gravitons and neutrinos, which decoupled from the soup due to the weakness of their interactions well before the first second, the rest of the cosmic stuffwas more or less in equilibrium. However, all this changed dramatically during the first 1,000 seconds or so. As the temperature fell, it became energetically favorable for protons and neutrons to stick together to form...

ORigin botanical fActs

Bok choy and napa cabbage are delicious cooked alone or with meat, poultry, and other vegetables. A mild-flavored soup can be prepared by adding the leaves and stalks to either a chicken or miso broth with scallions and cubes of chicken or tofu. In Korea, kim-chee, a spicy dish made from pickled Chinese cabbage, is served at most meals.

Utilizing Indigenous Leadership

Shapiro (1969) documented the dominant leaders within three different single-room-occupancy hotels. All three were women who were able to provide emotional and material aid to the other hotel residents. They were also able to be a link to the professionals who came to the hotel to provide health and social services. Almost 20 years later, Glasser (1988) documented the social networks and leadership exhibited within the dining room of a soup kitchen. The leaders among the soup kitchen guests were seen as more effective at sharing information and making referrals than were the staff. A program that taught accurate information about community resources to groups of soup-kitchen leaders, who were chosen from the various social networks within the dining room, appeared to be effective in increasing the fund of knowledge of these leaders.

Initiation of the primary immune response in vitro

With the immune response in vitro, B lymphocytes will be directly stimulated by antigen, whereas TH lymphocytes must await antigen processing. This can result in stimulated B lymphocytes requiring T lymphocyte help before it is available. A relatively simple solution is to apply, at the moment of immunization, the cytokines required by the B lymphocyte differentiation pathway (Figure 6 Table 2), the stimulated Th lymphocytes providing cytokines later in the response. Exogenous cytokines can be in two forms recombinant cytokines (Table 2), or a 'cytokine soup' derived from a mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) or mononuclear cell cultures stimulated with mitogen. Not all cytokines are available in recombinant form, nor for all animal species. Furthermore, cytokine soups should provide all the required factors, not just some of them. The drawback with the cytokine soups is the variation between batches, due to variations in the responsiveness of different batches of mononuclear cells....

The Loss Of Harmony And Mutuality

In the beginning, lovers create an illusion of perfect harmony. Part of what they give each other is a surfeit of tenderness and nurturance, expressed either physically (through petting, stroking, or the administering of tea and chicken soup) or emotionally (through supportiveness, spontaneous sympathy, understanding, and approval) or in both ways. They convey to one another that each values the Other's subjective needs and desires, and in fact, considers them central to their shared world not inconvenient, irrelevant, or irritating. In harmonious interaction, the lover feels he has transcended any unilateral craving for passive gratification, that he and the beloved are naturally attuned to each other's feelings and wishes and need only respond to them spontaneously. And so lovers dwell on the rightness of their fit, sometimes finding their physical relationship emblematic of their emotional unity, as when, for example, she says to him I fit perfectly into the crook of your arm, and...

Courtship and Marriage

Christian, working-class, and middle-class marriage ceremonies take place in churches with receptions often occurring outdoors at a relative's home. Amidst music arranged by a DJ, toasts are made and box lunches of fried chicken or curried goat are served, along with mannish water (goat soup). Among the upper classes, church weddings are followed by lavish receptions on the estates of the bride's parents, where extravagant meals of

The Flavour and Fragrance Industry Sectors and Materials

Engineering Design For Perfume Industry

The results of all current trends are more and more convenient products which combine many of the actual tendencies (e.g. new soups classified as 'all natural, high fibre, wholegrain, cholesterol and additive-free, fortified with minerals') in products which possess a good window of opportunity for fast and successful market entry. Supported by skilful and clever sales promotion, it is suggested to consumers, especially the youngest ones, that 'it's cool to eat healthy'.

Other ways of improving antioxidant functionality

During storage, free radicals are slowly produced in food even at low temperatures and react with antioxidants, which are thus gradually consumed. The antioxidant functionality can be improved by reduction of the rate of free radical production. The safest way is to use stable lipids in the recipe. Instead of traditional edible oils rich in oxylabile polyunsaturated fatty acids, new modified high-oleic acid oils may be used, such as modified sunflower, soybean, peanut or rapeseed oils. They are very resistant against oxidation even in the absence of antioxidants because of their low polyunsaturated acid content. The stability is good not only on storage but also during deep frying. Another method for the elimination of prooxidants (see 3.2.1) from food is by modifying the recipe. The most active prooxidants are haem compounds, such as muscle myoglobin therefore dry meat is often substituted by meat flavour substances, such as sodium glutamate, in dry soups. The presence of salt...

Spices and their essential oils

Spice essential oils tested by Smith-Palmer et al. (1998) against C. jejuni, E. coli, Salmonella Enteritidis, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. Aligiannis et al. (2001) found that a species of oregano with a high concentration of carvacrol (Origanum scabrum) had significantly greater antimicrobial activity than a species (Origanum microphyllum) with no carvacrol. This demonstrates that not all herb or spice sources of such essential oils are equivalent in their antimicrobial activity. Pol and Smid (1999) and Periago and Moezelaar (2001) determined that the interactive inhibitory effect of carvacrol and nisin was synergistic against L. monocytogenes or B. cereus. Ultee and Smid (2001) found that 0.06mg ml of carvacrol inhibited growth and diarrheal toxin production of B. cereus. Ultee et al. (2000) and Ultee and Smid (2001) further determined that carvacrol in combination with cymene (methyl-isopropylbenzene) and soy sauce inhibited B. cereus growth in rice and carvacrol alone inhibited...

