Quality Stress Management Course

8 Minute Meditation for Stress Relief

When you skillfully learn to handle your stress, not only does your stress level go down, but your quality of life goes up. The skills you will learn in the 8 Minute Meditation Stress Reduction Program have a global impact. Just think about it: If you lower your stress, you feel calmer. Your heart rate is normal, your digestive and other systems are working normally, the way they were designed to. Your entire body and mind are in harmony, functioning to give you the most aware, joyful experience you can have. There's nothing in the way. Then, the world may appear totally different. Colors may seem more vivid. Your shoulders seem lighter, like some great burden has been lifted from them. Life is just good again. Read more...

8 Minute Meditation for Stress Relief Summary


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: 2 Ebooks, Guided Meditation Audio
Author: Victor Davich
Official Website: www.8minutes.org
Price: $15.99

Access Now

My 8 Minute Meditation for Stress Relief Review

Highly Recommended

The writer presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this book are precise.

As a whole, this ebook contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Reduce Your Stress

De-stressing your life is easier said than done. The emotional stress of family, work, and daily chores can be taxing on anyone. When you add fertility issues into the mix, your stress levels may go off the charts. Hard scientific data is lacking, but some clinics in the United States claim to have increased fertility rates with meditation, yoga, visualization, and relaxation techniques. We may not completely understand how it works, but many health care providers believe that an important mind and body connection exists. Why not try it out and reap the benefits You may want to enroll in a yoga or meditation class. Perhaps you could try something as simple as a deep breathing relaxation exercise each day. Some women find comfort in quiet time and prayer. Other women enjoy the interaction of a support group or learn stress-management techniques from a trained counselor.

Review Of Relevant Literature

There is a growing amount of research that supports both ACT outcomes (see Hayes, Masuda, Bissett, Luoma, & Guerrero, 2004, for a review) and ACT processes. For example, controlled trials have shown ACT to be effective in several different areas including stress reduction (Bond & Bunce, 2000) and coping with psychotic symptoms (Bach & Hayes, 2002) among others. In addition to the efficacy research available, ACT has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in an effectiveness study (Strosahl et al., 1998).

Cbt Treatment Strategies For Addictive Behaviors

Strategies used for addictive behaviors vary depending on the case conceptualization of the client and the specific addiction presented. However, there are commonalities in the use of CBT across the treatment of addictive behaviors. Stress reduction techniques, social skills training, problem solving skills, and cognitive restructuring have been useful in the treatment of pathological Internet use (Bingham & Piotrowski, 1996 Davis, 2001 Hall & Parsons, 2001), sexual addictions (Neidigh, 1991), and pathological gambling (Sharpe & Tarrier, 1992 Sylvain, Ladouceur, & Boisvert, 1997).

Cognitivebehavioral Model Of Bulimia Nervosa Treatment

Phase 2 primarily targets dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs about the self and the meaning of the body. Clients are encouraged to explicate their own definition of an ideal body, their view of their departure from this ideal, and their predictions about the consequences of obtaining this ideal. Body exposure is also used both to identify dysfunctional beliefs about current bodily appearance and to habituate to current body appearance. Although initial CBT protocols for BN emphasized the use of evidence-based interventions to counteract dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs about the body and self, more recent protocols incorporate a much wider range of standard CBT restructuring techniques such as cost-benefit analysis, core belief worksheets, downward arrow, and behavioral experiments (see Cooper et al., 2000). A second focus of Phase 2 is training in problem-solving skills. The rationale for problem-solving training derives from the assumption that persons with BN either believe that...

Guidelines for Pregnant Women with Epilepsy

Exercising regularly helps keep you in shape, strengthens your body, and also relieves stress. Pregnancy is a joyous time, but it is a stressful time, too. Stress can cause seizures, so do whatever is necessary to make your pregnancy as stressfree as possible.

Methodological Considerations In Cognitive Vulnerability Theory And Research

In a perfect test of a hypothesized cognitive vulnerability factor, a full experimental design would be used in which participants are assigned on a purely random basis to different experimental conditions of manipulated cognitive vulnerability (e.g., high versus low) and level of stress (high versus low). For example, some people would be experimentally induced to have a cognitive vulnerability to depression, and then months or years later would be experimentally exposed to a precipitating stressful event. As such experimental manipulation studies are normally almost impossible as well as unethical to implement when studying cognitive vulnerability, researchers almost inevitably rely on other research designs, including prospective, analogue, and cross-sectional correlational research designs (Alloy et al., 1999). In retrospective studies, participants who currently suffer from an episode or symptoms of a disorder are asked to recall information about their cognitive vulnerabilities...

Cognitive Vulnerabilitystress Theories Of Depression

Why are some people vulnerable to depression whereas others never seem to become depressed From the cognitive perspective, the way people typically interpret or understand events in their lives, or their cognitive styles, importantly affects whether or not they become depressed. Two major cognitive theories of depression, the hopelessness theory (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989) and Beck's (1987) theory, are vulnerability-stress models, in which variability in people's susceptibility to depression following stressful life events is understood in terms of differences in cognitive styles that affect how those events are interpreted. According to the hopelessness theory (Abramson et al., 1989), people who exhibit a negative inferential style, characterized by a tendency to attribute negative life events to stable (persisting over time) and global (widespread) causes ( it will last forever and affect everything I do ), to cata-strophize about the consequences of...

Therapeutic Processes

Including stress reduction, affecting access to unconscious information, and elicitation of emotional and cognitive processes (Winn, Crowe, & Moreno, 1989). Visualization, or mental imagery cultivation, is also employed as a principal shamanic technique (Noll, 1985). Shamans also use physical therapeutic practices, including rubbing or massaging the body laying on of hands to transfer healing energies sucking on the patient's body to extract objects and infections incisions to extract foreign objects washing and cleansing the body and herbal or other natural substances (Winkelman & Winkelman, 1991).

Scheduling your first appointment

I Ask how long you can expect to be at the office, especially for a new patient appointment. Your potential doctor may want to do blood work, ultrasounds, or other testing on your first visit. If you're worrying about picking up your son from school half an hour after your appointment time, your stress level is probably going to rise considerably.

Phase Ii Cardiac Rehabilitation

Use of the Heart Manual (Lewin, et al., 1992) is commonly provided in this phase for patients post-MI. This six-week self-help rehabilitation programme is usually introduced by a facilitator during the in-patient phase and addresses health education, exercise and stress management.

Appendix Information on Recommended Measures Child Health Questionnaire

Extensive tests of reliability and validity have been conducted, most often on the original version of the measure that contained 68 items and was referred to as the General Well-Being Schedule. These psychometric tests were carried out in a variety of normal populations and patient samples. Many have been reviewed by Dupuy 29 . Internal consistency estimates have most often been between 0.70 and 0.90, and test-retest reliability coefficients have ranged from moderate to strong. Construct validity has been shown by moderately strong correlations with a number of depression scales. Correlations with stressful life events and the use of health services were lower. Norms for the PSGWB index have been described for the Swedish population 25 . When used in a trial of patients with reflux disease, estimates of internal consistency were above 0.92 and decreased symptoms corresponded to an increase in PGWB scores 91 . Concurrent validity has also been confirmed in a variety of studies 85 .

The Focus The Bible

Desensitization for the Christian is not developed in specific hierarchy form in the Bible as it is with a therapist. However, the major component of desensitization, the training in relaxation under stressful situations, is evident in many passages So do not fear, for I am with you. (Isaiah 41 10) Do not be anxious about anything. (Philippians 4 6, 7) Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid. (John 14 27).

