How To Cure MRSA Infection Naturally

Staph Infection Secrets By Dr. Walinski

Discover a Simple 3-Step Program to Permanently Eradicate Mrsa & Staph Infections Without Using Antibiotics. Here is what's provided in Staph Infection Secrets. Get Rid of Your Staph / Mrsa Infection. Best ways to quickly get rid of the most common conditions caused by Mrsa and Staph, such as: Impetigo, Cellulitis, Folliculitis, Boils / Carbuncles and more. An easy remedy for nasal infections than can completely eradicate the presence of the bacteria in less than 7 days. How to treat internal infections using a naturally occurring powerful antibiotic with a proven success rate. Learn how to get the most out of Western medicine learn what kinds of treatment is available and how to work with your doctor for best results.

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Staphylococcal Food Poisoning

Background Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is one of the few causes of bacterial FP that can commonly be attributed to a food handler. Humans frequently carry staphylococci either in an infected site or asymptomatically. Infected sites include wounds and abscesses, which may be the source of large numbers of staphylococci. Asymptomatic sites include throat, nostrils, fingernails, or hair. In general, only coagulase-positive staphylococci (Staphy- ococcus aureus), and only certain types, produce enterotoxin. Rarely, some coagulase-negative strains may occasionally produce toxin. Because the organism is also carried by many animals, outbreaks attributable to inadequate processing of a precon-taminated food can occur also. Growth and survival Staphylococci are killed by normal cooking temperatures. Any staphylococci that survive because of inadequate heat penetration or, more frequently, by postcooking contamination from a food handler will, if it is an enterotoxigenic strain and...

Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia and Endocarditis

Staphylococcus aureus is fast becoming a leading cause of bacteremia, both as a hospital-acquired infection as well as a community-acquired infection. It is currently the second most common blood culture isolate. In the recent era, the number of cases of S. aureus bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has been 44.45 . In a multicenter trial, Chang et al. found that in presence of S. aureus bacteremia, the prevalence of endocarditis was 21 in community-acquired infections, 35 in intravenous drug users, 5 in hospital acquired infections, and 12 in the hemodialysis population 43 . Sixty-nine percent of cases were secondary to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 31 were secondary to MRSA. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus was more common in community-acquired infections, in patients with intravenous drug use, and in patients with previous endocarditis. MRSA was more likely to be hospital-acquired and to be found in patients on hemodialysis. MRSA was also more...

Staphylococcus aureus

Data indicate that most raw fresh and frozen poultry, both chicken and turkey, are contaminated with S. aureus (20). And in most studies, the numbers reported are rather high ( 1000 organisms g or cm2). This organism must multiply to reach even higher levels in a food and produce toxin in order for a case of foodborne illness to occur. Staphylococci are not good competitors, so even if initial levels are high, as bacterial competition increases during refrigerated storage (even during temperature-abuse situations), the number of staphylococci on raw poultry tends to decrease considerably. This organism becomes a concern on raw poultry only when the natural bacterial population is significantly decreased by some type of bactericidal treatment, especially when followed by temperature-abuse conditions. Because normal heating or reheating will not destroy the toxin produced by this organism, the easiest precaution for preventing staphylococcal foodborne illness is to refrigerate cooked...

Staphylococcus Infection And Immunity

Staphylococci are ubiquitous organisms living on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other mammals, on birds, certain plants, and in food. They have a spherical shape, stain gram-positive, form grape-like (Gr. staphylos, grape) clusters since they divide in more than one plane, produce catalase, and grow as yellow-white colonies. The cell wall, containing teichoic acids, is rigid and confers tolerance to drying, high salt and sucrose concentrations, and to certain disinfectants. About 30 different species are now recognized (Table 1). Staphylococcus aureus is by far the most pathogenic of these species, despite the fact that it, like other members of the genus, forms part of the normal microflora of human skin and mucous membranes. Staphylococci can produce a variety of toxins, enzymes and cell surface proteins

Other Coagulasenegative staphylococci

S. warneri, a skin commensal but representing only 1 of the skin staphylococci in normal individuals 291 , is associated with an acute and aggressive presentation of NVE. It appears to have a predilection for valve destruction or abscess formation 292,293 . As such, optimal management from cases reported suggests that a combined medical and surgical approach is warranted. Similarly, S. saprophyticus, a typical

Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome develops in patients with clinically inapparent staph infections caused by an exotoxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus. It occurs primarily in infants and young children, and also in immunosuppressed adults or those with renal insufficiency. The exotoxins involved, collectively known as exfoliatin, are elaborated by the bacteria, released into the circulation, and cause acantholysis and intraepidermal cleavage of the skin. 14 An episode of SSSS frequently begins as a clinically inapparent staphylococcal infection of the conjunctiva, nasopharynx, or umbilicus. The disease course can be divided into three phases initial erythroderma exfoliative and desquamation recovery. Initially, the patient (or parent) notes the sudden appearance of a tender erythroderma, usually diffuse, although localized disease has been described. The involved skin may have a sandpaper texture. Tender erythema is prominent in the perioral, periorbital, and groin regions, as...


Apathogenic strains of Staphylococcus are used as starter cultures, and, thus, the environmental conditions in dry and semidry sausages also allow S. aureus to compete successfully and grow. This organism is resistant to nitrite and salt and is capable of growing under anaerobic conditions. It has a minimum water activity for growth of 0.86, and the high fermentation temperatures used in the U.S. manufacturing process favor its rapid multiplication. At fermentation temperatures of 24 to 26 C, it has been demonstrated that the risk of food poisoning, resulting from the ingestion of enterotoxin produced by S. aureus, appears to be minor, provided the initial staphylococci count is low and provided an acidifying agent is used to ensure proper fermentation (44). Recent reports discuss pathogenicity of coagulase negative staphylococci, to which group the meat starter cultures belong (45). Hemolysins are demonstrated in strains of S. carnosus and S. xylosus, for example. In addition,...

Staphyloccous Kocuria

A great part of meat starter culture preparations contain strains from the genera Staphylococcus Kocuria. The genus Staphylococcus is more widely used than Kocuria due to their difference in oxygen requirement. The predominant species are S. carnosus and S. xylosus, whereas Kocuria varians is included only in a few preparations. K. varians, previously known as Micrococcus varians, was recently replaced with respect to genus (27). Staphylococcus is best suited for the sausage environment as they are facultatively anaerobic, whereas Kocuria by nature are aerobic. Staphylococcus Kocuria are usually added at a level of approximately 5 x 106 cells g meat mixture. They seldom increase in number during fermentation however, they maintain a metabolic activity sufficient to ensure that the desired effects are achieved over a prolonged ripening period. Staphylococcus Kocuria are, due to their nitrate and peroxidase reducing activity, involved in color development and color stabilization. Under...

Antibiotics In Foods Of Animal Origin

In 1877 Pasteur and Joubert discovered that growth of Bacillus anthracis could be inhibited by the presence of other microorganisms. This discovery led to the isolation of pyacyanase, the first antibiotic. In 1928 penicillin was discovered by Fleming when he observed that the outgrowth of an agar culture of Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by mold. In 1932 Domagk discovered that the dye prontosil red, the first sulfonamide, demonstrated antimicrobial properties. Since these early discoveries the number of antimicrobials either isolated from natural sources or synthesized in the laboratory has grown tremendously. Antibiotics, in the narrowest sense, are products produced by living organisms that are not toxic to the producing organism but are capable of inhibiting the growth of or terminating other organisms. However, there are many synthetically manufactured compounds that inhibit or kill organisms as effectively as natural antibiotics. The chemistry and mode of action of these...

Phenolic Antioxidants

Phenolic antioxidants including, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), propyl gallate (PG) and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), are used in foods primarily to delay autoxidation of unsaturated lipids. The first report on the antibacterial effectiveness of BHA was that of Chang and Branen (42) in which E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus were inhibited in nutrient broth. Subsequent studies generally demonstrate that Gram-positive bacteria are more susceptible to BHA than Gram-negative bacteria. BHT is generally less effective than other phenolic antioxidants (43). TBHQ is an extremely effective inhibitor of Gram-positive bacteria including S. aureus and Listeria monocytogenes at concentrations generally less than 64 g mL (43).