Biomolecules First Arose by Chemical Evolution

Essentially devoid of oxygen, it was a reducing atmosphere, in contrast to the oxidizing environment of our era. In Oparin's theory, electrical energy from lightning discharges or heat energy from volcanoes caused ammonia, methane, water vapor, and other components of the primitive atmosphere to react, forming simple organic compounds. These compounds then dissolved in the ancient seas, which over many millennia became enriched with a large variety of simple organic substances. In this warm solution (the primordial soup), some organic molecules had a greater tendency than others to associate into larger complexes. Over millions of years, these in turn assembled spontaneously to form membranes and catalysts (enzymes), which came together to become precursors of the earliest cells. Oparin's views remained speculative for many years and appeared untestable until a surprising experiment was conducted using simple equipment on a desktop.

Type of Nutritional Support

Normal high-energy, high-protein diet For many patients with COPD, advising small, frequent nutrient-dense meals, regular snacks, and food fortification using high-energy and -protein foods, such as milk, yoghurt, butter, and cream, may provide adequate nutritional support. Foods of low nutritional value, such as tea, squash, and clear soup, should be discouraged. For some patients who lack vitality, use of readily prepared microwave dinners with a rest prior to mealtime is helpful. A daily multivitamin and minerals supplement may be indicated.

Nutritional Support

High-energy high-protein diet The encouragement of a high-calorie, high-protein diet will produce growth in the majority of children and adults with CF. A good variety of energy-rich foods should be encouraged, such as full cream milk, cheese, meat, full cream yoghurt, milk puddings, cakes, and biscuits. Extra butter or margarine can be added to bread, potatoes, and vegetables. Frying foods or basting in oil will increase energy density. Extra milk or cream can be added to soups, cereal, desserts, or mashed potatoes and used to top canned or fresh fruit. Regular snacks are important. Malnourished children achieve higher energy intake when more frequent meals are offered. Attention should be given to psychological, social, behavioral, and developmental aspects of feeding. A meta-analysis of differing treatment interventions to promote weight gain in CF demonstrated that a behavioural approach was as effective in promoting weight gain as evasive medical procedures.

Loschmidt and Reversibility

The most enthusiastic proponent of time-reversibility as an argument against the second law ofthermodynamics was Josef Loschmidt, in 1869. Loschmidt disliked the second law's implication that the long-term fate of the universe was heat-death, a lukewarm, uniform, totally disordered, maximum-entropy soup. He devised examples to show that whether or not the second law was a valid description of most real situations, there were cases where it failed. He derived a counterexample, as follows. Consider a system of particles that are all at rest at the bottom of a container, except for one particle that begins some distance away from them and is moving toward them. It collides with the others, causing them to start moving, and (with high probability) the ensuing motion leads to a fully disordered, equilibrium state in which the particles occupy the entire container.

Personality Differences by Gender

Husk corn, women do most of the other food-processing tasks that include fetching water, boiling the nixtamal, a mixture of corn and lime, grinding the nixtamal on the metate, and making tortillas and bean soup. Women are very skilled in making many different kinds of chile sauces to give their meals variety. Nurturing women appear in many oral narratives that provide models for gender behavior.

Serving Suggestions

Clams should be cooked at low heat to prevent toughening. Clams cooked in their shells are done just when their shells open. Soft-shell clams are best for this method. Use only fresh or frozen clams for soups and stews, because the texture of canned clams is too soft for long-cooking dishes. Clams are often added to soups and stews. A famous dish in which they are featured is clam chowder. When adding clams to this type of dish, do so at the last minute so they do not lose their texture. Clams are also excellent additions to dips, salads, and quiches.

Chickpeas Garbanzo Beans

Chickpeas have a mild, slightly nutty flavor and a firm texture. They can be used in appetizers, salads, soups, or main dishes. Flour made from ground chickpeas can be made into breads or used as batter for deep-fat frying. They also can be combined with pasta or simply served by themselves. Sometimes they are served roasted and salted like peanuts. They are part of cuisine worldwide. In the Middle East, they are mashed and used as the main ingredient in hummus, a thick sauce made with lemon juice, olive oil, and sesame seed paste. Hummus is becoming a popular dish in the United States. Falafel, a Middle Eastern croquette, is another dish that draws on the chickpea as its main ingredient. In the Mediterranean region, chickpeas are added to Spanish stews and Italian minestrone soups.

Carotenoids As Colorant Additives In Foods

A variety of plant commodities rich in carotenoids have been used in the manufacture of powders or oil-based preparations suitable for use as colorants in foods. Intensely colored carotenoid isolates derived from paprika are available either as powders or oleoresins and impart orange or red hues to many products, including salad dressings, sauces, soups, beverages, snacks, and confections. A major carotenoid in these preparations is capsanthin (Fig. 1). Extracts of the annatto seed containing high concentrations of bixin are also commonly used in such products as cheeses, instant soups, dairy products, and desserts (36). Other natural isolates include products derived from carrot and tomato. Tomato oleoresins have recently become available and contain high concentrations of lycopene. These products are used in Europe but are not yet approved in the United States. -Carotene is commercially available to food manufactures as vegetable oil dispersions of micronized crystalline -carotene...

Consumer products new products and a new platform in variety sauces

The activity in Hastings, New Zealand, located over three sites, employs about 1800 people at peak and for example annually produces about 40,000 tonnes of canned soups, baked beans and spaghetti for Heinz, Australia, and about 200,000 tonnes totally. It operates the largest hydrostatic cooker in the world, and the current canned food production rate is about half a billion units per year. A current major growth driver is the Japanese market about NZ 100 million has been spent on the plant in the last five years, much of it on sorting and handling equipment but also on up-to-date processing facilities. They have a product development team on site of over 40. The scene is of a large production unit of a large multinational company looking for new consumer food products on selected international markets.