Symptom perception models

More specifically the perception of dyspnea has been shown to be affected by cognitive variables of personality,6 fatigue,7 and emotions, including anxiety,8 and depression.9'10 How a person appraises a stressful situation, such as symptoms, and the meaning they assign to a physical sensation, can have a profound effect on their definition of the symptom as well as the emotional responses, individual coping responses, and healthcare behaviors.5,11,12 Attention to the symptom,13 the individual's confidence that he she can manage the symptom,14,15 and feelings of loss of control16, 17 influence the level of dyspnea. Symptoms occur in a social context therefore, the person's responses are reinforced and shaped by others, while also influencing the behavior of others.18 Previous experience with the symptom,13,19 the social context in which it is experienced,20 living situation, and family conflict21 may also affect the intensity and frequency of dyspnea.

Arthur M Nezu and Victoria M Wilkins

According to a problem-solving formulation of depression, various problem-solving coping deficits can serve as vulnerability factors regarding the emergence and maintenance of depression in reaction to experiencing negative stressful events (Nezu, 1987). More specifically, when individuals are confronted with stressful life circumstances (e.g., loss of a spouse, being fired from a job, getting a divorce), the likelihood that they will also experience depression, in part, is a function of the degree to which they can effectively cope with such negative events.

Causes Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Factors known to precipitate DKA include omission of daily insulin injections and a variety of stressful events, such as infection, stroke, myocardial infarction, trauma, pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, pancreatitis, pulmonary embolism, surgery, and steroid usage. Recent studies have shown that errors in insulin usage are a much more common precipitant than previously thought, especially in the younger population. 7 In approximately 25 percent of patients, no clear precipitating cause is found.8

Social Problem Solving

Problem solving (often referred to as social problem solving to emphasize that such activities occur in social or interpersonal contexts) is the cognitive-behavioral process by which a person attempts to identify or discover effective or adaptive solutions for stressful problems encountered during the course of everyday living (D'Zurilla & Nezu, 1999 Nezu, in press). Problem-solving therapy (PST) provides for systematic training to help individuals cope more effectively with such stressful events by teaching them to apply a variety of skills geared to help them either (a) alter the nature of the problem (e.g., overcoming obstacles to a goal), (b) change their distressing reactions to the problem (e.g., acceptance that a problem cannot be changed), or (c) both.

Problemsolving Formulation Of Depression

Stress is viewed as a function of the reciprocal relations among three major variables (1) stressful life events, (2) emotional stress responses, and (3) problem-solving coping. Stressful life events are life experiences that present a person with strong demands for personal, social, or biological readjustment. Two important types of stressful life events include major negative events and daily problems. A major negative event is a broad life experience or occurrence, such as a major negative life change, which often demands sweeping readjustments in a person's life (e.g., divorce, death of a loved one, job loss, major illness or injury). A daily problem (or problematic situation) is a more narrow and specific life experience characterized by a perceived discrepancy between adaptive demands and coping response availability (e.g., being late for work while caught in a traffic jam). In the stress literature, these specific stressful events are also referred to as minor life events or...

Relevant Supportive Research

In support of a problem-solving model of depression, research has (a) established a strong correlation between various problem-solving deficits and depression (Nezu, Wilkins, & Nezu, in press), (b) supported the hypothesis that effective problem-solving ability serves to attenuate the likelihood that people will experience depression as a result of the occurrence of stressful events (Nezu, Wilkins, & Nezu, in press), and (c) underscored the efficacy of training depressed individuals to be more effective problem-solvers as a method to significantly reduce their depression (Nezu, D'Zurilla, Zwick, & Nezu, in press).

Problem Solving As A Buffer Of Stressrelated Depression

Although the above research suggests a strong relationship between depression and various problem-solving deficits, the more important question involves whether problem solving serves to moderate the stress-depression relationship. In other words, does effective problem solving attenuate the likelihood that a person will experience depression that might be engendered by the experience of negative life events Researchers have directly asked this question across differing patient populations, using varying measures of problem solving, and incorporating both cross-sectional and prospective experimental designs. In general, this body of research suggests strongly that effective problem solving is a significant moderator of the relationship between stressful events and consequent depression. More specifically, under similar levels of high stress, individuals with poor problem-solving skills have been found to experience significantly higher levels of depression than individuals...

Personality Differences by Gender

Femininity is strongly bound to the ideology of sacrifice. A good woman is defined by her self-abnegation and by placing family and community needs before her own. A good woman is one who is selfless and willing to sacrifice in order to ensure the well-being of her family, including the well-being of her parents as they age. Puerto Rican women are expected to accept misfortune with stoicism and silence. The oppressive nature of the limited gender role, which does not allow women to demonstrate aggressiveness, has been thought by some scholars to cause mal de nervios or ataques de nervios (bad nerves or attacks of nerves) (Cuadrado & Lieberman, 2002). Researchers have also attributed nervios as a response to acute stress. The Puerto Rican culture is said to allow for psychosomatic displays as self-mediating stress relievers. These attacks are a culturally acceptable way of expressing uncontrollable emotions. While these attacks do occur in both genders, they have been found to be more...

Technical Aspects Of Rp

Marlatt and Gordon suggest that, in order for maintenance to be successful, and RP to be consistently achieved, the person must make lifestyle changes that support both new coping strategies and reduce the likelihood of encountering high-risk situations. For example, a person whose drinking is largely driven by the goal of relaxation and stress reduction associated with work might be encouraged either to change jobs, or to develop systematic stress-reducing activities that can be incorporated into the person's life outside of work.

Recovery Curves And Treatment

The most effective treatment approach to most mild head injuries focuses on enhancing the natural recovery curve. Unlike more severe brain injury, significant medical intervention, cognitive rehabilitation, and physical therapy are rarely indicated. Interventions that focus on the previously mentioned individual risk factors will allow the individual to take advantage of natural recovery. Specific suggestions include increasing rest and reducing stress levels, reducing or eliminating alcohol consumption, treating depression with supportive psychotherapy and medications where warranted, assessing and treating pain and sleep disturbance, and educating the patient, family, and significant others regarding the typical mild head injury symptoms and natural recovery course. Early in the intervention process, it is important for everyone involved to have appropriate reassurances and positive expectations but an appreciation for the possible development of symptoms and an understanding that...

Reengineered Business Processes and Reduced Administrative and Clinical Costs

The use of new technologies often promises to increase the efficiency and productivity of workers. Although workers may feel stressed by the compressed time frames that result from electronic work techniques before they have a chance to adapt, many of them have been willing to learn the new trade with the understanding that the Internet is here to stay and computing skill is an essential for daily living. In other words, people are expected to do the same or more work as workers refuse to do more than they expect and ask for more money, with technologies serving as substitute workers. It is believed that over time, as people adapt to new technologies, new ways of doing things will further increase the limits of growth of e-technological applications. New procedures and new capabilities may also combine to evolve completely different forms of business. Chapter Twelve illustrates how many traditional brick-and-mortar organizations are moving into e-businesses and how this move creates...