Spices and Their Essential Oils

The major antimicrobial components of clove and cinnamon are eugenol (2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-phenol)and cinnamic aldehyde (3-phenyl-2-propenal), respectively. Cinnamon and clove extracts or their essential oils inhibit Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus, Enterobacter aerogenes, lactic acid bacteria, and Staphylococcus aureus in microbiological systems and in foods (8). Bullerman (83) observed that cinnamon in raisin bread inhibited growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Cinnamon and clove were the most effective of 16 ground herbs and spices tested at 2 w v against nine mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus and Penicillium species (84).

Lymphoid organs and lymphocytes

The axolotl has a population of B lymphocytes that proliferate in the presence of LPS at all steps of ontogenesis. The splenic T cells from adult, but not from young axolotls, proliferate significantly in response to PHA and Con A. Axolotl lymphocytes are also stimulated in vitro by the enterotoxins A and B from Staphylococcus aureus.

Hydroxycinnamic acids and related compounds

Hydroxycinnamic acids include caffeic, -coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids. These compounds are found in plants and plant foods and they frequently occur as esters and less often as glucosides (Ho, 1992). Herald and Davidson (1983) demonstrated that ferulic acid at 1000 g ml and p-coumaric acid at 500 or 1000 Ug ml inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The compounds were much less effective against Pseudomonas fluoresceins and E. coli. In contrast, alkyl esters of hydroxycinnamic acids including methyl caffeoate, ethyl caffeoate, propyl caffeoate, methyl -coumarate and methyl cinnamate were effective inhibitors of the growth of P. fluorescens (Baranowski and Nagel, 1983). Stead (1993) determined the effect of caffeic, coumaric and ferulic acids against the wine spoilage lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus collinoides and L. brevis. At pH 4.8 in the presence of 5 ethanol, -coumaric and ferulic acids were the most inhibitory compounds at 500 and 1000 g ml....

Specific Therapy for Pneumonia

-Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) 2 gm IV q12h OR -Cefotaxime (Claforan) 2 gm IV q6h OR -Erythromycin 500 mg IV q6h OR -Levofloxacin (Levaquin) 500 mg IV q24h OR -Vancomycin 1 gm iV q12h if drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus -Nafcillin 2 gm IV q4h OR -Oxacillin 2 gm IV q4h. Klebsiella pneumoniae mg kg in 50 mL of D5W over 60 min IV q24h OR Ceftizoxime (Cefizox) 1-2 gm IV q8h OR Cefotaxime (Claforan) 1-2 gm IV q6h. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) -Linezolid (Zyvox) 600 mg IV PO q12h active against MRSA as well OR

Catheter and Line Related IE

Infections in defibrillators and pacemakers may occur anywhere along the electrode and are not limited to the tricuspid valve 11 . Pacemakers and defibrillators may have infection involving either the lead or the pouch, and Staphylococci are the most common pathogens involved 16 . Fungal infection may also be seen 17 . Septic and bland pulmonary emboli may complicate pacemaker defibrillator infection. If the device has been in place for some time, lead extraction is usually impossible and open-heart surgery may be necessary.

Nonclonal receptors in antigen clearance

Initially identified for the ability to bind low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), macrophage scavenger receptors (SRs) were found to exhibit broad polyanionic ligand binding specificity, a characteristic of pattern-recognition molecules. Three independent subclasses of receptor, SR-A, B and C have been described, with expression limited to monocytes, macrophages and hemocytes. Type I and II class A SRs bind to and remove endotoxin (lipid A of LPS) from plasma. Whole gram-positive bacteria and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a ubiquitous gram-positive cell wall constituent, were shown to be additional iigands for type I SR-As. A third recently described SR-A, 'MARCO', expressed on splenic and lymph node macrophages was also reported to interact with E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. A primary function of SR-As on macrophages, monocytes and hemocytes appears to be the clearance of toxic shock-inducing microbial cell surface constituents and pathogenic microorganisms from the body.

Diabetic Foot Infection

Care of the diabetic foot is a special case about which entire textbooks are published. Briefly, the clinician should be concerned that what appears to be a small ulcer on the plantar surface of the foot may indicate a severe midfoot infection hidden by a tremendous callus. The infection is usually polymicrobic, including Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and both aerobes and anaerobes. The callus should be trimmed and the infection unroofed. All devitalized tissue should be removed and the infection adequately drained, but care must be taken to avoid removing viable tissue. Adequate drainage may require amputation.

Antimicrobial mechanisms of phagocytic cells

Over, it is likely that the uptake of enzymes and cations from other cells plays a significant role in macrophage antibacterial function in vivo. The defensins will kill organisms as diverse as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Cryptococcus neoformans and even the enveloped virus, Herpes simplex.

Other components of grampositive cell envelopes

Lipoproteins, which may be highly immunogenic, are anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane by the N-terminus which is lipid modified. Expression of both wall and cytoplasmic membrane proteins may be influenced by environmental factors such as iron availability. Also associated with the surface of some gram-positive bacteria are immunglobulin-binding proteins such as staphylococcal protein A and streptococcal protein G, which bind the Fc region of antibody molecules. Proteins with analogous function are now being detected in some gram-negative bacteria. Release of such proteins may protect the organism by binding to antibody and preventing its deposition on the bacterial surface. Other proteins such as the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes have an antiphagocytic function. Teichoic and lipoteichoic acids are acidic polymers of glycerol or ribitol and are bound to the peptidoglycan and cytoplasmic membrane respectively. They may be important antigens in staphylococci and...

Bacterial Immunoglobulinbinding Proteins

Protein A is expressed by the majority of human isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. The type II receptors are found on the surface of the majority of human isolates of group A streptococci and display a large amount of variability in their immunoglobulin-bind-ing profiles (Table 1). Protein G, the type III IgG-binding protein, is expressed by the majority of human group C and G streptococcal isolates and displays the widest range of species and subclass reactivities of any of the immunoglobulin-binding proteins identified to date (Figure 1). The type IV, V and type VI immunoglobulin-binding proteins are associated with animal isolates of streptococci and have not been studied extensively.

Protein A the type I IgGbinding protein

The initial IgG-binding protein described and characterized was the type I binding protein expressed on the surface of the majority of Staphylococcus aureus isolates and more frequently designated as staphylococcal protein A. Protein A and its interaction with the Fc region of reactive IgG antibodies has been extensively studied and detailed structure-function analysis by X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance has mapped the key binding amino acids in the selective interaction of protein A with the CH2-CH3 domain of IgG. In addition to effects of protein A on the humoral immune system, the bacterial protein has also been reported to have T cell mitogenic properties and to act as a B cell superantigen. The T cell cffects of protein A, however, are based on earlier studies of responses induced by heat-killed and or formalin-fixed S. aureus Cowan strain bacteria or wild-type preparations of protein A. These sources of protein A have the potential to be contaminated with...

Other bacterial immunoglobulinbinding proteins

In addition to the IgG-binding proteins associated with staphylococci and streptococci, an increasing number of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have been reported to express immunoglobulin-binding proteins with reactivity for IgA, IgD and IgM, as well as a protein that binds to certain k light chains (Table 2). To date, no disease association has been suggested for any of the putative IgA-, IgM-and IgD-binding proteins. The Fc binding protein associated with H. somnus has been implicated as a virulence factor in cattle and an association between expression of protein L, a light chain-binding protein, by Peptococcus magnus and vaginal infections has been proposed.

Lipopolysaccharides Interaction With Cell Membranes

Perhaps the best characterized of several known LPS host macrophage receptors is a 55 kD surface glycoprotein called CD14 (57). This glycoprotein is also found in soluble form (sCD14) and acts as a receptor for host cells that do not express CD14 on their surface (58). In an unusual mechanism, LPS is not mediated directly by the membrane bound protein, but first by a soluble 60 kDa protein synthesized in hepatacytes called lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP). The soluble protein opsonizes (free or gram-negative bacterial associated) LPS forming a soluble complex, and, through an affinity for a macrophage bound receptor, CD14, facilitates LPS adhesion to macrophage for internalization. The adhesion of the LPS-LBP complex induces the synthesis of TNF-a at the mRNA level. The genes for both human and murine CD14 have been cloned, sequenced, and shown to share in homology with one another and with another endotoxin binding protein called bacterial permeability increasing protein...