The linguistic confusion between flavour and taste

One source for great confusion in the English language is our understanding of the word taste, which is used casually and interchangeably to describe several quite different things which relate to food. Leaving aside the non-food uses of the word to describe general attributes of quality (a person who has good taste in clothes) or experience (they developed a taste for the outdoor life) we also use taste to describe quite different aspects and activities related specifically to food and drinks. We can use it as a transitive verb to assess the flavour quality of something (I tasted the soup and found it quite delicious), an intransitive verb to

Plasticity Of Nociceptors

Response to various alterations in their environment (Fig. 5). Inflammation in the periphery can result in a diminished threshold to noxious stimuli. In part this reflects the action of various substances in the inflammatory soup'' (see Section VIII.A). However, there are also changes in properties of the nociceptor itself, such that it responds differently to components of the inflammatory soup. For example, the response of individual nociceptive afferents to capsaicin can be enhanced if NGF or PGE2, known to sensitize individual nociceptors, is applied to the neuron. Thus, sensitization at the level of the periphery is thought to represent a change in the sensitivity of the receptor itself, in this case quite possibly a change in the phosphorylation state of the capsaicin receptor (i.e., VRl).

Herbs and spices as sources of antioxidants

Herbs are stems or leaves from various plants, used for the preparation of infusions, extracts, dressings, soups or sauces. Many species of this class of food ingredients are active antioxidants, mainly because of the content of phenolic compounds. The most important representatives of this group are tea leaves obtained from both green or fermented tea (Camellia sinensis L. or Camellia assamica L.) or dust left after their preparation. Green tea is particularly rich in catechins and related compounds, usually more than 20 (Yamamoto et al., 1997). Phenolics obtained from tea contain not only catechins, but also epicatechin, gallocatechin and the respective gallates. They were active for the protection of meat lipids against oxidation (Shahidi and Alexander, 1998). Extracts from fermented (black) tea leaves are less active antioxidants because a substantial part of the catechin has been oxidized during the fermentation and converted into tea pigments, especially theaflavins and...

Mushrooms Cultivation Description

The observation that certain edible mushrooms grow naturally on certain decomposing organic matter and the desire to produce a tasty source of food have led to the development of various techniques for the cultivation of mushrooms, and in some cases they have been fairly profitable. The cultivated species, however, have never been the most prized by gourmets. The favorite types are still the boletes, specific species of Amanita, and truffles all of them are mycorrhizal fungi, and their carpophores cannot be developed without the right symbiotic plant (1). To date, the only successes have been with the saprophytic species, that is, those that feed on dead organic matter. Among these the best known is undoubtedly the champion, Agar-icus bisporus, which has given rise to a thriving agricultural industry. Each year millions of tons of these mushrooms are produced for direct consumption, for the canning industry, and for the preparation of soups and sauces.

Dietary Transitions Lifestyle Factors and Diabetes

For Mexican Pima, the main dietary staples are four varieties of beans, corn processed as tortillas, and potatoes. The main source of protein and carbohydrates is from corn and wheat flour tortillas that are prepared with vegetable fat and beans that are fried with vegetable oils or shortenings. In addition, coffee with sugar, eggs, milk, rice, soda, pasta soups, green pepper, tomatoes, and cabbage are consumed frequently. Little meat is eaten. This diet is slightly higher in calories than the traditional diet of the Tarahumara Indians (McMurphy, Cesqueira, Connor, & Connor, 1991). By contrast, diets among the

Shelf Life Butea Monosperma

Upgraded lecithins have been employed as effective foam control agents in whipped toppings, ice creams, and many types of candies. They have also been used as effective defoaming agents in foams caused by powdered proteins in water. This is an excellent example of the system specificity of lecithin products.50 Lecithin is used in a large variety of food products such as margarine, confections, snack-food, soups, baked goods, cheese products, processed meat, poultry and fish products, dairy and dairy-type products, and dairy supplements. Commercial soybean lecithin products have been used in many food applications which are not directly related to their emulsification activities. Some of these include (1) co-emulsification for monoglyc-erides to interact with amylose, (2) deoiled soy lecithin, 95 powder, as co-dispers-ant, (3) spray-dried combination of standard soy lecithin and milk solids (mainly lactose) as a dispersant and wetting agent, (4) spray-dried combination of modified...

Units and Terminology

As with FDA, units used in declaring the net quantity of USDA foods depend on the form of the food. Because most USDA foods are solid, semisolid, viscous, or a mixture of solid and liquid, a weight measure must be used. A food sold in liquid form requires a fluid measure (eg, chicken soup). However, firmly established consumer usage or trade practice for declaring the contents of a liquid product by weight or solid, semisolid, or viscous product by fluid measure may be used.

Novel and uncommon food allergies

Table 10.12 makes the point that uncommon food allergens are important causes of food allergy in specific countries. In an Israel allergy clinic population, sunflower seed was responsible for 22.3 of 112 positive food challenges in subjects between 10 and 48 years of age (Kivity et al. 1994). In Singapore, out of 124 consecutive admissions with anaphylaxis, the commonest cause was bird's nest soup (Goh et al. 1999), a food not implicated in allergy elsewhere in the world. In Japan rice appears to be a relatively common cause of allergy causing atopic eczema, although more severe acute reactions to rice are rare (Ikezawa et al. 1992). Rice is also a common cause of food allergy in Thailand (Hill et al. 1997). Adverse reaction to buckwheat is a common problem in Japan. In a population of 92,680 schoolchildren in Japan, the incidence of adverse reaction to buckwheat on questionnaire was 0.22 (Takahashi et al. 1998). The risk of anaphylaxis to buckwheat was higher than for egg and milk....

Compounds Responsible For Modifying Seafood Flavors And Tastes

Although MSG contributes the basic taste sensation of umami to a food, the 5'-nucleotides may play just as important a role. Some of the nucleotides have the umami flavor, but their ability to potentiate this flavor may be more important. The 5'-nucleotides are naturally present in many foodstuffs and have probably been used for their flavor-enhancing abilities long before their role was understood. For example, Table 3 lists some values for the nucleotides in common foods. It can be seen from this data that the use of meat and poultry broths or soups prepared with shiitake mushrooms would have a potentiating effect, that is, one similar to that of the commercially produced Ribotide (Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd.), if used with a food high in glutamic acid. The prevalence of these broths in the cooking traditions of various cultures, particularly Chinese and French, may be due to the presence of these naturally occurring enhancers. In fact, fermented fish sauces, which are common...

