Mt

Figure 55 Endoscopic view after medial endoscopic enlargement of the frontal sinus ostium (F). The anterior attachment of the middle turbinate and adjacent perpendicular plate of the superior nasal septum (small arrows) have been removed. The intersinus septum of the frontal sinus (IS) is still intact.

Figure 56 Sagittal view showing the dense nasofrontal bone (arrows) that is removed to enlarge the common frontal sinus ostium anteriorly. MT = middle turbinate.

Figure 57 Endoscopic view showing the right (R) and left (L) frontal sinus after removal of the intersinus septum (small arrows). The large arrows illustrate the area of nasofrontal bone needing removal for further anterior enlargement of the common ostium. A left ethmoidectomy has not been performed yet. The latter is typically performed first, bilaterally, prior to the extended frontal procedure. MT = middle turbinate. NS = nasal septum.

Figure 57 Endoscopic view showing the right (R) and left (L) frontal sinus after removal of the intersinus septum (small arrows). The large arrows illustrate the area of nasofrontal bone needing removal for further anterior enlargement of the common ostium. A left ethmoidectomy has not been performed yet. The latter is typically performed first, bilaterally, prior to the extended frontal procedure. MT = middle turbinate. NS = nasal septum.

H. Extended Maxillary Antrostomy and Medial Maxillectomy (Figures 58 and 59)

An endoscopic medial maxillectomy may be indicated for patients with a variety of benign and malignant nasal and paranasal sinus neoplasms. Perhaps the most common indication, however, is for the resection of inverted papillomas (92-97). The resection begins with a complete inferior turbinectomy. The medial maxillary wall is then resected, beginning with a maxillary antrostomy at the inferior meatus as described previously. The margins of resection for the medial maxillec-tomy are: 1) the floor of the nose inferiorly, 2) the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus posteriorly, 3) the floor of the orbit superiorly, and 4) the anterior maxillary wall anteriorly. The last requires resection of the osseus and membranous nasolacrimal duct. The procedure then proceeds with an anterior ethmoidectomy, posterior ethmoidectomy, and wide sphenoidotomy with complete removal of the mucous membranes if involved by neoplasm. The thin lamina papyracea and adjacent MOF are carefully removed from the anterior and posterior ethmoid cavity with a periosteal

Figure 58 Sagittal view after complete removal of the inferior turbinate, including the lamellar attachment to the lateral wall (arrows). The entire medial maxillary wall is removed flush with the anterior and posterior maxillary sinus wall, orbital floor, and nasal floor. The nasolacrimal duct is usually removed to expose the anterior maxillary sinus wall. Also, a total ethmoidectomy and removal of the lamina papyracea are typically performed as part of a medial maxillectomy. NL = Hasner's valve and membranous lacrimal duct in the inferior meatus. Note the mucosal canal denoting the location of Hasner's valve.

Figure 58 Sagittal view after complete removal of the inferior turbinate, including the lamellar attachment to the lateral wall (arrows). The entire medial maxillary wall is removed flush with the anterior and posterior maxillary sinus wall, orbital floor, and nasal floor. The nasolacrimal duct is usually removed to expose the anterior maxillary sinus wall. Also, a total ethmoidectomy and removal of the lamina papyracea are typically performed as part of a medial maxillectomy. NL = Hasner's valve and membranous lacrimal duct in the inferior meatus. Note the mucosal canal denoting the location of Hasner's valve.

Figure 59 Sagittal view after complete medial maxillary sinus wall removal. IN = infraorbital nerve and vessels. Arrows show the anterior maxillary sinus wall after removal of the nasolacrimal duct.

elevator. The thickest bone will be encountered anteriorly at the nasolacrimal duct, inferiorly along the horizontal ridge of the antrostomy, posteriorly at the orbital apex, and superiorly at the junction of the ethmoid roof and orbital wall. Therefore, it may be necessary to thin these areas of thick bone with a burr prior to removal with a periosteal elevator. A dacryocystorhinostomy is performed at the end of the procedure to minimize the chance of nasolacrimal sac stenosis or closure. Tissue samples from the various sinus cavities or turbinates are sent in separate tissue containers for pathological evaluation and for subsequent postoperative pathological mapping of the various cavities and nasal structures. This postoperative pathological map is used to illustrate which sinuses are involved with neoplasm versus inflammatory disease. It can also be used to guide further treatment if indicated, e.g., radiation therapy or further radical external surgery.