Destressing Your Life More Than Just Breathing in Slowly

You can rely on yourself to de-stress, or you can seek outside help to avoid internalizing your stress. Studies have shown that people who keep stress inside have more physical and emotional problems than people who vent. This externalization can improve your immune system function and help you psychologically. Friends and family You can ask your closest loved ones to help you get through the tough times. Be honest with them about your problem and how you feel at those times. These people can then try to help de-stress your life. If they know when the bad times are and what you go though, they can support you and not add to your stress level. (For more suggestions, see Chapter 17, which is directed to these important folks.) Co-workers or your boss The workplace is another area where you can reduce stress. Don't hide you problem. Let your boss and co-workers know about your bad days maybe they can help you cope with the stress of work so you don't have to take a day off. (Check out...

Adequate Inadequate and Excess Sodium

It is unlikely that adult daily maintenance requirement exceeds 0.6mmolperkg body weight and could well be below this in many mammals. Newborn, growing, pregnant, or lactating animals have increased requirements. The appropriate sodium intake for humans remains controversial with some cultures managing on less than 1 mmol per day, while Western intakes may be in the range 200-300 mmol per day, more where processed foods are heavily consumed. There has been insufficient awareness among physicians and human nutritionists of just how high such intakes are, compared with requirements in other animals. Granted that humans are bipeds with a stressful lifestyle quite different from those of animals, there is no real evidence that human obligatory losses or sodium requirements are significantly greater. Rather, there is an ingrained tradition of regarding sodium intake as a benign pleasure, involving a harmless and healthy dietary constituent. The main warnings against this view come from the...

How can stress be studied

Stressful situations on different individuals. In an attempt to circumvent this difficulty, many studies of stress and the immune system have been conducted by the controlled application of 'standard stressors' to populations of laboratory animals (Table 1). Here, a particular situation (usually involving some form of physical insult) is judged by the experimenter to be stressful on the basis of the subsequent behavior of the animals. Such studies have been valuable in delineating some of the pathways of interconnection between autonomic, neuroendocrine and immune system activities, as we shall see later. They have highlighted, for example, the distinction between the effects of acute and chronic stressors, the potential modulating and exacerbating effects of 'control' and 'helplessness' respectively, and the fact that corticosteroids, while clearly important immunomodulators, are not obligatory players in neuroimmune responses to stressors.

Stress and immunity in human studies

In humans, some studies have been conducted into the effect of short-term, laboratory-based stressors on immune variables but most investigations have centered on more 'naturalistic' stressful situations (Table 2). Where perception of environmental stressors has been assessed using such indicators as daily mood, hassles, anxiety, social support or various coping measures, there has generally been a correlation between high perceived stress and depression of humoral and or cell-mediated immunological measures. Often the most significant correlation has been with depression of NK cell activity. The notion that a critical parameter is the perception of stress clearly has important implications and illustrates how much the way we respond psychologically to our environment can affect the way we respond physiologically.

Etiologies Of Child And Adolescent Suicide

Most cognitive-behavioral models of suicide have adopted a vulnerability-stress model, which suggests that individuals possess some psychological vulnerability that predisposes them to develop suicidal thoughts and behaviors when exposed to stressful events. There is significant variability regarding theories of the proposed vulnerability and these models have developed over time from simple linear models of suicide risk to more complex, integrative models proposing multiple pathways to suicidal thoughts and behaviors.

Arthur Freeman and Sharon Freeman

Active schemas govern day-to-day behavior while inactive schemas are dormant until they are stimulated into activity by internal or external stressors. For example, a dormant schema may be triggered by a stressor but will return to its dormant state when the stressor is reduced or removed. Of course, one would expect that when and if the patient is stressed in the future, these same dormant schemas will emerge once again. If this were the case for an individual, an important focus of therapy would be on stress reduction or techniques to allow the patient to keep dormant schemas inactive (Freeman & Simon, 1989), modifying the schemas when possible (Beck, Freeman et al., 1990 Freeman et al., 1990), and identifying any of a number of vulnerability factors that increase the likelihood of dormant schemas being activated (Freeman & DeWolfe, 1992 Freeman & Simon, 1989). These vulnerability factors decrease the active threshold of response to stressors, and...

Clinical Features

Historical information should focus on the following (1) detecting the presence of caretaker mental illness, mental retardation, dementia, or drug or alcohol abuse (2) family history of violence (3) caretaker dependence on the elder patient for housing, finances, or emotional support (4) patient isolation, as reflected by the fact that the patient does not have the opportunity to relate with people or to pursue activities and interests in a manner that the patient chooses (5) whether the patient and suspected abuser are living together and (6) recent occurrence of stressful life events, such as loss of job, moving, or death of a loved one for the caretaker. 5

Zoos and Environmental Enrichment

The term ''environmental enrichment'' refers to the modifications that can be made to animal enclosures that increase the complexity and diversity of an animal's surroundings (see ENRICHMENT FOR ANIMALS). Animals in zoos are expected to live long lives in good health and, especially for endangered species,* to reproduce naturally in captivity. Zoos also strive to educate the public about the natural behavior and adaptations of animal species. The public and zoo professionals alike assess the psychological well-being of zoo animals by the resemblance of their behavior to that of their wild counterparts. In general, environmental enrichment improves psychological welfare by allowing the animal to perform behavior that it is naturally motivated to perform, such as seeking food or a mate, demarcating a territory, building a nest, maintaining its physical condition, escaping conspecif-ics or hiding itself, or interacting with a mate or social partner. In so doing, environmental enrichment...

Forgettingmemory Theories

Memory in a different way, either by overloading the capacity of short-term memory or by weakening or completely knocking out an item from storage (cf., word-length effect -refers to the results of immediate-memory studies where lists of short words are more easily remembered than lists of long words the effect is due to the time needed to hear or speak the word and not the number of letters in the word). A great deal of experimental evidence supports the interference theory of forgetting in both long-term and short-term memory for isolated facts and materials (cf., contextual interference effect - refers to the improvement in retention of, but decrement in acquisition of, new information as a function of increased similarity in items materials to be learned however, the displacement theory, which is a limited-mind effect, states that the mind's capacity for learning memory is limited, and when the limit is reached, new learning or memories are possible only if older learning or...

The adult immune response Lymphoid organs

Response to breeding leads to involution of the spleen and lymph nodes the gut being unaffected. At the end of the breeding season, there is an abrupt and absolute mortality of the males in which it is apparent that the involution of organs associated with immunity plays a role. This 'die back' is unique to the species. Demonstration of cytomegalovirus and adenovirus particles in the tissues of many marsupial species in association with stressful situations suggests that there is a fine balance between health and compromized immunity.

Terence M Keane and Meredith Charney

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts about, preoccupation with, and nightmares of an extremely stressful life event. Typically these events are life threatening either to the individuals themselves or their loved ones. Initially included in the diagnostic nomenclature in the third edition of the American

Esther Deblinger and Melissa K Runyon

The empirical literature is more limited in terms of the treatment of children who have suffered physical abuse. However, there have been a significant number of studies that have examined the treatment of punitive parents. These studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a variety of CBT interventions with this population of parents, including child management skills training, stress management skills training, as well as a combination of these interventions (see Runyon, Deblinger, Ryan, & Kolar, in press). The research on interventions for parents seems to reflect the practice in the field which often focuses on the parents' difficulties with much less attention given to the psychosocial needs of children who have suffered physical abuse. Although a few studies have examined the treatment of children who have suffered CPA, most of these investigations were not randomized controlled trials and or did not focus on children with documented histories of CPA (Oates & Bross, 1995). In...