Description Of Major Food Additives

Antifoaming agents are substances used to reduce foaming caused by proteins or gases that may interfere with processing. Foaming may be largely suppressed or completely eliminated by the use of small quantities, generally about 10 ppm, of dimethylpolysiloxane, mono- and diglycerides, oleic acid, silicon dioxide, white mineral oil, and a number of other fatty acids. These compounds have been suggested for use in the preparation of certain comminuted meat products, bakery products, confections, dairy products, vegetable oils, alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, jams and jellies, molasses, soups, starches, syrups, and pickles.

Standard Industrial Classification Manual

2033 Canned fruits, vegetables, preserves, jams, and jellies 2034 Dried and dehydrated fruits, vegetables, and soup mixes 2035 Pickled fruits and vegetables, vegetable sauces and Establishments primarily engaged in canning specialty products, such as baby foods, nationality speciality foods, and soups, except seafood. Establishments primarily engaged in canning seafoods are classified in Industry 2091. 5. Chicken broth and soup, canned 21. Soups, except seafood canned 23. Soups, except seafood canned such as baby foods and soups, except seafood, are classified in Industry 2032. Dried and Dehydrated Fruits, Vegetables, and Soup Mixes (IN 2034) Establishments primarily engaged in sun drying or artificially dehydrating fruits and vegetables, or in manufacturing packaged soup mixes from dehydrated ingredients. Establishments primarily engaged in the grading and marketing of farm dried fruits, such as prunes and raisins, are classified in Wholesale Trade, Industry 5149. 2. Dehydrated...

Forms And Applications

Traditionally the dispersed products have had the widest application in food systems, being mixed in as dry ingredients in early processing. Most formulated meats are flavored in this manner, along with bakery and breading goods and seasonings for snack foods. Pickling processors use the oleoresins solubilized with polysorbate esters to flavor the brine, which migrates to the product during retort and storage. Emulsions are not widely used, although they do have limited applications in emulsified meats such as bologna and hot dogs. Encapsulated products are used in dry mixes (soups, salad dressings, drinks, etc) where extended shelf life is required.

Husband Wife Relationship

Although they sleep together and live under the same roof, husband and wife are rarely close in Swat. Instead, marriage is viewed as akin to warfare (Lindholm & Lindholm, 1979). The hierarchical sexual division of labor keeps the couple apart, though complementarity means that each requires the other for survival. The distinction between husband and wife is evident at meal times. Wives and daughters only eat after husbands and sons have finished. Males get the meat, fat, and other tender morsels females get the bones and watery soup.

Nutritional Considerations

Convenience foods (e.g., boxed products one would prepare at home), soups, and processed meats (e.g., sausage, ham, and other meat products), is often alarming. If there is not a nutrition label on a processed food product, one should assume sodium content is high. Canned products generally contain more sodium than fresh or frozen items, unless a product is specifically labeled as 'no salt added.' The consumption of fresh, unprocessed foods should be promoted.

Integration Of Simultaneous Signals

Integration occurs at various levels along signal transduction pathways, with cross-talk among the various G-protein-receptor-mediated signaling pathways or among the various tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent pathways and among G-protein- and tyro-sine-kinase-mediated pathways and nuclear-receptor-mediated pathways. Integration thus is not limited to the rapidly expressed responses that result from phos-phorylation dephosphorylation reactions but can also occur at the level of gene transcription or may involve a mixture of the two. In fact, phosphorylation of nuclear receptors catalyzed by MAP kinase, CAM kinase II, or PKC alters their ability to bind to other nuclear factors and hence may increase or decrease their ability to influence gene transcription. In responding simultaneously to multiple inputs, cells are able to preserve the signaling fidelity of individual hormones even when their transduction pathways appear to share common effector molecules. Understanding of how cells...

Case Illustration

Michelle's fear of eating in public was similarly treated with graded in vivo exposure. Initially, exposure exercises took place during treatment sessions held at lunchtime, during which Michelle and her therapist would eat at the hospital cafeteria. During the first exposure session, Michelle ate nonmessy foods (e.g., sandwiches), which evoked low levels of anxiety. She later progressed to eating messy foods, such as soups, salads, and spaghetti. Michelle was encouraged to allow herself to feel anxious and to allow her hands to tremble. During these exposure exercises her fear gradually declined and the trembling also abated. Michelle's in-session exposure exercises were complemented by a series of homework assignments. The latter began with relatively easy tasks (e.g., eating by

Carbohydrate Malabsorption

Nutritional management of lactose intolerance consists largely of the removal of lactose from the diet. Lactose is a common ingredient in many foods, including breads, crackers, soups, cereals, cookies, and baked goods. Eliminating or reducing lactose-containing ingredients from one's diet is usually adequate to relieve symptoms. Individuals with primary lactose intolerance may require a permanent dietary change. Individuals with secondary lactose intolerance should eliminate all lactose from their diets for a short period of time ranging from 2 to 6 weeks. If symptoms resolve, lactose may be reintroduced slowly as tolerated by the individual. The amount of lactose that an individual can tolerate is highly variable. Many children can tolerate small amounts of lactose, particularly yogurt, hard cheese, or ice cream, without discomfort. Many adults who consider themselves lactose-intolerant can actually tolerate moderate amounts of milk.

Foods that commonly cause allergy

Foods that can give rise to allergic reactions in susceptible individuals appear to be diverse in nature. However, although reactions to many different foods have been described in individual case reports, the list of common causal agents is relatively short. This has led researchers to postulate that there may be certain features characteristic of food allergens. Common causes of allergy are milk, egg, peanut, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, soy and citrus fruits for populations in the UK and the USA. The list can vary for different countries for example, Mediterranean countries such as Italy have a high incidence of sensitivity to olives, and in Japan even sensitivity to birds' nest soup has been described.