Emergency Department Care

The second priority is drawing three blood cultures from different sites and then starting empiric antibiotic therapy. 21 For acute infective endocarditis, a penicillinase-resistant penicillin, such as oxicillin 2 g q4h, should be given with an aminoglycoside, such as gentamicin 1 mg kg up to 80 mg q8h, chosen on the basis of local patterns of susceptibility. In areas where there is a high incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus or in the case of a patient taking oral antibiotics already, vancomycin 1 g intravenously should be used in addition to an aminoglycoside. Patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis should be treated with antibiotics that cover S. epidermidis, usually vancomycin, 1 g intravenously, in addition to an aminoglycoside and rifampin. Although subacute cases are frequently caused by S. viridans and this bacteria is covered by penicillin G, patients with subacute presentations that require admission should be started on a newer cephalosporin, such as...

Resistance Induced By Ribosomal Mutations

Resistance in bacteria with multiple rrn operons is generally conferred by Erm methylation or active efflux. However, there are recent reports of macrolide resistance in laboratory and clinical strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus which harbor four and six rrn operons, respectively.1-5,6-1 Susceptibility of erythromycin decreases as the number of the mutated copies increases,1-7-1 and high-level erythromycin resistance can be achieved only when at least half of the copies are mutated.

New Method Of Detection In Grampositive Cocci

A denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) technique was recently evaluated in streptococci and staphylococci.1-25-1 This rapid screening method allows automated detection of single base substitution as well as small insertions or deletions employing a combination of temperature-dependant denaturation of DNA and ion pair chromatography. In this method, after PCR amplification of regions of interest in 23S rRNA, L4, or L22 genes, wild-type and mutant PCR products are mixed in an equimolar ratio, heated to denature each strand, and then allowed to reanneal until they form a mixed population of homoduplexes plus hetero-duplexes containing the mismatched bases. Under conditions of partial denaturation temperature, the heteroduplexes elute from the column earlier than the homoduplexes because of their reduced melting temperature. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatog-raphy data analysis is then based on a qualitative comparison of peak number and or shape of a...

Treatment and outcomes

Provisional antimicrobial therapy should be begun on the assumption that while there may be a dominant pathogen, most likely Staphylococcus aureus or a Streptococcus sp., polymicrobial infection with gram-negatives and anerobes may be present. The results of culture may require a change in therapy.

Keep foods at safe temperatures

Mead et al. (1999) reported that 100 of the cases of Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, and Bacillus cereus illness are foodborne, but FoodNet does not conduct active surveillance of foodborne pathogens that are primarily controlled by storage temperature. Reported incidence of illnesses associated with improperly stored foods currently is low, perhaps because illnesses caused by these pathogens are largely self-limiting and medical treatment is infrequent (Mead et al., 1999), or because of the emphasis consumer education programs have traditionally placed on food handling behaviors that control these pathogens (Medeiros et al., 2001b). However, consumers frequently practice behaviors that could lead to illnesses from these pathogens. For example, a food safety survey of consumers found that almost half of the respondents were likely

Future consumer trends

Consumers must rely on the training and diligence of commercial food workers who have assumed the role of assuring the safety of foods during preparation. Safe storage of foods prepared away from home then transported to the point of consumption raises concerns that temperature abuse could lead to re-emergence of some types of low-incidence foodborne illnesses, such as Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus (Little et al., 2002). These researchers concluded that establishments where the manager had participated in food safety training have less food contamination than those without trained managers. Cohen et al. (2001) evaluated the efficacy of an in-house food safety training program and learned that success was dependent on the motivation of the workers to practice safe food handling behaviors. Workers in food establishments in England, most of whom (95 ) had received some type of food safety training, were surveyed regarding their food handling practices (Clayton et al., 2002)....

Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary tract infections can occur after any surgical procedure. However, there is an increased incidence in patients who have had instrumentation of the genitourinary tract or bladder catheterization. The cause is direct contamination of the urinary bladder, most commonly with Escherichia coli. Other organisms isolated include Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, and enterococci. Oral antibiotics are appropriate for most infections however, elderly or debilitated patients and patients with evidence of sepsis require admission for parenteral antibiotics.

Infections characterized by a polymorphonuclear immunological response

Impetigo results from a superficial infection of skin, usually by group A streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus. Infectious manifestations begin with formation of thin-roofed vesicles that rapidly pustulate and rupture. Dried, purulent discharge results in the formation of a characteristic, adherent, golden-brown crust. The vesico-pustule forms between the stratum corneum and the stratum granulosum, and the inflammatory response is predominately polymorphonuclear in nature. The most serious complication is that of streptococcus-specific antibody-as-sociated glomerulonephritis that can occur approximately 2 weeks after the cutaneous infection. Bullous impetigo also results from a superficial infection of skin but is caused by locally invasive phage-group 2 S. aureus that produces a toxin, exfoliatin. The action of this toxin results in the formation of bullae that contain S. aureus organisms and many polymorphonuclear cells. Bullous impetigo is not associated with the development of...

Infections characterized by a histiocytic immunologic response

Plasma, infection and immunity Innate immunity Langerhans cells Leishmaniasis Mast cells Mycobacteria, infection and immunity Onchocerciasis Papillomavirus, infection and immunity Parasites, immunity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, infection and immunity Skin, contribution to immunity Staphylococcus, infection and immunity Streptococcus, infection and immunity Treponema, infection and immunity.

Convergence Of Pyrogenic Mechanisms

There is some convergence in the understanding of host mediator activation that includes microbial cell envelope components including LPS, PG, secreted toxins (including the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins), and enterotoxins (Staphylococcus). The modes of activation of host defenses overlap in some cases. Although endo-toxin is the most potent in its activity (i.e., active at the lowest concentrations), it Non-staph and Non-strep SAg Staphylococcus

Timing of surgical intervention

Several retrospective cohort studies indicate that early surgical intervention may improve short-and or long-term outcomes in patients with Staphylococcus aureus IE,66,71-73 and in any patient with IE complicated by CHF.73,74 There remains no evidence indicating a benefit to early surgical intervention in patients with uncomplicated streptococcal IE. However, a prospective, randomized trial of medical versus early surgical intervention among patients with uncomplicated IE would be needed to overcome the selection biases that likely influence the foregoing conclusions. Unfortunately, such a trial would still be limited by the inability to blind patients to their received treatment.

Interference With Phagocytosis

Vival, as they may produce a product that promotes sequestration within the phagocytic cell, as seen in some forms of staphylococcal infection (114). Similar mechanisms can also lead to survival of Gram-negative bacteria (16), and a combination of sequestration in phagocytic as well as non-phagocytic cells can provide a survival route for gastrointestinal pathogens such as Salmonella

The use and effect of enzymes as antibacterial agents

Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria contain peptidoglycan in the cell wall. As is well known, the peptidoglycan layer of Gram-positive bacteria is generally much thicker than that of Gram-negative organisms. In Gram-positive cells the peptidoglycan may thus constitute 50 of the dry weight of the cell wall (Schleifer and Kandler, 1972). Even though the peptidoglycan layer is thinner in Gram-negatives, their peptidoglycan is less accessible as it is sandwiched between the cytoplasmic membrane and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides, phospholipids, and protein (ratio approximately 1 1 1) (Proctor and Cunningham, 1988). The presence in Gram-negative cells of this outer membrane offers Gram-negative bacteria an effective barrier to lysozyme action. In turn, this barrier renders Gram-negative bacteria intrinsically more resistant than Gram-positive organisms to lysozyme attack and bacteriolysis (Proctor and Cunningham, 1988). In other words, the difference in the...