Cognitive Behavioral Case Formulation

Jacqueline Persons is one of several cognitive-behavioral (CB) therapists who have developed case formulation methods, but hers may be the best known. The method draws extensively from Aaron Beck's cognitive therapy, which holds that psychological symptoms and problems result from the activation of maladaptive core beliefs under conditions of stressful life events. The CB case formulation approach also draws from behavior therapy, which emphasizes measurement to track change and the identification of causal, functional relationships among behaviors that lead to problematic behaviors. According to Persons, a CB formulation must contribute to treatment outcome for it to be valuable.

Spinal Muscular Atrophy

To clarify the role NAIP played in SMA, mice with targeted deletion of NAIP1 were recently generated. Although mice lacking NAIP1 showed no overt phenotype, the survival of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus after kainic acid-induced injury is greatly suppressed in these mice compared to controls. Although NAIP1 is not required for normal development of the nervous system, it is necessary for neuronal survival under stressful situations. These studies further strengthen the view that although NAIP may modify the severity of the disease, SMN1 is the SMA-determining gene.

Six Dimensions Of Interpretation

Interpretation of the Rorschach from a CBT perspective is best done by looking at the structural characteristics of the RIM. According to Weiner (1998), this structural approach is based on the belief that the Rorschach measures perception, and that the subject's test responses are a representative sample of his or her behavior. In this way, the RIM is seen as a problem-solving task. How the client responds to this perceptual-cognitive task provides therapists with information about how he or she is likely to deal with other perceptual-cognitive tasks in his or her life. Overall, therapists are provided with knowledge about character traits, as well as current emotional and attitudinal states. Essentially, structural interpretation of the Rorschach allows therapists to describe personality styles and strengths and weaknesses of each individual. A general level of adjustment is measured across six dimensions how people attend to experience, how they use ideation, how they modulate...

Clinical And Research Implications Related To

Discomfort while addressing psychosocial issues for cardiology practitioners is not surprising and most likely reflects lack of training and experience in behavioural medicine and psychology. We have suggested the Four A's checklist to detect and manage psychosocial issues in ICD clinics ask, advise, assist, and arrange referral.17 20 The first step is to ask the patient about their ICD related concerns in an effort to define accurately their perceived problem. In table 16.3, we have provided sample diagnostic questions that can assist the clinician and yield sufficient diagnostic precision.21 Secondly, the healthcare provider can advise the ICD patient on the common challenges that lie ahead and how to manage these concerns via supportive communication. The healthcare provider should take care to respect the coping style and adjustment difficulties of each patient. Thirdly, the provider can assist the patient by addressing the immediate concerns of the patient, normalising the most...

Epinephrine Signals Impending Activity

When an animal is confronted with a stressful situation that requires increased activity fighting or fleeing, in the extreme case neuronal signals from the brain trigger the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla. Both hormones dilate the respiratory passages to facilitate the uptake of O2, increase the rate and strength of the heartbeat, and raise the blood pressure, thereby promoting the flow of O2 and fuels to the tissues (Table 23-6).

Application Of The Model Of The Neural Circuitry Of Anxiety And Fear To Anxiety Disorders

Among the most characteristic features of anxiety disorders such as PTSD and PD is that anxiogenic memories (e.g., of the traumatic experience or first panic attack) can remain indelible for years or decades and can be easily reawakened by all sorts of stimuli and stressors. The strength of traumatic memories relates, in part, to the degree to which certain neuromodula-tory systems, particularly catecholamines and gluco-corticoids, are activated by the traumatic experience. Release of these stress hormones modulates the encoding of memories of the stressful event. Experimental and clinical investigations provide evidence that memory processes remain susceptible to modulating influences after information has been acquired. Long-term alterations in these catecholaminergic and glucocorticoid systems may also be responsible for symptoms of fragmentation of memories, but also for hypermnesia, amnesia, deficits in declarative memory, delayed recall of abuse, and other aspects of the wide...

Demographic Risk Factors for Depression

Other demographic risk factors that have been consistently associated with depression include a family history of depression, low socioeconomic status, and specific stressful life events (including assaults and robberies, serious marital problems, divorce, loss of employment, serious illness, and significant financial problems). Research on the role of stressful life events has also found that specific buffers may protect against the development of depression. Some of the buffers include the existence of supportive relationships, the presence of three or fewer children, employment, self-identification with a religion, and the possession of clear roles in life.

Physiological Responses

Many of these changes are associated with stressful events that prepare the animal for fight or flight. These precise physiological changes are geared to alter the internal milieu in order to increase survivability, but if activated frequently and for too long, the results can be detrimental. The immune response and processes involving cellular growth and reproduction are temporarily inhibited during stress to allow the animal to utilize biological resources for other purposes (such as flight). Long-term stress can cause disruptions in reproductive physiology and sexual behavior. Stress modulates the immune system. Acute or short-term stress may suppress, enhance, or have no effect on the immune system. Chronic or long-term stress can suppress the immune system, thus making it more difficult for the animal to fight disease effectively. Glucocorticoids and other components may contribute to stress-induced immunosuppression, but can also serve as a protective mechanism...

Contemporary Views Of Cognitive Vulnerabilities

Today, most investigators recognize that most individuals who are exposed to precipitating stressful events do not develop clinically significant psychological disorders. Moreover, the specific disorder that emerges for different individuals is not determined just by the stressful event alone (i.e., precipitating stresses do not just occur in conjunction with any one clinical disorder), and is hypothesized to depend on their particular cognitive vulnerabilities (Riskind & Alloy, in press). In CBT, cognitive vulnerabilities are hypothesized to help account for not only who is vulnerable to developing disorders (e. g., individuals with a particular cognitive style) and when (e.g., after a stress), but to which disorders they are vulnerable (e.g., depression, anxiety disorder, eating disorder). In cognitive theory, cognitive vulnerability factors are considered potential antecedent causes (distal causes) that operate toward the beginning of the temporal sequence, distant in time from the...

Computers And Behavioral Assessment

Self-monitoring software has also been developed for handheld devices. An advantage of handheld devices is that they promote assessment of momentary states in the natural environment. Recent research has found that assessment of momentary states may yield results that are significantly different from participant's retrospective ratings of their behavior and skills. For example, some researchers have reported that retrospective self-report measures of coping skills were very poor predictors of how well individuals actually cope in stressful situations.

The biological importance of NK cells

Regulating interactions between the brain and the immune system. Therefore, NK cells are highly responsive to changes in the serum levels of these hormones. Effects of stress on the immune response can be monitored by serially following changes in NK cell activity. For example, inability to deal with stressful life events in otherwise healthy individuals is associated with low NK cell activity. Also, a possibility exists for homotypic interactions between NK and brain cells via neural cellular adhesion molecules (NCAMs, e.g. CD56 or CD57) expressed on both.

Ne Impact On Physiology And Behavior

The impact of NE on physiology and behavior was studied in animals by several approaches, including the administration of noradrenergic agonists and antagonists, the stimulation or lesion of noradrenergic neurons, and, more recently, the disruption of genes implicated in noradrenergic transmission. As the widespread distribution of LC innervation through the brain may indicate, NE is implicated in a great variety of physiological and behavioral responses. Most of these responses, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, increased vigilance, hyperarousal, and enhancement of memory storage, are elicited when animals are submitted to unusual or stressful situations.