Box 51 Culture and fast food in the Peoples Republic of China PRC

Food stereotypes, expectations and liking disliking, are very important personal factors in food choice. Imagine the surprise on an aircraft when a snack of yoghurt, fresh fruit and muesli is served - it seems wrong because the stereotype for air travel food is 'not fresh and over-processed'. Is your product a stereotype The important thing in new product development is to break the stereotype and tell the consumer the new product is different, just as British Airways did with its new healthy menu. Consumers also have an expectation of the food. If the actual food is in the direction of their expectation, then the expectation is reinforced for the next time they consider the food - if they expect it to be very sweet which they dislike, and it is very sweet, then they will dislike it more. If they expect the drink to be refreshing and it is, then this will reinforce their expectation for the future. Information is important in expectation - when soups are branded for sensory testing,...

Edible Fungi And Recycling Of The Wastesresidues

Postharvest technology of mushrooms has been dealt in detail by many authors (Bano et al. 1997 Lal Kaushal and Sharma 1995 Saxena and Rai 1989). Mushrooms are delicate, contain 90 water, rich in phenolics and have very active phenol oxidase and protease activities. They lack protective covering of suberin or cuticle, unlike fresh fruits and vegetables. Postharvest physiological and biochemical changes do take place at very fast rate. Storage in package films, sodium alginate coating, chemical preservation, lactic acid fermentation, irradiation, steeping preservations have been attempted to varied levels of success for short-term preservation of mushrooms. But dehydration and canning are the most common forms of long-term storage and trade in mushrooms while canning is the most common method for the button mushroom, drying is resorted to for storage and trade of all the specialty mushrooms. Button mushrooms are also freeze-dried in limited quantities. However, improvements in solar...


The addition of an expert system can advise a process controller when to make adjustments. These devices use pattern recognition algorithms, calculate control loop performance on-line, and readjust operator intervention. Expert systems can help monitor a process and notify operators of an out-of-specification situation. Self-tuning controllers can also use model-based references where the difference in response between the process and the model is used to tune the controller and also update the model. A classic expert system for process control was designed for advisory control of thermal processing in a major soup company (3). The expertise of a retiring staff member for troubleshooting, start-up, and shutdown of hydrostatic and rotary sterilizers was captured in an expert system program, saving the company up to US 3 million per year. An expert system can respond to user questions, query the user for additional information, and provide a report of the interaction along with a...

Paul Davies

Where did all this complexity come from The universe burst into existence, possibly from nothing, in a big bang about 13 billion years ago. Astronomers have discovered strong evidence that just after the big bang the universe consisted of a uniform soup of subatomic particles bathed in intense heat radiation. Some theories suggest that this state may have been preceded, a split second after the cosmic birth, by little more than expanding empty space. In other words, the universe started out in a simple, indeed almost totally featureless, state. The complexity, diversity, and richness that we see today on all scales of size have emerged since the beginning in a long sequence of physical processes. Thus the complexity of the cosmos was not imprinted on it at the beginning but was somehow implicit in the laws of nature and the initial conditions.

Grains Wheat

In addition to wheat of the Tritium aes-tivum genus and durum wheat, the Romans and medieval Europeans cultivated several other wheat species whose plants bore only a single or double grain, among them einkorn, spelt, and emmer. Although wheat played some role in stuffings, potages, soups, and sausages, most of it was turned into bread. For thousands of years bread has been synonymous with food and has figured prominently in religion and society. The breaking and blessing of bread is a fundamental aspect of orthodox Jewish custom, and Christians believe that in the Eucharist bread is transformed into the body and blood of Jesus. To modern consumers it may seem like a simple foodstuff, and yet much technological progress was needed to turn cultivated grain into leavened bread. Milling, leavening, and baking went through various stages of development over the centuries. In Roman times, waterpower was already used to grind flour, and by a.d. 1000 windmills...


Caramel color is freely soluble in water but insoluble in most organic solvents. In concentrated form the colorant has a characteristic burnt taste, which is not detectable at the levels normally used in foods and beverages. Commercial preparations vary from 50 to 70 total solids with a range of pH values depending on the type of caramel. More than 80 of the caramel produced in the United States is used to color soft drinks, particularly colas and root beers. Type I is designed for use with distilled spirits, desserts, and spice blends. Type II is used with liqueurs. Type III is suitable for baked goods, beer, and gravies. Type IV is used in soft drinks, pet foods, and soups.


Preparations can also be made by extraction with a vegetable oil to provide an oil-soluble colorant. Paprika and paprika oleoresin add both color and flavor to a product thus, the applications are usually limited to products in which both characteristics are desirable. For example, the recent rise in demand for tomato products in the form of pizza, salsa, and so on has increased the demand for paprika. Most of the spice extract used in Europe is used to flavor meat products, soups, and sauces. Smaller quantities are used in salad dressings, snacks, processed cheese, confectionery, and baked goods.


World barley production is over 130 million tonnes annually (Table 1). Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is grown mainly in temperate regions and can withstand sub-zero temperatures. About 17 of the total crop is used industrially, primarily to produce malt, which is used mainly in brewing and distilling. Only about 5 of the total is used for food. The highest food usage is in Morocco (104 g day-1 per person), followed by the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and Moldova, where food usage is 86, 57, 55, and 55 g day-1 per person, respectively. Most barley grain has a fibrous hull that adheres closely to the caryopsis. However, naked or hull-less types are grown in some regions. Barley is processed for human use by removing the hull and polishing to yield pearl barley, which is used in soups and other foods. Pearl barley is also ground to a coarse meal and cooked as a gruel or ground to barley flour for making flat breads. Barley flours and brans, for ingredient use, are produced...