Box 113 Biochemistry In Medicine

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a serious and relatively common hereditary disease of humans. About 5 of white Americans are carriers, having one defective and one normal copy of the gene. Only individuals with two defective copies show the severe symptoms of the disease obstruction of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, commonly leading to bacterial infection of the airways and death due to respiratory insufficiency before the age of 30. In CF, the thin layer of mucus that normally coats the internal surfaces of the lungs is abnormally thick, obstructing air flow and providing a haven for pathogenic bacteria, particularly Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Pneumococcal Pneumonia

-Ceftriaxone (Rocephin) 2 gm IV q12h OR -Cefotaxime (Claforan) 2 gm IV q6h OR -Erythromycin 500 mg IV q6h OR -Vancomycin 1 gm IV q12h if drug resistance. Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia -Nafcillin 2 gm IV q4h OR -Oxacillin 2 gm IV q4h. of D5W over 60 min IV q24h AND Ceftizoxime (Cefizox) 1-2 gm IV q8h OR Cefotaxime (Claforan) 1-2 gm IV q6h. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus

Microorganisms Used In Fermented Foods

Bacteria Acetobacter, Streptococcus, Lactococcus, Leu-conostoc, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium, Brevibacterium, Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus. There has been a major renaming of some key bacteria used in fermentation as follows Streptococcus cremois to Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris

Fluoroquinolone Cellular Targets

It was initially believed that the primary target for fluoroquinolones in all gram-negatives, such as Esche-richia coli, was DNA gyrase, whereas the primary target in all gram-positives, such as Staphylococcus aureus, was topoisomerase IV. 1,4 However, it has now been demonstrated that in certain bacterial species, such as S. pneumoniae, the primary bacterial target is dependent on the specific fluoroquinolone structure. 1,4,7

Causes And Manifestations Of Food Deterioration

It is important to distinguish between pathogenic and nonpathogenic species. Pathogens are organisms that cause disease, and a number of human pathogens can be transmitted through food. They include Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum, Listeria monocytogenes, and many others. Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites, some of which are potentially toxic or carcinogenic to humans, for example, aflatoxin from Aspergillus flavus. It is essential that all pathogenic species be controlled in preserved foods to eliminate foodborne disease. This is done by providing measures to eliminate what may be present in raw materials (eg, those of animal origin) through processing, and by providing measures to eliminate the entry of contaminating pathogens to the food supply through hygienic manufacturing practices. Most microorganisms, however, are not pathogenic but can cause food spoilage if allowed to grow, primarily as a result of off-flavors and odors from metabolic...

Factors that influence the efficiency of the lactoperoxidase system

Addition of nisin together with lactoperoxidase and glucose glucose-oxidase to pre-sterilised milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes was demonstrated to exert a pronounced synergistic and lasting bacteriocidal effect on L. monocytogenes as no cells were detected in the inoculated milk during 15 days of incubation of the milk at 250C (Boussel et al., 2000). Likewise, designed additions of nisin and bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria in conjunction with activation of the lactoperoxidase system gave a more pronounced decrease of L. monocytogenes counts in skim milk and raw milk than those observed for the activated lactoperoxidase system alone (Zapico et al., 1998 Rodriguez et al., 1997). Addition of monolaurin and concomitant activation of the lactoperoxidase system resulted in improved growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens including Escherichia coli 0157 H7 and Staphylococcus aureus by lactoperoxidase in milk (McLay et al., 1998). BIERBAUM G, SAHLHG (1987), 'Autolytic system...

Gravity Effect Of Space Flight On Immunity

Despite recirculation of cabin air through microfilters, microgravity caused a suspension of food particlcs and droplets of liquids from all sources, including waste disposal systems. Thus, microorganism-containing aerosols tended to be the rule, rather than the exception. It was not surprising then, that the microflora of space travelers also showed extensive alterations. A broad redistribution of microbial species occurred among crew members, with increased numbers of body sites harboring microorganisms. Altered body microflora of space travelers included an increased number and variety of dermal organisms, and the presence of potentially virulent bacteria (including Mycoplasma and Staphylococcus) on the upper respiratory mucosa.

Etiology of bacterial meningitis

(NNIS) noted an incidence of 5-6 non-surgical, nosocomial infections of the central nervous system (CNS) for every 100 000 patients discharged from the hospital between 1986-1993 with meningitis accounting for 91 of cases.14 Unlike community-acquired meningitis, the most common pathogens in nosocomial meningitis are Gram-negative bacilli and staphylococci.13

Intravenous Drug Users IVDU

The majority of IE in the IVDU group is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for 50-75 of cases 20,21 . The streptococci and enterococci are the next-most-common S. aureus most commonly causes right-sided (tricuspid) endocarditis in the IVDU setting. In the review of definite S. aureus native valve IE cases from the ICE merged database (19791999) published by Miro et al., 131 149 (88 ) cases in patients with a history of injection drug use involved the tricuspid valve 5 . Of 170 patients with right-sided S. aureus IE, 131 (77 ) provided a history of IV drug use. In the same study, MRSA was observed infrequently in the IVDU population 6 43 (14.0 ) patients with MRSA IE used IV drugs compared to 136 248 (54.8 ) of those with infection caused by susceptible strains. However, increasing rates of MRSA in IVDU have been observed and outbreaks have been documented.

Pathogenically Dormant Bacteria

In some cases bacteria can be present and metabolically active but not actively virulent until circumstances favour pathogenesis. Put simply, some bacteria will lie low and try to proliferate while evading host defences until such a time as the population has gathered sufficient numbers to produce a pathogenic insult capable of overwhelming the host and its defences. These bacteria can be considered pathogenically dormant but not metabolically dormant. The roles of population size, evasion of host defence and quorum sensing are entwined in the control of pathogenicity of at least two important pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both organisms are common in our environment and are responsible for a wide range of infections (see 2, 15, 55, 56, 101 for reviews). Often these infections are hospital-acquired and are difficult to treat because of antibiotic resistance (reviewed by 15, 55, 106). The pathogenesis of both species relies upon the coordinated expression...

Phylum Firmicutes The low GC Grampositive bacteria

The cells of staphylococci occur in irregular bunches rather than ordered chains. They also produce lactic acid but can additionally carry out aerobic respiration involving cytochromes, and lack the complex nutritional requirements of the lactic acid bacteria. They are resistant to drying and able to tolerate relatively high concentrations of salt. These properties allow Staphylococcus aureus to be a normal inhabitant of the human skin, where it can sometimes give rise to dermatological conditions such as acne, boils and impetigo. It is also found in the respiratory tract of many healthy individuals, to whom it poses no threat, but in people whose immune system has been in some way compromised, it can cause serious respiratory infections. S. aureus can also cause a type of food poisoning and is the causative agent of toxic shock syndrome. Widespread antibiotic use has been largely responsible for the development of resistant forms of S. aureus, which have become ubiquitous inhabitants...

Infections Infectious Crises

Bacterial infection poses a serious threat to the child with sickle cell anemia. In the first 10 years of life the most common infections are bacteremia, pneumonia, osteomyelitis, meningitis, and urinary tract infections. In the group under 5 years of age, it is often fatal it occurs rapidly and can be overwhelming. The primary pathogens are usually encapsulated organisms Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Other common infections include pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and osteomyelitis due to Salmonella typhimurium, Staph. aureus, and E. coli. SCD patients also have an increased incidence of osteomyelitis. Often the etiologic agent is S. typhirium (about 50 percent). It can also be caused by Staph. aureus and E. coli. Also seen in increased frequency from the general population are meningitis and urinary tract infections. Bacterial meningitis and septicemia are approximately 600 times more common in SCD patients...

Biological properties

Binding of IgG also occurs to bacterial cell wall proteins such as protein A of Staphylococcus aureus. The site for this interaction has been shown by X-ray crystallography to involve residues in the inter-domain cleft between the C72 and the C.3 domains, notably histidines 310 and 435. Histidine 435 is replaced by arginine in two allotypes of IgG3 and accounts for their not binding protein A. There is also evidence for secondary interaction between protein A and the Fab region of IgG.

Suggested Reading

Toxic-shock syndrome associated with phage-group-1 Staphylococci. Lancet 1978 2 1116-8. 3. Waldvogel FA. Staphylococcus aureus (Including staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome) In Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Disease. 5th ed. Philidelphia Churchill Livingstone, 2000 2089-92.

. Bajpai B. Patil S. Tannin Acyl Hydrolase Ec Activity Of Aspergillus Penicilium Fusarium And Trichoderma.

Berdague. Production of flavor esters by lipases of Staphylococcus warneri and S. xylosus. Enzyme Microbiol. Technol. 19(8) 620-622, 1996. Rivera-Munoz, G., J.R. Tinoco-Valencia, S. Sanchez, A. Farres. Production of microbial lipases in a solid-state fermentation system. Biotechnol. Lett. 13 277-280, 1991. Villegas, E., S. Aubague, L. Alcantara, R. Auria, S. Revah. Solid-state fermentation acid protease production in controlled CO2 and O2 environments. Biotechnol. Adv. 11 387-397, 1993. Ikasari, L., D.A. Mitchell. Leaching and characterization of Rhizopus oligosporus acid protease from solid-state fermentation. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 19 171-175, 1996. Ikasari, L., D.A. Mitchell. Mimicking gas and temperature changes during enzyme production by Rhizopus oligosporus in solid-state fermentation. Biotechnol. Lett. 20 349-353, 1998. George, S., V. Raju, T.V. Subramanian, K. Jayaraman. Comparative study of protease production in solid substrate fermentation...