Cognitive Restructuring

Systematic desensitization and relaxation training can be used with caregivers to decrease emotional and physical symptoms of stress, and can be especially important for caregivers who are unable to leave the environment of their caregiving role to engage in other stress reduction activities. Cary and Dua (1999) utilized relaxation training, systematic desensitization, and other cognitive-behavioral procedures with a sample of caregivers of patients with intellectual or physical disabilities. Two intervention groups and one wait-list control group, each consisting of 12 care-givers, were formed. Participants in the self-instructional training group were instructed in the use of visualization and imagery techniques. Subsequently, self-instructional training occurred, which consisted of asking participants to imagine a stressful situation and then to repeat a series of positive self-statements. This procedure was repeated for five situations identified by the participants to be highly...

Mark J Williams and Robin B Jarrett

Reinforcers, or skills deficits (Bandura, 1977 Ferster, 1973). Examples of behavioral techniques include activity scheduling, behavioral marital therapy, self-control techniques, social skills training, and stress management techniques (see Lewinsohn, Gotlib, & Hautzinger, 1998, for overview of behavioral techniques). The treatment manual entitled The Coping with Depression Course outlines strategies often used in BT with depressed adults and adolescents (Lewinsohn, Antonuccio, Breckenridge, & Teri, 1984).

Negative Cognitive Styles As Vulnerabilities For Depression

Based on the presence versus absence of negative cognitive styles. These cognitively HR and LR freshmen were followed every 6 weeks for 2- years and then every 4 months for an additional 3 years with self-report and structured interview assessments of stressful life events, cognitions, and psychopathology. According to the cognitive theories of depression, people with negative cognitive styles are vulnerable to depression in part because they perceive and recall information about stressful events that has negative implications for themselves. Thus, we (see Alloy et al., 1999) examined whether our nondepressed HR participants did, in fact, process information about themselves more negatively than LR participants, based on a Self-Referent Information Processing (SRIP) Task Battery administered at the outset of the CVD Project. Consistent with prediction, we found that relative to LR participants, HR participants showed greater endorsement, faster processing, and better recall of...

Psychobiological Structures of Shamanistic ASC

ASC of other shamanistic healers may involve soul journey, but typically have other psychophysiological and experiential dynamics. Possession ASC of mediums have characteristics of a take over of the person by spirits (Bourguignon, 1976 cf. Goodman, 1988 Lewis, 1988) and temporal lobe symptomology (tremors, seizures, convulsions, and amnesia) (Winkelman, 1986b, 1992). Possession is not a unitary phenomenon, but involves a variety of different psychodynamic processes including dissociation, illness, communication, role enactment, and political struggle (Boddy, 1994 Shekar, 1989). Possession ASCs predominantly occur in complex societies with hierarchical political integration and reflect the psychody-namics of oppression and powerlessness (Bourguignon, 1976 Winkelman, 1986b, 1992). Meditative ASC are characterized by deliberate relaxation (direct parasympa-thetic activation) and focus of attention. Castillo (1991) characterizes meditative practices as involving the differentiation of a...

Stressorassociated regulation of immunity

Stress has a variety of neuroendocrine effects, and immune responses are affected by the neuroendocrine milieu in which leukocytes function. However, it is far from clear which (and how) stress-associated neuroendocrine changes are responsible for which stress-associated immunomodulatory events. For example, the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated during stressful situations, and there are numerous reports of stress-induced adrenocort-ically-mediated immunosuppression. However, there are also several reports of stress-induced alterations of immunologic reactivity that occur in adrenalecto-mized animals. Although hypophysectomy obviates the effects of stress on some measures of immune function, stress-induced suppression of others are potentiated by this procedure. Because of the involvement of the HPA axis in stress-induced analgesia, many investigators have looked for, and found, a role of endogenous opioids in stress-associated immunomodulation in a variety of...

Alexander Model Or Technique

The Australian actor physiotherapist Frederick Mathias Alexander (1869-1955) developed this technique for improving one's posture, breathing, and bodily movements. This physical model attempts to reduce stress, promotes mental well-being, and increases confidence in individuals who practice the method, and is especially popular among performing artists such as actors and musicians. Alexander developed his technique initially to deal with a voice difficulty he had as a young Shakespearean actor he observed how his bodily movements tension around his head and neck affected his voice. Following the correction of his own problem, Alexander applied his approach to a wide range of problems, as well as training teachers in the technique. Alexander's technique involves the following steps allow your neck to be free of tension before beginning any movement of the body let your head move up rather than pulling it down or back, as movement begins and allow your entire torso to lengthen, and...

Cbt For Emotional Distress

CBT approaches are increasingly being evaluated as a means to decrease psychological distress symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety) among cancer patients, as well as to improve their overall quality of life. This trend began with a landmark study conducted by Worden and Weisman (1984) in which they found an intervention package that included training in problem-solving and relaxation skills to promote effective coping and adaptation among newly diagnosed cancer patients. Behavioral stress management strategies, such as progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery, have also been found to be effective in reducing symptoms of emotional distress among cancer patients. In general, with regard to enhancing cancer patients' emotional well-being, the trend has been to evaluate the efficacy of multicomponent protocols that include a variety of CBT strategies. For example, Telch and Telch (1986) found a group-administered multicomponent CBT coping skills training protocol, composed of...

John H Riskind and David Black

Cognitive vulnerabilities are faulty beliefs, cognitive biases, or structures that are hypothesized to set the stage for later psychological problems when they arise. They are in place long before the earliest signs or symptoms of disorder first appear. These vulnerabilities are typically purported to create specific liabilities to particular psychological disorder after individuals encounter stressful events, and to maintain the problems after their onset. Only by addressing these vulnerabilities can long-term therapeutic improvements be maintained, and the risk of recurrences or relapse be reduced. Before further reviewing the roles of cognitive vulnerability concepts in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), it is necessary first to briefly describe several components of the CBT model as a whole. A corollary of the cognitive model of psychopathology in CBT is that each specific disorder is associated with particular cognitive vulnerabilities. These are hypothesized to be characterized...

The Parasympathetic Branch Of The Autonomic Nervous System

Until relatively recently, little attention in biofeedback has been given to the other branch of the ANS, the parasympathetic branch (PNS). Activity from this system is difficult to measure, and it was thought that the sympathetic system was the dominant contributor to stress. However, the evidence to support this idea has not been found. It is difficult to verify sympathetic overdrive'' in the disorders listed earlier. In fact, most patients with functional disorders do not appear to be in obviously stressful circumstances for a sufficient period of time to produce symptoms. This has led some scientists such as Steve Porges at the University of Illinois-Chicago to theorize the importance ofthe PNS

Preexisting Chronic Hypertension

In a published review of management of mild to chronic hypertension during pregnancy, no trials were found that compared nonpharmacological interventions with either pharmacological agents or no intervention in pregnant women. This comprehensive search identified 50 randomized controlled trials, but they involved either normotensive women or women with a history of pre-eclampsia. For the management of established chronic hypertension during pregnancy, no relevant evidence could be located to assess the effects of nonpharmacological interventions, such as limiting activity, diet modifications, or stress reduction.

Well Being and Handling

Reducing stress during handling for procedures such as vaccinations, milking, and herding will improve both animal welfare and productivity. Pigs and dairy cows that are afraid of people have reduced productivity. Pigs have lower weight gains and fewer piglets and dairy cows produce less milk. Fearfulness was assessed by measuring the animal's willingness to approach people. Cows on dairies where the employees had received training in stockmanship and animal behavior had a smaller flight zone and gave more milk. 1 The trained employees engaged in fewer negative interactions with the cows, such as hitting or yelling. Further studies have shown that wild, excitable cattle that become highly agitated in the squeeze chute had lower weight gains, 2 poor beef quality, and tougher meat. Animals can be trained to tolerate new things if they are gradually introduced. Cattle should become accustomed to being handled and fed by different people in different vehicles. This will help reduce stress...