May be composed of surface-active components of a variety of types, including small-molecule surfactants, phospholipids, polysaccharides, and proteins. Some of the ingredients in food emulsions are not located exclusively in one phase but are distributed between the oil, water, and interfacial phases according to their partition coefficients. Despite having low concentrations, many of the minor components present in an emulsion can have a pronounced influence on its bulk physicochemical properties. Food emulsions may consist of oil droplets dispersed in an aqueous phase (e.g., mayonnaise, milk, cream, soups), or water droplets dispersed in an oil phase (e.g., margarine, butter, spreads). The droplets and or the continuous phase may be fluid, gelled, crystalline, or glassy. The size of the droplets may vary from less than a micrometer to a few hundred micrometers, and the droplets themselves may be more or less polydisperse.

Food Applications

Been classified into two categories semifinished products and finished products (7). For semifinished products, extrusion cooking has been shown to offer economic advantages over the traditional process such as drum drying for producing pregelatinized cereal flours, potato starch, and cereal starches. By controlling the processing conditions to achieve the desired balance of gelatinization and molecular degradation, starches, and chemically modified starches with a wide range of cold water solubility values can be produced (8). Extensive patent literature has been covered on extruded breakfast cereals (9), snack foods (10) and textured foods (11-13). Other applications include dry and soft-moist pet foods, precooked and modified starches, flat bread, breadings, croutons, full-fat soy flour, precooked noodles, beverage bases, soup and gravy bases, and confections such as licorice, fruit gums, and chocolate (4,14).

Bringing It Home

About the solution to the homeless problem. Accordingly, there has to be a combination of short- and long-term solutions as well as individualized and structural initiatives that run the gamut from emergency shelters and soup kitchens to guaranteed income policies and public housing projects. In short, because there is no one problem of homelessness, there will also be no one big solution It will require varied, local, and tailored solutions. This is where the common law can come in. It can provide one possible forum for exploring local and pragmatic solutions to a complex and multi-faceted problem. It is tempting to propose a litigation strategy that strives to establish something like a legal right to private property or a constitutional entitlement to adequate housing. However, this seems to be exactly the wrong thing to do for many reasons. Not only does it smack of a Big Plan, but it also is so unlikely to happen that its advocacy is as much a sign of resignation as a portent of...


Common millet was cultivated in Europe before 2000 b.c. For the Greeks and Romans it was a staple food eaten primarily in the form of porridge or coarse, unleavened bread. In medieval Europe it was eaten by peasants and the poor in soups and porridges, or it was used as animal feed. The upper-class cookbooks rarely mention it. Physicians criticized the cool and dry nature of millet, its constipating effect, and its low nutritional value unless it was prepared with milk, meat, or meat broth, which supposedly made it more easily digestible.


Most varieties of peppers can be eaten either raw or cooked. Sweet peppers frequently are julienned or chopped and added raw to salads or cooked in soups, stews, and stir-fries. They also can be roasted (which makes it easy to remove the skin and adds smoky flavor) and marinated, or they may be stuffed and baked or microwaved. Hot peppers are used in a wide variety of Latin American and Asian recipes. Raw hot peppers can be chopped and added to salsas, relishes, and salad dressings. The internal veins and seeds, which can be bitter or hot, can be


The flat-leaf variety, with its slightly milder flavor, is generally preferred as a raw salad green. Spinach should be cooked very quickly, either by steaming or by sauteing with a minimum of liquid, just until the leaves wilt. The leaves also can be added to soups, casseroles, and stews. A variety of seasonings, such as lemon juice, soy sauce, horseradish, tomato sauce, or nutmeg, add flavor to

Getting Food

By the 1980s, soup kitchens and food banks, once called emergency feeding programs, had dropped the word emergency from their titles and become a part of the contemporary landscape in North America. Soup kitchens, serving a hot noontime meal or evening dinner, and sometimes serving breakfast as well, have come to be relied upon by people who live on the streets and in shelters (shelters typically do not serve meals during the day). Soup kitchens and food banks have become so institutionalized that levels of government now depend on them to supplement meager social assistance, people in need of doing community service and charity work depend upon their existence to fulfill their commitments, and poor people (most of whom are not homeless) depend on them for a hot meal and food supplies. Glasser (1988) described a soup kitchen that served a daily hot meal to over 100 guests (as soup kitchen clients are typically called) each day in a no-questions-asked setting. With very few staff...

Flow systems

One of the oldest devices that used cavitation to achieve a mechanical action was the liquid whistle. Devices of this type are particularly useful in applications where homogenisation and efficient mixing are important. Process material is forced under pressure generated by a powerful pump through an orifice from which it emerges into a mixing chamber (Fig. 16.13). There are two ways in which cavitational mixing can occur at this point. First, through the Venturi effect as the liquid rapidly expands into a larger volume on exiting the orifice and, secondly, the jet impacts upon a thin steel blade in the mixing chamber which is caused to vibrate and thereby produce further mixing of the process material flowing over it. With no moving parts, other than a pump, the system is rugged and durable. Typical examples of the uses of such whistles include the preparation of emulsion bases for soups, sauces or gravies which consist of a premix of water, milk powder, edible oil and fat together...

Chicken Capon

Of more modest means also partook of chicken. Sometimes as much as a quarter of the dishes in a late-medieval cookbook consisted of chicken recipes. With its white meat chicken was ideal for white dishes, above all the feast-day version of blanc manger. The meat was frequently shredded or pounded into a paste, and used in pie fillings, or as a topping on flat dough preparations not unlike our modern pizza. Chicken liver and stomach are also mentioned as ingredients in a variety of dishes. Chicken soup was prescribed even then for convalescents as a restorative. Capon, the castrated domesticated cock, was a luxury usually reserved for the tables of the rich. Physicians classified chicken as moderately warm, and capon as somewhat cooler. Both were considered easily digestible, nourishing, and overall ideal for the dainty stomachs of the leisure class and those recovering from illness. Young hens and cocks that had not reached sexual maturity were considered the best. Plump chickens were...