Piper R Krfer D Horstkotte

After 40 years of continuous improvements in the design and materials used Lfor prosthetic heart valves, valve replacement surgery is now performed with low morbidity and mortality. These advantages have been hampered by a few but severe adverse effects in particular, infections of the prosthetic material continue to be an extremely serious complication occurring with a relatively low but increasing frequency ranging from 0.1-2.3 per patient year.1-3 The prosthesis obviously predisposes to device related infections, especially those caused by novobiocin susceptible, coagulase negative staphylococci, which are able to adhere to a variety of surfaces4 and produce an antibiotic resistant biofilm.5 6

Effect of iron excess on immunity

Iron excess has been associated with increased susceptibility to infections and abnormal neutrophil and lymphocyte function. Patients with iron overload undergoing dialysis showed decreased phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity of blood neutrophils. Hemochromatosis patients with elevated levels of storage iron were reported to have elevated numbers of CD8 T cells and impaired ability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to respond to mitogens. Increased transferrin saturation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy has been associated with increased in vitro growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. NK cell cytotoxicity against K562 target cells was decreased in patients with (3-thalassemia major who are iron overloaded as a consequence of chronic transfusion therapy. In patients with (3-thalassemia intermedia, decreased opsonization and granulocyte phagocytosis, decreased serum immunoglobulin levels, and changes in B and T cell numbers and function have

Biological activities of IL9

TL-4 has been shown to induce immunoglobulin E (IgE) production by normal B lymphocytes from human peripheral blood without preactivation of these cells. In the absence of IL-4, IL-9 does not induce IgE and IgG production by human B lymphocytes. However, in the presence of a suboptimal dose of IL-4, IL-9 markedly enhances IgE and IgG production in a dose-dependent manner. The ability of IL-4 to induce IgG and IgM by purified B lymphocytes preactivated with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain I was also enhanced in the presence of IL-9. These results implicate a role for IL-9 in the regulation of immunoglobulin production by B lymphocytes.

Screening of Potential Leads from Diverse Microbial Sources

Bacterial Biological Control Images

Spartamycins produced by M. spartanea were isolated from a potted soil with A. officinalis L. plants (Nair et al. 1992). Between the two spartamycin analogs A and B, the latter showed better antimicrobial activity against several microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of spartamycin B on Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Candida albicans ranged from 0.2 to 1 mgmP1. However, spartamycin B was not effective against the Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Citrobacter spp. In view of antifungal activity and structural similarity of the anthracycline antibiotics, their analogs having different glycoside moieties may be worthwhile to examine their antifungal activity against various plant pathogenic fungi.

Native valve endocarditis

Community acquired NVE Community acquired NVE is now as likely to be caused by staphylococci, usually Staphyloco-ccus aureus but sometimes by coagulase negative staphylococci, as it is to be caused by oral ( viridans ) streptococci (fig 13.1), most commonly those of the sanguis and oralis groups. Enterococci (until quite recently known as streptococci) are less common but their incidence is increasing most are Enterococcus faecalis. A trivial predisposing skin lesion is occasionally detected in staphylococcal IE and there may be poor dentition in oral streptococ-cal IE, but seldom relevant preceding dentistry. Staphylococci, even some coagulase negative strains such Staphylococcus lugdunensis, are virulent bacteria and are as likely to attack a

Clinical Features

Most children with CF present with malabsorption and failure to thrive accompanied by recurrent or persistent chest infections. In the lungs, viscid mucus in the smaller airways predisposes to chronic infection, particularly with Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilis influenzae, and subsequently with Pseudomonas species. This leads to damage of the bronchial wall, bronchietasis, and abscess formation.

H 12523 Laboratory Tests

In aortic graft infections laboratory tests usually suggest a pronounced systemic infection with leukocyte counts 15 X 109 l and high C -reactive protein values. The amount of increase, however, varies with the grade of infection. When presentation is vague, additional laboratory tests such as differential count or electrophoresis can occasionally facilitate differentiation from other diseases. Test results can be normal during infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. Patients often also have a slight anemia and low albumin levels in serum. Stools should be checked for the presence of blood when aortic graft infections are suspected. The value of this can, however, be debated because the specificity in diagnoses of occult bleeding from aortoduodenal fistulas is low.

Functions of IL6 Immune response

Interleukin 6 was originally identified as a T cell-derived lymphokine that induces final maturation of B cells into antibody-producing cells. Recombinant human IL-6 acts on B cells activated with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I or pokeweed mitogen (PWM) to induce immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG and IgA production, but not on resting B cells. Anti-IL-6 antibody was found to inhibit PWM-induced Ig production, indicating that IL-6 is one of the essential factors in PWM-induced Ig production. Furthermore, IL-6 was shown to augment the primary and secondary anti-SRBC (sheep red blood cell) antibody production in mice in vivo. Also IL-6 could enhance IgA synthesis in murine Peyer's patch B cells which were already committed to IgA production. Murine IL-6 was also shown to act on murine B cells activated with anti-Ig or dextran sulfate IL-6 and IL-1 synergistically stimulate the growth and differentiation of these murine B cells. Interleukin 6 could also induce the growth and differentiation of T...

Bacteriology of the Marine Environment and Antibiotic Therapy

Ocean water provides a rich saline milieu for microbes.2 Although the greatest number and variety of bacteria are found near the ocean surface, diverse bacteria and fungi are found in marine silts, sediments, and sand. Microbes, including bacteria, microalgae, protozoa, yeasts, and viruses, are most abundant in areas with the greatest number of life forms. Marine bacteria are generally gram-negative rods. Bacteria isolated from the marine environment or from marine-acquired wounds of greatest concern to humans include Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacteroides fragilis, Chromobacterium violaceum, Clostridium perfringens, Erysipelothrix rhusopathiae, Escherichia coli, Mycobacterium marinum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus species, and Vibrio species. tetracycline, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, or cefuroxime. Freshwater infections may be treated with the abovementioned agents, imipenem, or an aminoglycoside, to cover Aeromonas species....

Hospital acquired or hospital associated NVE

These infections are almost always caused by staphylococci, usually S aureus but occasionally coagulase-negative staphylococci, most often Staphylococcus epidermidis. The inexorable rise in methicillin resistant S aureus (MRSA) in UK hospitals over the last decade has been paralleled by an increase in hospital acquired MRSA endocarditis. Most cases of hospital acquired NVE result from intravascular access site infections, even those used for peripheral venous access. Intravascular access site infection is especially common in patients on haemodialysis. Pacemaker associated NVE is also increasingly encountered.

In combination with ozone

The inactivation of various bacteria and viruses including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella typhymurium and the Vesticular stomatitis, have been investigated in the presence of ozone alone, sonication alone, ozone and sonication combined and finally oxygen and sonication combined (Burleson et al., 1975). Using a frequency of 40 kHz at the base of a Plexiglas column they discovered that ozone inactivated the bacteria but contact

Wound and subcutaneous graft infections

Started after samples for microbiological cultures are obtained. Because Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacteria, oral cloxacillin is given. If the patient has diabetes or if the wound is suspected to be contaminated with intestinal bacteria, antibiotics with a broader efficacy spectrum are recommended.

Case scenario 2 How should infected atopic eczema be treated

The relationship between Staphylococcus aureus and atopic eczema disease activity has been debated for many years. Most physicians recognise clinically infected eczema as recent onset of weeping, oozing and serous crusting or overt pus overlying the eczematous lesions. In this situation S. aureus is isolated in 90-100 of cases, usually in high numbers.1,2 In around 30 of cases, beta haemolytic streptococci are also isolated.1 Clinical infection is undoubtedly a

Microbial Contaminants

Consumer in recent years have expressed considerable concern over the safety of the food supply. Concern has been aimed at the presence of hormones and drugs in meats, preservatives found in food, pesticides, microbial contaminants, and food additives. Reports last year of cyanide in grapes and Alar in apples have fueled the level of concern. This issue of the public's concern over the quality of food was addressed at a conference (the International Conference on Issues in Food Safety and Toxicology) held in the spring of 1990 at Michigan State University (MSU) East Lansing, Mich. The conference was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and MSU's Center for Environmental Toxicology. From various presentations it became apparent that the consumers' perceptions of risks from chemical agents in food differs drastically from the experts' opinions. The experts rank the risk from chemicals below microbial risk or nutritional considerations. The general public perceives the...