How To Select Your Fertility Counselor

Start by talking with your own fertility specialist and medical staff at your fertility clinic. Fertility clinics may have counselors who are associated with the clinic and ready to help you, and if not, they likely have already compiled a list of good fertility counselors for your consideration. Some clinics also offer special relaxation and stress reduction programs to help you manage your overwhelming feelings. If these choices don't work, try the ASRM website asrm.org. They have a list of mental health professionals who specialize in fertility issues. Another alternative would be to contact a national support group such as RESOLVE (resolve.org) or the American Fertility Association (theafa.org).

Persevering Through Infertility Treatments Together

Infertility treatments add another layer of pressure to a life that's already stressful. For example, just knowing that you have to give your partner injections can cause your stress level to go through the roof when you're already concerned about the expense, the travel time, lost time from work, the emotional toll, and whether or not the treatment will work.

Outcome Research On Cbgt

Lutgendorf and co-workers in 1997 conducted a study of gay men diagnosed with HIV seropositive status to measure the psychological and immunological effects of a cognitive-behavioral stress management group (which could also be classified as CBGT) (n 22) versus a wait-list control (n 18). The CBGT group met for weekly 135-minute sessions that consisted of didactic components explaining physiological effects of stress, stress-immune associations, cognitive-behavioral theory of stress and emotions, identification of cognitive distortions and automatic thoughts, rational thought replacement, coping skills training, assertiveness training, anger management, identification of social supports, group discussion of personal examples, and homework.

Values Inherent in Health Economics Output versus Input

The problem for the decision makers in allocating scarce resources is the difficulty in measuring cost efficiencies when expenditures are increased in an area that may or may not prove preventative. For example, money spent in health education to improve lifestyles may not appear as a saving in reduced cardiac and cancer diagnosis and treatment for years or even decades. Likewise, behavioral health programs to reduce stress require allocation of limited money now, whereas the benefit to the system in medical savings may be in the distant future.

Bilateral Adrenal Hemorrhage

Bilateral adrenal gland hemorrhage is rare. In general, patients with a serious underlying condition whose adrenal glands are stressed are at risk for this complication. Stress-stimulated adrenal glands are hemorrhage prone. The association between adrenal hemorrhage and anticoagulant therapy with heparin and dicumarol is well established. Adrenal hemorrhage in this setting is most likely to occur between the third and eighteenth day of anticoagulation. Sudden deterioration with hypotension and pain in the flank, costovertebral angle, or epigastrium should suggest this disastrous event. Associated findings may include fever, nausea, vomiting, and disturbed sensorium. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound can assist in establishing this diagnosis. Other stressful events that have been associated with adrenal hemorrhage include surgery, trauma, burns, convulsions, pregnancy, and adrenal vein thrombosis.

Empirical Status Of Therapy For Bulimia Nervosa

To alternative psychotherapies, CBT has been found to have significantly higher response rates than supportive psychotherapy, behavior therapy, psychodynamic therapy, stress management, and nutritional counseling. The one exception to this pattern of findings concerns interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) CBT and IPT show similar long-term outcomes. However, in comparison to IPT, CBT is significantly more fast-acting and has significantly higher acute response rates (Agras, Walsh, Fairburn, Wilson, & Kraemer, 2000). The rapid response to CBT for BN has now been documented in several studies which report that approximately 60-70 of the reduction in binge eating and purging occurs within the first 6 sessions of CBT. For all of these reasons, CBT is identified as the treatment of choice for BN in each of the recent meta-analyses of BN treatment.

Diagnostic Assessment

A thorough and extensive evaluation is necessary before diagnosing bipolar disorder in a child or adolescent. Such an evaluation requires a detailed history of both mood and non-mood symptoms and an appraisal of risk factors for bipolar disorder. A comprehensive face-to-face assessment of the child, including a mental status examination, is necessary to rule out pervasive developmental disorders, language and thought disorders, and psychotic symptoms. This assessment may take several hours to complete and could be done by a multidisciplinary team in one day or over several days. A detailed lifeline or timeline including onset, offset and duration of symptoms, stressful life events and history of treatment is helpful in establishing diagnosis. The diagnostic accuracy for bipolar illness in children and adolescents improves when DSM criteria are applied 65 .

Fit Between Cognitivebehavioral Therapy And Primary Care

Primary care therapy is generally concerned with improving patients' quality of life. Cognitive-behavioral clinicians in primary care settings are armed with a multitude of empirically based strategies that are likely to promote patient welfare and increase the potency of interventions. Cognitive interventions are used in primary care settings to modify thoughts, beliefs, and underlying assumptions negatively affecting the patient's health. Cognitive-behavioral factors may negatively influence health in many ways. First, irrational beliefs may contribute to health-risk behaviors and the avoidance of health-promoting behaviors (Masters, Burish, Hollon, & Rimm, 1987). For example, a patient who does not perceive a behavior as a risk to health, fails to see the behavior as personally threatening to health, and does not see that an alternative behavior will reduce the risk is less likely to change the behavior. Second, motivation to change a behavior appears to exert a powerful influence...

Therapeutic Implications

Other factors are also important to augment contractility, but are not as amenable to therapy by emergency physicians. Acidosis adversely affects myocardial contractility and may be persistent after hypovolemia has been corrected. Sodium bicarbonate may rapidly improve contractility in such situations. If acidosis is due to respiratory failure, airway control with endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation is useful to correct the hypercapnia and decrease the metabolic demand generated by trying to overcome respiratory failure. Temperature control is also important because elevations can cause an increase in oxygen consumption by 400 percent, causing a marginal cardiovascular system to fail. Ideally, a neutral thermal environment should be maintained to avoid such stress. Hypoglycemia frequently occurs during stressful events, and neonates are less able to respond because of decreased glycogen stores and minimal fat necessary for gluconeogenesis. Low serum glucose of less than...

Cardiovascular Complications

Most standard emergency department treatments for hypertension and cardiac disease can be utilized in diabetics with appropriate precautions. Moderate to severely elevated glucose levels should be decreased by utilizing small intravenous doses of regular insulin, but the glucose level should not be tightly controlled the patient is undergoing a stressful event and the added stress and consequences of hypoglycemia should be avoided. There is a risk for intraocular bleed from thrombolytic administration to a diabetic with proliferative retinopathy. Even though the risk of intraocular bleed is low, proliferative retinopathy is an absolute contraindication to thrombolytic therapy. The challenge to the emergency physician is expedient evaluation for proliferative retinopathy while simultaneously evaluating the need for thrombolytics.

Ethics And Personal Responsibility

Uncertainty causes stress for some of us. We cannot find that magical book that will tell us what to do, especially in a crisis. Research, guidelines, manuals, our own experience, and consultation help, but we cannot know the best course in all situations, or even how the best course will turn out. We are constantly thrown back on our own judgment. If we believe a client might kill someone but there is no explicit threat or other legal justification under the state's law to hospitalize the client or breach confidentiality, what do we do Whether doubling the number of therapy sessions during a crisis would help or hurt (or even have no net effect) is a decision that must be made on the basis of professional judgment regarding the individual client. What diagnosis should we write down if we know that the insurance company will not cover treatment for the client's condition and believe that the client's need for treatment is urgent Will using stress-reducing imagery techniques help a...