Fresh octopus already dressed and ready for dishes can be found in many supermarkets and specialty fish markets. Frozen, smoked, and canned octopus is also available. Shop for octopus the same way you shop for fish, using your nose as a guide. Octopus should smell fresh, not fishy, and if it has eyes, they should be bright, not cloudy. As with most aquatic species, octupus that is smaller is younger and more tender. Both the body and all of the tentacles are edible. The ink sac contains an edible black liquid that can be used to color and flavor foods such as pasta, soups, and stews.

ByProducts from Milk

Many nondairy products such as coffee creamers, toppings, and icings utilize caseinates. In addition to fulfilling a nutritional role, the caseinates impart creaminess, firmness, smoothness, and consistency to products. Imitation meats, soups, and the like use caseinates as an extender and to improve moistness and smoothness.

Preparation Tips

Peas are available fresh, canned, frozen, or dried. Dried peas, which can be yellow or green, are sold whole. Or, they may be split. Whole dried peas need to be soaked before cooking and may take up to 1 to 2 hours to become soft. Split dried peas do not need to be soaked however, they do not hold their shape during cooking and so are generally used for sauces and soups. A familiar dish made of split peas is, of course, split pea soup. Snow peas and sugar snap peas are usually sold fresh. Before eating, rinse them off and then cut the top from a snow pea pod. Remove the string from both sides of a sugar snap pea's seams by pulling the attached fibrous string upward from the bottom. Although they are delicious raw, pea pods also can be cooked in the same


While there are a number of similarities between movement and development in law and in biology, the operation of the common law has been different in that law is not as ultimately restricted in the short term as natural organisms or patterns of behavior. In biology, what presently exists limits the extent of the changes that can be made over the immediately ensuing generations the structure of existing organisms precludes certain changes and mutations. After all, bugs cannot become bears overnight, even if they might do so given enough time and with the appropriate range of environmental prods. The evolutionary trip from the primal soup to gourmet bouillabaisse is a very long one of over 4 billion years. In law, the transformative possibilities are more immediate the trip is much shorter. Although the precedential traditions of law might well act as a kind of institutional check on doctrinal metamorphosis, its structural constraints are not as embedded and unavoidable as those...

Package Designs

Sacharow (14), reviewing Japanese experience, reported that a stand-up pouch featuring a bottom gusset is used for stews, soups, boiled vegetables, and oriental-style foods. In the United States, a juice drink product uses this bottom gusset design. The paperboard carton is absent in both of these applications.


A more durable foodstuff than either milk or butter, cheese has been made by humans since prehistoric times. The ancient Egyptians ate cheese, and so did the Greeks at the time of Homer. The Romans produced a great variety of different cheeses, and cheese is also mentioned several times in the cookbook of Apicius. To make cheese, ripened or sour cow's, goat's, or sheep's milk was first curdled by adding rennet, an enzyme taken from a calf or other young ruminant. The curd was then separated from the whey, heated, formed into the cheese, salted (if it had not been salted earlier), and aged. The remaining whey was either drunk by the lower classes, or cooked again to make ricotta cheese, or fed to farm animals. In the Middle Ages, cheeses ranging from fresh and soft to well aged and hard were popular across Europe, and cheese soup made from cheese, eggs, and pepper, was standard fare in German monasteries. Then as now, French Brie, Dutch Edam, German Limburger, and Italian Parmesan were...


Maltodextrins have DE values from ca 5 to ca 15 and are even less sweet than corn syrup solids. They find application because of their quick dispersion, rapid solubility, film-forming ability, low hygroscopicity, crystallization-inhibitor property, ability to impart body, low browning potential, low osmolality, resistance to caking, flavor-carrying ability, good binding power, fat dispersibility, textural effects, and ability to provide clean flavor in food products such as baked goods (cream-type fillings, glazes, frostings), powdered mixes (soups, salad dressings, sauces, flavors, spice blends), frozen foods and novelties, meat spreads, sauces (white, cheese, pizza), salad dressings, imitation cheeses and sour creams, confectioneries (chewy candies, hard candies, pan coatings, nut and snack coatings), sports beverages, and infant formulas. A key to their


It is now clear that peripheral sensitization after inflammation involves very complex mechanisms in the periphery resulting from the release of numerous substances in the periphery. There are two major sources of these substances. The first of these are peptides such as substance P and or CGRP released from the nerve terminals themselves due to a local axon reflex and or impulses elicited in the spinal terminals of the sensory axons and conducted antidromically, the dorsal root reflex. These peptides evoke several effects in the periphery, notably vasodilatation and neuro-genic extravasation (leakage of large molecules from capillaries into the skin). In parallel with these changes is the release into the skin of numerous substances, which have been demonstrated to induce activation and or sensitization of nocieceptive afferents. These include bradykinin, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), serotonin, histamine, and nerve growth factor (NGF), each of which is a consequence of a different...


Other barriers to care include lack of transportation or mental illness. The precarious existence of such patients must be considered with compassion, and they should be treated with a medical regimen that accommodates the limitations of their situation. For example, patients dependent on soup kitchens should have follow-up that does not compete with mealtimes. Shelter-based clinic systems may be more realistic than tightly scheduled appointments.


Mushrooms which are destined to be sold canned in brine must be picked at the tight-cap stage of maturity, ie, the veil of the mushroom is closed and the gills are not visible, while more mature specimens may be utilized in other types of pack, such as chopped or sliced mushrooms, in soup, or in butter sauce. Mushrooms of large strain are cultivated and flat mushrooms with the cap fully opened are used for sliced mushrooms in butter sauce in Australia.

Salivary Secretion

Salivary Gland Schematic Diagram

Saliva protects the mouth by diluting and buffering harmful substances. Hot solutions of tea, coffee, or soup, for example, are diluted by saliva and their temperatures lowered. Foul-tasting substances can eventually be washed out of the mouth by copious salivation. Before vomiting, salivation is stimulated strongly. This saliva dilutes and neutralizes corrosive gastric juice, preventing damage to the mouth and esophagus. Dry mouth, or xerostomia, is associated with chronic infections of the buccal mucosa and with dental caries. Saliva dissolves and washes food particles from between the teeth. Saliva also contains a number of organic substances that are bacteriocidal. These include a lysozyme, which attacks bacterial cell walls the binding glycoprotein for immuno-globulin A (IgA), which together with IgA forms secretory IgA, which in turn is immunologically active against bacteria and viruses and lactoferrin, which chelates iron, preventing access by organisms that require iron for...