Immunocompromised Patients and Health CareAssociated Endocarditis Epidemiology

While rates of infection due to viridans group streptococci decreased (p 0.007). Hemo-dialysis was independently associated with S. aureus infection (odds ratio, 3.1 95 confidence interval, 1.6-5.9). Patients with S. aureus endocarditis had a higher one-year mortality rate (43.9 vs. 32.5 P 0.04) that persisted after adjustment for other illness severity characteristics (hazard ratio, 1.5 95 confidence interval, 1.03-2.3). In a recent international study initiated by the International Collaboration for Endocarditis (ICE), healthcare-associated infection was the most common form of S. aureus infective endocarditis. Most patients with health-care-associated S aureus endocarditis (131 patients, 60.1 ) acquired the infection outside of the hospital. Persistent bac-teremia was independently associated with MRSA infective endocarditis (OR 6.2 95 CI 2.9-13.2). Patients in the United States were most likely to be hemodialysis dependent, to have diabetes, to have a presumed intravascular device...

Microorganisms In Shellfish

Greater numbers of bacterial species are found in Dungeness crabs from Kodiak Island and the Columbia River, waters close to human habitation, whereas the least number of species are found in the tanner crab from the Bering Sea, an area far from human habitation (39). The highest levels of bacteria occur in the gills, 103 to 107 g, as compared to 1 x 101 to 4 x 102 g in muscle tissue. Gills of Dungeness crabs from the Bering Sea contain Moraxella, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Micrococcus, and Staphylococ- cus, whereas the muscle carries Micrococcus and Staphylococcus (39) Crawfish. Spoilage of crawfish is caused by the potential spoilers similar to those detected in other crustaceans. In a total of 280 isolates found from spoiled crawfish, 22.1 were shown to be rapid spoilers 16.4 , low spoilers and 61.5 , nonspoilers (40). In the group of rapid spoilers over half were pseudomonads and less than half were Moraxella-Acinetobacter. Slow spoilers include Pseudomonas,...

TABLE 785 Pruritus

Infectious agents that have to be considered as causes of pruritus ani include bacteria, viruses, fungi, spirochetes, and parasites. More common bacterial infections, such as staphylococci and streptococci, in addition to all sexually transmitted organisms, will cause pruritus, if not actual pain. Pinworms ( enterobius vermicularis) are the most common cause of anal pruritus in children. Candida albicans is commonly found on the perianal skin but is not usually associated with pruritus the Trichophyton species, on the other hand, are always associated with pruritus.

Community Acquired Native Valve Endocarditis

The common causes of native valve endocarditis are members of the normal flora of the skin, oropharynx, and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. The vast majority of native valve endocarditis cases are caused by Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species. Several recent publications show that Staphylococcus aureus seems to have overtaken the viridans group Streptococci as the most common cause of native valve IE 3 . However, a Staphylococci Staphylococcus aureus Coagulase-negative staphylococci Staphylococcus aureus Coagulase-negative staphylococci population-based study of IE cases in Olmstead County, Minnesota, from 1970 to 2000 revealed no significant trends over time with respect to either the overall incidence of IE or the relative proportion of cases caused by Staphylococci and Streptococci 4 . These apparently contradictory observations likely result from differences in patient risk factors (e.g., low IVDU rates in Olmstead County) and referral patterns (more S. aureus...

Choice of antibiotic for specific pathogens and the need for two agents

It is conventional to treat staphylococcal IE with two antibiotics though there is very little evidence that this is beneficial. Trials of different treatment regimens in staphylococcal IE are almost impossible to assess because so many patients come to emergency surgery and it is this, not the antibiotics, that cures them. The addition of gentamicin to the P lactam for two weeks in staphylococcal IE reduced the duration of fever and bacteraemia by about 24 hours in both IVDU and non-IVDU, but had no effect on morbidity or mortality.5 Fusidic acid is sometimes given in combination with flucloxacillin for staphylococcal IE, but benefit over the single agent is anecdotal. Rifampicin is often recommended in combination with vancomycin for MRSA or coagulase negative staphylococcal IE, especially PVE, but again convincing evidence of efficacy is lacking.

Meat Starter Cultures And Meat Product Manufacturing

Due to manufacturing conditions, the trend is now increasing toward the use of mixed cultures composed of staphylococci strains and strains of lactic acid bacteria. Starter cultures contribute to appearance, texture, flavor, and aroma. The usage of starter cultures for fermented meat products is largely confined to dry-cured sausages. Only a minor portion is employed for dry-cured ham production.

Microbiology of Dry Cured

It can be debated whether dry-cured ham is a fermented product. The reason is that the microbial flora is seldom higher than approximately 104 cells g meat, although the concentration can be as high as 108 cells g on the surface (57,58). Growth is limited due to the initial low temperature and due to the low water activity throughout processing. The natural microflora, in the core as well as on the surface, consists of Staphylococcus Kocuria. Initially, lactic acid bacteria, yeast, and the Gram-negative Vibrio may also be demonstrated, but the predominant organisms throughout processing are Staphylococcus, although their importance in the biochemistry of ham products is unknown (59). The characteristics of dry-cured ham are determined by type of raw material, processing conditions, and the biochemical changes taking place during manufacture. These are largely the result of muscle proteases and lipases (17,56). A recent study, however, suggests that microbial amino acid catabolism...

Numbers And Kinds Of Microbes In Foods

Spoilage potential and food-safety issues. In general, raw food products tend to have a heterogeneous population, whereas processed food usually contains those organisms that can survive the processes and subsequent storage conditions. Microorganisms are very small, and when they occur in foods they may be in the millions per gram, milliliter, or square centimeter. A convenient guide for categorizing microbial loads on meat surfaces is as follows microbial load on meat surface is considered low when the count is 0-2 log colony-forming units (cfu) cm2 intermediate, 3-4 log cfu cm2 high, 5-6 log cfu cm2 and very high, 7 log cfu cm2 (1). Using this guide, samples with 0-4 log cfu cm2 would be considered as acceptable samples with 5-6 log cfu cm2 would be considered questionable and samples with 7 log cfu cm2 and above would be considered unacceptable from a food-spoilage standpoint. Generally, 7 log cfu g, mL, or cm2 is considered the index of spoilage, because food will exhibit odor,...

Aerobic Gram Positive Catalase Positive Cocci

Staphylococcus is an important genus of gram-positive cocci. This is a facultative anaerobic organism that occurs widely in nature and on human skin. These bacteria produce a variety of extracellular enzymes and metabolites. The most important metabolite they produce is a group of heat-stable toxins called enterotoxins, which are the agents of staphylococcal intoxications. Once formed in food, these toxins are very difficult to destroy. Boiling for 1 h will not destroy the toxins but will kill the pathogens easily. The organism is salt tolerant and can spoil a variety of foods besides being an important food pathogen.

Lipid Linked Oligosaccharides Are Precursors for Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis

FIGURE 20-33 Peptidoglycan structure. This is the peptidoglycan of the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus, a gram-positive bacterium. Peptides (strings of colored spheres) covalently link N-acetylmuramic acid residues in neighboring polysaccharide chains. Note the mixture of l and d amino acids in the peptides. Gram-positive bacteria such as S. aureus have a pentaglycine chain in the cross-link. Gram-negative bacteria, such as E. coli, lack the pentaglycine instead, the terminal D-Ala residue of one tetrapeptide is attached directly to a neighboring tetrapeptide through either L-Lys or a lysine-like amino acid, di-aminopimelic acid. FIGURE 20-33 Peptidoglycan structure. This is the peptidoglycan of the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus, a gram-positive bacterium. Peptides (strings of colored spheres) covalently link N-acetylmuramic acid residues in neighboring polysaccharide chains. Note the mixture of l and d amino acids in the peptides. Gram-positive bacteria such as S. aureus have...

Viral recombination lateral exchange and the evolution of bacteriophages

From the above, it is apparent that bacteriophages have a profound effect on the evolution of their bacterial hosts (as facilitators of gene-transfer events). However, viral recombination and horizontal transfer affect the evolution of bacteriophages as well. The dynamic nature of their evolution was first indicated by the extremely labile nature of the globally distributed bacteriophage lineages. For example, when considered as a single 'population', the replacement of the global bacteriophage pool was estimated to occur every few weeks (Wilhelm et al. 2002 Breitbart et al. 2004). However, deciphering the role of various processes, including viral recombination and lateral exchange, in the evolution of these organisms requires specific information on the genetic variability in bacteriophage lineages. To accomplish this, Kwan et al. (2005) carried out an analysis of the entire genomes of 27 bacteriophages that infect Staphylococcus aureus. By comparing the sequence information from...