Patients with more extensive involvement of the frontal sinus may require an endoscopic Lothrop procedure to improve exposure of the frontal sinus cavity and to facilitate the postoperative management and evaluation of these cavities for recurrence. If disease appears to involve the ethmoid roof, a medium-sized otologic diamond burr on an angled handpiece is used to thin it down. Although generally not necessary in most cases, bone removal from the ethmoid roof can be completed in a piecemeal fashion with a periosteal elevator. More extensive bilateral disease involving the septum or sphenoid sinus may require a septectomy and/or an extended sphenoid sinusotomy with removal of the sphenoid rostrum and intersinus septum.

I. Extended Sphenoid Sinusotomy and Approach to the Sella Turcica

(Figures 60 and 61)

Endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas has been reported (98-102). In these cases, an extended sphenoid sinusotomy is necessary to gain exposure to the sella turcica. In addition, an extended sphenoid sinusotomy may be necessary to improve access to a lateral sphenoid recess behind the medial pterygomaxillary fossa, to improve visualization while repairing a CSF leak, or for exposure and removal of a meningoencephalocele (103-105). The approach to the pituitary fossa begins with an extended sphenoid sinusotomy. The sphenoid sinus is initially opened bilaterally, as previously mentioned. The rostrum and intersinus septum are sharply resected with bone-cutting forceps or powered instrumentation. Occasionally the intersinus septum may attach to the anterior wall of the carotid artery. For this reason care is taken to avoid fracturing or inadvertently pulling the intersinus septum to prevent tearing the carotid. In a well-pneumatized sphenoid sinus, the pituitary fossa will often be seen as a convexity in the roof of the common sphenoid cavity (106). However, the surgeon localizes the fossa with intraoperative fluoroscopy or another intraoperative imaging device prior to bone removal. Once the pituitary fossa is localized, the

Figure 60 Sagittal view. IT = inferior turbinate. MT = middle turbinate. ST = superior turbinate. S = sphenoid. In a well-pneumatized sphenoid sinus, the pituitary fossa (P) will often be seen as a convexity (arrows) in the roof of the common sphenoid cavity.

Figure 61 Endoscopic view. R = right sphenoid sinus. L = left sphenoid sinus. Small arrows denoted the resected edge of the sphenoid intersinus septum. An intersinus (rostrum) air cell is seen inferi-orly (asterisk).

bone is thinned with a cutting or diamond burr and the bone is gently removed to expose the capsule of the pituitary gland. The capsule is then incised, exposing the pituitary gland or neoplasm within the sella turcica.

J. Anterior Skull-Base Resection (Figure 62)

Endoscopic resection of anterior skull-base neoplasms may be used as an adjunct to traditional (endoscopic-assisted) external approaches (107,108). It may also be performed as the only procedure in select cases, obviating the need for external incisions or a frontal craniotomy (109). Preop-erative computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in differentiating neoplasm from inflammatory disease, and for the preoperative surgical planning in all these cases.

The intranasal component of the neoplasm is debulked, as in an extensive nasal polyposis case, to expose the nasal septum, lateral nasal wall, and posterior choanal structures. The remaining parts of the procedure are performed principally with noncutting forceps to ensure adequate mu-cosal stripping and to yield tissue for final pathological analysis and postoperative mapping of the involved areas. A suction filter (sock) is used to collect the tissue debris if powered dissection is used. If bilateral surgery is performed, one sock is used for each side and labeled appropriately for pathological analysis.

An endoscopic medial maxillectomy is performed if the tumor appears to involve the ethmoid sinus. A total ethmoidectomy and a middle meatal antrostomy are also performed on the con-

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