Tomato Products

Biogically stable intermediate products became feasible with the concept of aseptic packaging developed by W. M. Martin in 1935 (4). He developed the concept of sterilizing a product, sterilizing the container, and bringing the two together, with a sterile cap, in a sterile atmosphere. Conventional canning at that time consisted of filling and capping a container and heat treating the closed container to ensure sterility. This means that the center point of the container needed to receive sufficient heat treatment to ensure sterility however, the outer portions of the container would be overheated and the quality of the food would be lowered. This effectively limited the size of the container to a No. 10 can, approximately 1 gal. If the product could be sterilized in a thin film outside the container, and packaged aseptically, the size of the container was limitless. I remember visiting a large food processor in the 1940s. They required a large quantity of tomato paste to formulate...


Tamarinds (Tamarindus indica, tamarin, tamarindo, or imli, of the family Leguminosae) are probably native to East Africa but were introduced into India long ago. The tamarind was well-known by the Egyptians and Greeks of the fourth century. The tamarind grows on a large evergreen tree of the family Leguminosae. The fruit is an irregularly shaped pod about 8 in. long. As the pod matures it turns into a brown, brittle shell containing a dry sticky pulp that surrounds red-brown seeds. Tender shoots and flowers are consumed as vegetables in salads, soups, and curries. Immature pods are used as seasoning for cooked rice, fish, and meats. Pulp from the mature pods is pressed into cakes and is valued as highly as dates and figs. Tamarind pulp is an important ingredient in barbecue sauces and as a fruit base in juices, jams, jellies, preserves, sherbets, dairy products, and alcoholic beverages (6).

Pyrazines and Furans

The pyrazine group has been regarded as one of the most important classes of flavor compounds (33). This group is usually produced by heating of appropriate precursors and exhibits a roasted or nutty aroma. The formation of pyrazines is probably due to the reaction of NH3 or amino-containing compounds with sugars or other carbonyl compounds (25). It has also been shown that amino acid-N will react with sugar to produce different pyrazines and that degradation products of sugars can react with some amino acids to produce a number of pyrazines. At least one pyrazine, namely 5,7-dihydro-5,7-dimethylfuro (3,4-b)-pyrazine, has been incorporated in a chicken soup patent. Furans are derived in meat from the Amadori rearrangement, oxidation of unsaturated aldehydes, and the breakdown of 5'-ribonucleotides.

Shelter Life

The description is reminiscent of Murray's (1984) contrast between linear time, where people make long-term plans, and cyclical time, associated with survival goals. Life on the streets is often associated with immediate, daily, weekly, and monthly cycles of time the hours of opening and closing of the soup kitchens and shelters, the weekly appointments with social workers and doctors, and monthly check days.


Japanese women and women of Japanese origin living in Hawaii but who consume a diet similar to the traditional Japanese diet (rich in soy products) have a low breast cancer incidence and mortality. Women in the Far East who have low rates of breast cancer are thought to consume approximately 3050 times more soy products than women in the United States. A case-control study in Singapore found that premenopausal women who consumed 55 g of soy per day had a 50 reduced risk of breast cancer compared to women who infrequently consumed soy foods. A high intake of miso soup has been associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. In prospective trials, a trend toward an inverse association between intake of tofu and subsequent risk of breast cancer and an inverse association between intake of miso soup and development of breast cancer have been found. However, a large prospective study in Japan did not show any effect of soy consumption on breast cancer risk, although this...

Common Spices

All Masala Ingested

Curry is a staple of Indian and southeast Asian cuisine. It is used to flavor many meat-based dishes and soups. Curry powder adds a sweet, distinctive, and sometimes hot flavor to foods. A common use is in stews. Curry also complements the flavor of lamb. Because the flavor of curry may vary, many cooks prefer to grind their own. Beware of store-bought curry powders, which may contain mostly turmeric. This gives dishes a yellow color, and the flavor may be bitter. Wine vinegar This type of vinegar can be made from various red or white wines. It is thought to have the most bite of any vinegar. Wine vinegar is most often used as an ingredient in cooking, particularly soups and stews. warmth to food. Widely used in Hungarian and Spanish dishes, paprika adds flavor and color to potatoes, soups, baked fish, and salad dressings. Hungarian paprika is considered the finest and can be purchased in specialty shops. A note of caution it may be hotter in flavor than other types of paprika. found...

Red No

When MSG is added to foods, it provides a flavoring function similar to the glutamate that occurs naturally in food and has been used effectively to bring out meaty taste in foods. Many researchers also believe that MSG imparts a fifth taste, umami, independent of the four basic tastes of sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. This taste in Japan is described as savory or meaty. It works well with a variety of foods such as meats, poultry, seafood, and many vegetables. It is used to enhance the flavor of some soups, stews, meat-based sauces, and snack foods.


Seasonings are used in the food industry in almost every product category, most commonly in those industries where dry ingredients must be blended with wet ingredients or topically applied. Processed meats, snacks, sauces, gravies, dips, soups, and salad dressing manufacturers are the major users of seasonings. When you think of all the items that are composed of these basic products, the possibilities are endless. Frozen entrees, pizza, boxed side dish items, and retorted sauces and entrees are just a few examples.


Fresh eels are cooked in several ways, such as braising and steaming. Steaming, however, is the more popular method. In both Taiwan and Mainland China, eel is either steamed with various vegetables and mushrooms or stewed with Chinese herbs, such as medlar, lovage, and dates. This herb-filled soup is considered as a revitalizing tonic soup for frail or disabled persons.

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