The Prompt Microglial Macrophage Response in Necrotic CNS Lesions

Microglia are involved in the formation of bacterial brain abscesses. Brain abscesses were produced experimentally in the rat by direct intracerebral injection of agarose beads laden with Staphylococcus areus. This approach allowed a sequential analysis of glial and inflammatory responses during different stages of abscess development. The first stage, acute cerebri-tis, was characterized by brain edema and diffuse infiltration of a wide rim of edematous brain parenchyma by microglia macrophages around a necrotic center filled with granulocytes. Between Days 4 and 8 chronic cerebritis developed and microglia strongly

Assessing the Infectious Process

Ism is significant in decision-making, in that it has a direct impact on the course, pathophysiology, and complications of IE, and hence on its management. Staphylococcus aureus IE, for instance, causes more serious valvular damage and is associated with a higher embolization and mortality rates 4 . Fungal IE generally does not respond well to medical therapy, and surgery is eventually needed thus earlier intervention is usually warranted. In streptococcal IE, vegetation size is an independent risk factor for embolic events 5 . Q Fever IE is a leading cause of negative blood-culture IE and should be investigated through specific immunological testing 6,7 .

Effects of high pressure on microorganisms

Vegetative forms of prokaryotes such as yeasts and moulds are most pressure sensitive and inactivated by pressures between 200 and 300 MPa. In general, gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus) are more resistant to pressure than gram-negative (Pseudomonas, Salmonella spp, Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrioparahaemolyticus) but large differences can exist between strains within the same species (Smelt, 1998). Moreover, cocci are more resistant than rods because of fewer morphological changes under pressure. Cultures in the exponential growth phase have been shown to be far more sensitive than cultures in the logarithmic growth or stationary phase (Hoover et al., 1989). However, exposing any surviving fraction of vegetative cells to repeated pressure cycles can also increase their pressure resistance (Hauben, 1998 Alpas et al., 1999 Benito et al., 1999).

Identification of C albicans in Yeast Positive Blood Culture Bottles

S. aureus bacteremia is both a serious and frequent nosocomial and community-acquired infection that is further complicated by the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and, recently, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus 12 which are ascribed to the widespread use of these antibiotics in healthcare settings. S. aureus is preliminary identified as gram-positive cocci in clusters (GPCC) along with other staphylococci however, whereas S. aureus is often clinically significant, other staphy-lococci, such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, are often contaminants and not clinically significant. Therefore, rapid identification of S. aureus and differentiation from other staphylococci directly from positive blood culture bottles are important for patient diagnosis and selection of appropriate therapy to reduce empirical therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as ampicillin and vancomycin.

Polyclonal inhibitors

Polyclonal activators may also cause profound inhibition, an example being superantigens. Such superantigens, for example those derived from Staphylococcus aureus, activate T cells in a polyclonal fashion, but this activation can be followed by deletion of superantigen-binding T cells. This deletion creates holes in the T cell repertoire, potentially reducing the effective number of T cell antigen receptors available in immune responses.

Other Bacterial Pathogens

Several other bacterial pathogens are associated with food products of animal origin, but their contribution to foodborne disease has been overshadowed by the impact of the aforementioned four pathogens in recent years. They include additional pathogenic serotypes of E. coli, Yersinia enterocolitica (a psychrotroph of enteric origin), Staphylococcus aureus (a Gram-positive, heat-stable, enterotoxin-producing mesophile), Clostridium botulinum (a deadly, neurotoxin-producing spore-former), Clostridium perfringens (a common cause of gastrointestinal discomfort of short duration), and Bacillus cereus (a spore-forming mesophile or psychrotroph causing diarrheal or emetic illness). Detailed information on these and other pathogens of less current concern can be found in several publications1-1-8-1 and at

Respiratory infections

These are divided into two anatomically separate categories. First, there are those of the upper respiratory tract, which extends from the nose to the vocal cords. These include the common cold (coryza), sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis and epiglottitis. Secondly, there are infections of the lower respiratory tract. These may affect the large airways (bronchitis), the alveoli and parenchyma (pneumonia) or the pleura space, leading to an empyema. The source of infection is variable. Droplet inhalation is the most frequent although pathogens may be introduced to the lung by alternative routes, such as the aspiration of pharyngeal contents as seen in neurological conditions leading to bulbar palsy and defective swallowing, hematogenous spread as in miliary tuberculosis or staphylococcal septicemia, and direct extension from surrounding tissues. In patients with comorbid illness, impaired host responses or damaged respiratory tract, organisms normally regarded as nonvirulent can become...

Evasive strategies by the organism

The ability of any pathogen to evade the host response continually evolves as the species adapts in response to its environment. To avoid opsonization and phagocytosis various strategies have developed. S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae type B both possess a polysaccharide capsule that provides greater resistance to phagocytosis. Other factors affecting the virulence of the different serotypes of S. pneumoniae include the production of the lytic enzymes pneumo-lysin and autolysin and also the presence of certain cell surface antigens. The roles of these molecules are currently poorly understood but they will have significance in the design of pneumococcal vaccines. The development of microbial resistance to chemo-therapeutic agents is another response of the pathogen to environmental pressure, often due to the widespread use of antibiotics. This leads to changes in the structure of the microbe, preventing antimicrobial action. The mechanism varies. For instance, erythromycin resistance...

Nosocomial Infections

An important application of PFGE is the comparative analysis of nosocomial pathogens. It is clear that specific etiological agents can be transferred between patients in hospital settings and cause nosocomial infections. Rapidly assessing the clonal relatedness of these isolates is critical in determining the extent of outbreak spread and the strategies for containment. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis is most often considered the typing technique of choice to examine the true genetic identity of the bacterial isolates in an outbreak investigation.1-11-1 Figure 1 shows a variety of PFGE patterns that were generated when methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) chromosomal DNA was digested with Smal restriction enzyme. These results were obtained from a published study describing an outbreak investigation in our hospital, which involved four cases of postpartum mastitis caused by nosocomial spread of a virulent strain of community-acquired MRSA. 19 The outbreak strains were found to be...

Thyme And Antimicrobial Applications In Food

Most essential oils of spices and herbs are generally regarded as safe and are considered to contain the antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts, including spices and essential oils, has been reviewed (56). Carvacrol and thymol are major volatile components of oregano, thyme, and savory. Generally, the thymol carvacrol ratio in thyme is 10 1, whereas the carvacrol thymol ratio in oregano is 20 1 (57). Carvacrol and thymol are known to have 1.5 X and 20 X the antimicrobial activity of phenol, respectively (8). In 1960, Ka-tayama and Nagai (58) reported the antimicrobial activity of thymol and carvacrol against Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and E. coli (serotype not given). Similarly, Beuchat (59) in 1976 reported that the growth of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was delayed by the presence of 100 ppm of the essential oils of oregano and thyme. In 1989, Farag et al. (60) reported that of six essential oils examined (sage, rosemary, cumin, caraway,...

Resistance to antibiotics

Not long after penicillin was put into general use, strains of Staphylococcus aureus were found which did not respond to treatment, and by 1950 penicillin-resistant S. aureus was a common cause of infections in hospitals. A decade later, a semi-synthetic form of penicillin, methicillin, was introduced this was not affected by the ft-lactamase enzymes that inactivated Penicillin G, and was used to treat resistant forms. Within years, however, came the first reports of strains of S. aureus that did not respond to methicillin. The incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has increased greatly since, and it represents the major source of nosocomial infections. In 1980, synthetic fluoroquinolones were introduced to counter the threat of MRSA, but within a year 80 percent of isolated strains had developed resistance to these too. Vancomycin is regarded as a last-resort treatment for MRSA, for a number of reasons it has a number of serious side-effects, its widespread use would...

With a bactericide in surface cleaning

The effects of antibiotics in surface cleaning, particularly in the removal of biofilms. Thus ultrasound is able to promote the effectiveness of various antibiotics at concentrations that do not, on their own, reduce bacteria viability in biofilms (Qian et al., 1997). This synergy reduced the viability by several orders of magnitude for cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidenmidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Measurements of the bactericidal activity of gentamicin against P. aeruginosa and E. coli demonstrated that simultaneous application of 67 kHz ultrasound enhanced the effectiveness of the antibiotic. As the age of these cultures increased, the bacteria became more resistant to the effect of the antibiotic alone and the application of ultrasound appeared to reverse this resistance. The ultrasonic treatment-enhanced activity was not observed with cultures of gram-positive S. epidermidis and S. aureus. The synergy was confirmed in studies of...