When To See A Fertility Counselor

The counselor can assess the degree of nervous tension that you are feeling and how it's affecting your relationship with your partner and with others. The counselor can help you come to terms with realistic expectations. You'll also explore new ways to manage and cope with your stress.

Potential causes of indoor marking

It has long been recognised that the presence of facial scent signals appear to increase feline confidence and act as a way of familiarising territory and removing the need to mark. Owners in the past have been advised to use a cloth that they first rub over the facial glands of their cat, especially in the cheek area, and then apply to those areas in the house that have been previously marked with urine but have been appropriately cleaned. Recent developments in pheromonotherapy' have resulted in the production of a synthetic analogue of one fraction of the social odour complex that comes from the face of the cat, and the product is marketed under the trade name 'Feliway' (Ceva Animal Health). Feliway is known as the 'familiarisation pheromone' and it is believed to provide a feeling of security for cats in unfamiliar or stressful situations. Its applications reflect this belief, although the exact mode of action is as yet unclear. When it was first produced Feliway was only...

Pathogenic Mechanisms

Photosensitive Seizure Eeg

As to why some patients with epilepsy deliberately evoke seizures remains a puzzle. Most of these patients are compulsively attracted to sunlight. They cannot offer a good explanation for their abnormal behavior, although some admit that it gives them a pleasurable or relaxing feeling. Many authors, including Radovici,71 have thought that psychological factors and stressful situations influenced the frequency of self-induced seizures. Associated behavioral abnormalities leading to social isolation and learning problems are also seen in these patients. Mental retardation was found in 30 of patients with self-induced epilepsy.82


Aromatherapy is a branch of the alternate medicine approach that uses herbal remedies to improve an individual's health and appearance and to alter one's mood. The alleged benefits from aromatherapy range from stress relief to enhancement of immunity and the unlocking of emotions from past experience. The concept has ancient roots but is primarily used today by the cosmetics, fragrance, and alternative-medicine industries.


In areas with mild winters, fall is an ideal time to divide, but my friends in colder areas prefer to operate in early spring. With either time line, the foliage should be thinned to reduce stress on the roots. Incidentally, left undivided, these same, multi-crowned plants can form massive specimens that are incredibly handsome, so choose wisely before taking knife in hand.

Coping Styles

Women's social status, in interaction with personality dispositions, may create a modal feminine coping style. In responding to challenges, great and small, women show a greater tendency to express emotions and seek social support. Long (1990) showed that women are more prone to use emotionally oriented coping and seek more social support in stressful situations when compared with men. Pearlin and Schooler (1978) reported that men use


Personality variables also appear to moderate the relationship between stress and immunity. Research has suggested that optimism, or the generalized tendency to look on the bright side of things,'' affects the way in which individuals perceive stressful situations and is associated with better health and positive health outcomes. Optimism has been linked to better physical health, better quality of life following coronary artery surgery, decreased stress in breast cancer patients, and later symptom onset and longer survival time in AIDS patients. An optimistic outlook has also been shown to buffer the immunosuppressive effects of stress.


The treatment of a broad range of complaints. The salutary effects of breathing retraining can be found in the treatment of noncardiac chest pain, as an adjunctive procedure in stress management programs and cardiac rehabilitation programs, and in the reduction of intensity of symptoms of chronic lung disease (asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema).


Migraine therapy can be classified into four types general measures, abortive therapy, pain relief measures, and prophylactic (preventive) therapy. Overall, the treatment consists of behavioral and pharmacological interventions and is individualized for each patient. General measures includes behavioral therapy, such as recognition and avoidance of migraine triggers, regulation of sleep and meal schedules, dietary modification, stress management, exercise, and biofeedback and other relaxation techniques.

Models Of Violence

Cognitive-behavioral approaches for quantifying risk factors incorporate both actuarial and clinical information, which is subsequently organized into biological, personal, and environmental components. Relevant biological aspects often predispose individuals toward responding in a violent manner. For instance, some individuals evince a quick and intense emotional reaction to stressful situations. Other biological predispositions include being male, lower intelligence, and the abuse of psychoactive substances. Personal factors often include comorbid psychiatric conditions, poor impulse control, and distorted perceptions of motivations for behavior emitted by self and others (e.g., inflammatory thinking, hostile attributions). Skill deficits related to violent responding include poor communication, conflict management, and social problem-solving skills. Environmental factors include general psychosocial stressors and stimuli unique to the particular case (e.g., access to weapons,...


Individual CBT for childhood PTSD is characterized by distinct modules, which are fairly uniform across treatments. These components include coping, skills training, psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring, exposure to trauma-related anxiety, and relapse prevention (Cohen & Mannarino, 1993 Saigh, Yule, & Inamdar, 1996). Treatments often begin with psychoeducation, stress management, and skills training in order to equip children with techniques to cope with the initial anxiety of the behavioral exposures, which comprise an important component of cognitive-behavioral approaches. The individual treatment modality provides the most intensive intervention, which can be catered specifically to index the child's relevant traumatic event and posttraumatic symptoms, in addition to being able to work closely with the particular issues the child's parent may be experiencing in the home. 3. Parent training (PT) is a vital component of psy-chotherapeutic treatment with younger traumatized...


Stress management therapy teaches traumatized children muscle relaxation and diaphragmatic breathing techniques. This has been demonstrated to decrease symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression in adult sexual assault victims (Foa et al., 1991) and teaching relaxation techniques alone has proven effective in decreasing anxiety symptoms in children without trauma histories (Ollendick & Cerny, 1981). Stress management techniques are often used in conjunction with other treatment modalities, such as exposure therapy, given their ability to enhance other interventions.


Hypoalbuminemia is often erroneously used as an index of undernutrition. However, the diagnostic specificity of this index is poor. Serum albumin levels are determined by a complex interplay between nutritional intake, total body albumin distribution, and several pathological changes that alter the biosynthetic and catabolic rates of albumin. In the acutely ill or stressed older person, cytokine release suppresses albumin and prealbumin synthesis. Additionally, the release of catabolic counter-regulatory hormones in stressful situations reduces albumin synthesis even further. Direct downregulation of albumin gene expression also occurs in situations of acute stress. Paradoxically, undernutrition itself may result in a compensatory reduction in albumin catabolism, yielding inappropriately high albumin levels. Although serum albumin is a poor index of undernutrition, hypo-albuminemia is linked with frailty, excess comorbidity and increased mortality in older adults. Thus, the clinical...


Many couples say that coping with the decisions and uncertainties of infertility brings about the most stressful life crisis that they have ever encountered. It's not surprising that men and women often react differently to these stresses. Support Know that you are both doing your best during this stressful time, no matter how you each deal with it on the outside.


The next year was a very stressful time both at work and at home. At times it was difficult to concentrate or find enjoyment in anything. My wife, Helen, had been involved since my first suspicions and had been supportive and encouraging from the start, but the state of affairs placed a great strain on our relationship. We discussed each twist and turn and, when Dr Fairhurst dissolved the partnership, Helen chose to become my practice manager. She had a degree in history and politics and brought many office skills to the practice and helped to manage change through a very difficult period for the staff. From my selfish point of view it was reassuring to have someone I could trust completely to manage the practice, and for Helen there was the advantage of viewing the problems at first hand. Even so those three years were a terrible torment for us both. I was worried about the effect the action might have on my career, so for insurance we applied for immigration documents for Australia.