How does antibiotic resistance work

Mutations may occur which modify bacterial proteins in such a way that they are not affected by antimicrobial agents. You will recall that streptomycin normally acts by binding to part of the 30S subunit on the bacterial ribosome the actual binding site is a protein called S12. Mutant forms of the S12 gene can lead to a product which still functions in protein synthesis, but loses its ability to bind to streptomycin. Similarly, mutations in transpeptidase genes in staphylococci means they do not bind to penicillin any more, so cross-linking of the cell wall is not inhibited.

Application for Other Organisms

Somal RNA makes it applicable as a universal bacterial probe. Many important pathogens, including Enterobac-teriaceae, Listeria, Pseudomonas spp., and staphylococci have more than five ribosomal operons and thus produce ribotype patterns of 5 to 15 bands. 17 Ribotyping is a robust method that exhibits excellent reproducibility and stability, during the course of the outbreaks. It is commercially available and fully automated and well standardized. However, its discriminatory power is only moderate, and this is related to the fact that ribosomal operons cover less than 0.1 of chromosomal length and tend to cluster in one particular region of the genome. Discrimination of ribotyping depends on the species and on the choice and number of restriction endonucleases used. No consensus has been achieved on optimal procedure and no general rules are available for interpretation of technically problematic results, such as weakly hybridizing fragments.

Clinical Conditions in Prepubertal Children

VAGINITIS Vaginitis is the most common cause of pelvic pain and vaginal bleeding in prepubertal children. The immature anatomy and the hypoestrogenic state predispose children to this condition. In this age group, Staphylococcus epidermidis and diphtheroids are the predominant vaginal flora. Lactobacillus, which metabolizes glycogen to lactic acid in adults, is not found in children. This contributes to the alkaline environment of the prepubertal vagina, and as a consequence, children may develop infections with organisms that are not pathogenic in adults. This topic is covered in greater depth in Chap 104.

Antimicrobial Activity

Results from some recent studies suggest that echinoderms are a potential source of novel antibiotics. Haug et al. (2002) found antibacterial activity in different body parts of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, the starfish Asterias rubens and the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa. Antibacterial and antifungal activity has been found in alcoholic extracts of a range of holothurian species from the Tamil Nadu coast, India. The bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio harveyi and the fish-borne mould Aspergillus sp. were inhibited at varying levels by extracts of the sea cucumbers Actinopyga miliaris, Holothuria atra and H. scabra (Abraham et al. 2002). Antibacterial activity has also been found in extracts of the body wall, coelomocytes and eggs in a variety of species (Stabili and Pagliara 1994 Stabili et al. 1996 Haug et al. 2002).

Factors affecting microbial growth 2131 Oxygen profiles

However, it has been pointed out by Wimpenny and Parr (1979) that one has to be careful transferring oxygen penetration values from one species of bacteria to another. They suggest that differences in oxygen penetration between colonies of different species can be related to a difference in height between the colonies. A higher colony may reflect the reduced metabolic rate of a given volume of colony material, perhaps because of the presence of inert substances such as bacterial polysaccharides. In this way, they interpret the high activity of enzymes characteristic of aerobically adapted cells up to a depth of 120 pm in colonies of Enterobacter cloacae (see also section 21.4). Wimpenny and Lewis (1977) have observations for Staphylococcus albus of only 9 pm oxygen penetration depth into the colonies. They interpret these results by a lower diffusion rate of oxygen through and between the tightly-packed spherical cells of this species than through the more loosely-packed cells of...

Ultrasonic inactivation of microorganisms spores and enzymes

Ultrasonic Food Preservation

The inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus has been proven in water and phosphate buffers, as well as in such foods as UHT milk (Burleson et al., 1975 Ordonez et al., 1987). When applying ultrasound in combination with heat the kill rates were increased when compared to rates of thermal treatment alone and a synergistic rather than an additive effect was observed. Ultrasound produced a good level of inactivation under different treatment conditions and media for Bacillus species (Scherba et al., 1991).

Immune responses of the host

Since staphylococci form a large part of our normal microbial flora, most people produce antibodies to various staphylococcal antigens, such as the cell wall-associated teichoic acid and the extracellular protein a-hemolysin. They do not appear to confer resistance to staphylococcal infections. The use of detection of antibodies to these antigens as a diagnostic marker is of limited value, and requires demonstration of a significant rise in antibody titer. However, high levels of antibodies to TSST, enterotoxins and exfoliatins seem to be protective. Since these toxins are recognized as immunomodulatory, with mitogenic activity and inducing cytokine production, they may modulate the immune response. In biomaterial-associated infections staphylococci are embedded in a polysaccharide matrix on the biomaterial surface, the so-called biofilm, which prevents presentation of antigens to the host. Hence, no diagnostic antibody test is available for these kinds of infections, and no...

H 14621 In the Emergency Department

Wounds should not be debrided in the emergency department because it might cause profuse bleeding. Instead, the wound should be cleansed and dressed with pads containing an antiseptic solution, and antibiotics covering Staphylococcus aureus should be prescribed. Before antibiotics are administered samples for microbiological culture should be gathered. If possible, the arm should be kept elevated to decrease swelling.

Nonlactational Inflammation Mastitis

Mastitis originates in the subareolar ducts and extends outward in the breast. The cause is generally infectious, and the organisms include gram-negative organisms and anaerobes in addition to Staphylococcus aureus. Occasionally, mastitis occurs in areas of cystic breast tissue without an infectious cause. Periductal mastitis may be an evanescent tender breast mass that resolves spontaneously or persistent inflammatory reaction that progresses to abscess formation. Mastitis is manifested by pain, erythema, and warmth of the overlying skin, with exquisite tenderness. Nipple retraction or fistula formation at the edge of the areola occurs frequently with recurrent episodes of periductal mastitis with or without abscess formation.

Natural Products Derivatives and the Search for New Antibiotics

Bacterial resistance to antibiotic drugs is a growing problem in antibacterial therapy and new classes of anti-infectives are desperately needed 21 . Predictions suggested that by 2005 nearly 40 of all Streptococcus strains will be resistant to both penicillin and macrolide antibiotics in the United States 22 . Of special concern is the drug resistance of Gram-positive pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to methicillin and in particular Enterococcus faecium (VRE) to vancomycin. The biological activity of natural products is often mediated by their carbohydrate epitopes, which influence the phar-macokinetic properties, targeting and mechanism of action in general. Consequently, diversification of the carbohydrate groups may lead to new therapeutics 23 . With the aid of the Cu(I)-catalyzed process, 15 triazole-linked monoglycosy-lated derivatives of vancomycin were synthesized (Fig. 15.2) 24 . Antibacterial screens of this library...

The superantigen family of bacterial and viral proteins

Proteins with SAg property are produced by evolutionary divergent microorganisms, including gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, mycoplasma, rhabdoviruses and retroviruses and it is likely that SAgs confer a biological advantage in terms of survival and persistence of the microorganisms in the host. Proteins reported to have SAg properties are listed in Table 1. The prototype bacterial SAgs are the Staphylococcus aureus entero- The data has been collected from various reports. Some of the SAgs are not yet available in recombinant form and their classification as SAgs remains uncertain. Mtv, mouse mammary tumor virus SE, staphylococcal enterotoxin TSST-1, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 ExF-T. exfoliative toxin Spe, streptococcal pyrogenic toxin SSA, streptococcal superantigen MAM, mycoplasma arthritldls mitogen.

Microorganisms and Media

L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 (American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD) was used as a nisin-producing microorganism. Kluyveromyces marxianus MS1 was isolated from kefir grains in our laboratory and identified according to tests for morphological and biochemical properties (16). Staphylococcus aureus IFO 12732, which was obtained from the collection at the Institute for Fermentation Osaka (IFO), Japan, was used as a indicator microorganism in the bioassay measurement of nisin concentration. The compositions of media for growth of microorganisms are summarized as follows. Medium A, used for seed culture and preculture of L. lactis (pH7.0), contained 5 g L of maltose, 5g L of polypeptone (Nihonseiyaku) and 5 g L of yeast extract (Difco Laboratories, Detroit MI). Medium B, used for seed culture and preculture of K. marxianus (pH 7.0), contained 10 g L of L-lactate, 10 g L of polypeptone, and 10 g L of yeast extract. Medium C, used for primary culture of L. lactis, contained...

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