Outside the laboratory, stress is accepted as an unavoidable effect of living and is an especially complex phenomenon in the modern technological society. There is little doubt that an individual's success or failure in controlling potentially stressful situations can have a profound effect on the ability to function. The ability to cope with stress has figured prominently in anxiety and psychosomatic research. Stress has also figured prominently in the world of Health Psychology or Behavioral Medicine. Reports of a statistical link between coronary heart disease and individuals with a particular personality profile that is characterized by a behavioral pattern that manifests a lifestyle of impatience, a sense of time urgency, hard-driving competitiveness, and a preoccupation with vocational and related deadlines ( Type A Personality ) has been replicated numerous times. Correlations with other profiles have suggested potential links to cancer, diabetes, and other chronic medical...

Efa And Stress

As early as 1964, Back and Bogdnoff (1964) reported elevations of free fatty acids and cholesterol among stressed peoples. Rosenman (1997) summarized many years of research on the increased level of cholesterol among Type A behavior subjects. Subsequent studies confirmed the correlation between stressful situations and an increased level of cholesterol and free fatty acids (Arbogast, et al. 1994 Brennan, et al., 1996 Clark, et al., 1998 Morrow, et al., 1994). On the other hand, stressed medical students were found to exhibit lower levels of linoleic and arachidonic acids (n-6), with no change in n-3 fatty acids (Onho, et al., 1996 Williams, et al., 1992). Stress was shown to be able to modify several key steps in fatty acid and lipid metabolism (Matsmoto,et al., 1999 Milles, et al., 1994). More specifically, during stress, the cardiac uptake of free FA was reduced (Bagger, 1997). Administration of DHA (an n-3 derivative) improved cardiac response to stress (Rouseau, et al., 1998),...

Self Assessment

During a particularly difficult period, most people know they feel stressed and may not be functioning as efficiently as they usually do. Frequently, this is attributed to a difficult patient, a busy shift, or a particular personal stressor outside of one's control. Self-awareness enables individuals to begin to appreciate their patterns of response from a wider perspective. Paradoxically, some physicians, when faced with the disillusionment of a lifestyle not realized, cling harder to their original motives in denial. This process feeds upon itself, resulting in frustration.

Assessment Phase

Exercises and therapist modeling to identify and describe recent problematic or stressful situations in which they are dissatisfied with the responses. These situations are highly specific events that represent a sample of the more general complaint. Lutgendorf, S. K., Antoni, M. H., Ironson, G., Klimas, N., Kumar, M., Starr, K., McCabe, P., & Cleven, K. (1997). Cognitive stress management decreases dysphoric mood and simplex virus-type-2 antibody titers in symptomatic HIV-seropositive gay men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 31-43.

Models of Stress

A second broad category of social factors can be referred to as resistance resources. Resistance resources are factors that enable the individual to avoid, withstand, or alter the stressful events and circumstances to which she is exposed. These again can be divided into two categories. Social support refers to the help or assistance that an individual can anticipate or receive by virtue of her membership in a network of social relationships. Coping styles refer to relatively stable individual dispositions to approach stressful circumstances in particular ways. On the one hand, individuals may actively seek out ways of coping with the occurrence of a stressor on the other hand, individuals may more passively withdraw from a stressful circumstance and attempt to emotionally alter the meaning of the stressor. At the same time, the social and psychological resources that could support coping with stressful circumstances were investigated. In St. Lucia, social support took a very specific...

Stress And Onset

And manic episodes occurring after the initial onset of the illness. Whereas stress may not explain why episodes occur, a strong relationship exists between the severity and frequency of symptoms and environmental stress. Reduction in interpersonal, community, and work stressors often increases the patient's level of functioning and decreases the manic-depressive symptoms. This is one of the immediate benefits some individuals gain from emergency hospitalizations and partial hospital programs. Stress management, however, is an adjunct therapy that serves as an enhancement to appropriate medication and psychotherapy treatment. Environmental manipulations cannot independently address and treat manic-depressive symptoms. Furthermore, people who are in the midst of an extremely severe episode may receive almost no relief from stress reduction and environmental enhancements.


This process entails the absorption of ever-widening social arenas and behaviors into the jurisdiction of biomedical treatment through a constant extension of pathological terminology to cover new conditions and behaviors. Health clinics, health maintenance organizations, and other medical provider organizations now offer classes on managing stress, controlling obesity, overcoming sexual impotence, alcoholism, and drug addiction, and promoting smoking cessation. Even the birth experience, not just in the United States but also in many

Digestive System

Movement of food through the digestive system is aided by peristaltic waves of muscle contraction. Cilia also line the tract and are especially useful in stressful situations when peristalsis may become reduced or even stop. This suggests that peristalsis is under some nervous control. Mucous membranes in the mouth, esophagus, and stomach provide lubrication to aid the passage of the food along the digestive tract.

Help and Grief

Persons experiencing acute grief can help themselves in a number of ways. Because grief is a form of stress, lifestyle management including adequate sleep and diet, as well as other techniques for stress reduction, can be helpful. Bibliotherapy or the use of self-help books can often validate or normalize grief reactions, suggest ways of adaptation, and offer hope. Self-help and support groups can offer similar assistance as well as social support from others who have experienced loss. Others may benefit from counselors, particularly if their health suffers or their grief becomes highly disabling, impairing functioning at work, school, or home, or if they harbor destructive thoughts toward self or others. Parkes (1980) particularly stressed the value of grief counseling when other support is not forthcoming.

Andrea M Chronis

On improving communication skills within the family (in parent-child interactions and marital interactions) and developing patience. The chapters discuss how parents' emotional reactions depend on how the parent thinks about her child's behavior, and outline stress management strategies such as changing negative patterns of thinking, removing oneself from stressful situations rather than responding with anger, taking breaks from the parenting role, using problem solving strategies, developing support systems, and attending to one's physical health (e.g., exercising, getting enough sleep, eating healthy). Webster-Stratton's Incredible Years includes four chapters devoted to controlling upsetting thoughts, taking time out from stress and anger, using effective communication skills, and problem solving for adults. Likewise, the parent training manual developed for the Multimodal Treatment Study for ADHD includes two sessions that focus on parent stress, anger, and mood management. These...

Response To Stress

Schmerzverarbeitung Gehirn

Physiologically, the stress response is characterized by activation of the sympatho-adrenal axis (SA) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) (see Fig. 1). The SA axis is activated immediately upon being exposed to a stressor and is the body's short-term response. This response is characterized by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which stimulates the adrenal medulla to secrete epinephrine (also called adrenaline) into the circulation. Epinephrine is responsible for increasing blood flow and pressure in the body by increasing heart rate and vasoconstriction. This increase in blood flow allows the body to deliver more oxygen and energy (glucose) to muscle and brain tissue, thereby allowing the animal to react to the stressor (often termed the fight-or-flight response. 1 Activation of the HPA axis is used to maintain a physiologic status that enables the animal to continue to respond to the stressor. This axis is characterized by the...

Treatment Issues

Systematic problem-solving, reinforcing positive behaviors and cognition, and understanding one's self and world. More specifically, psychotherapy can help individuals who have manic-depressive illness better understand their disorder, remain on prescribed medications, learn to predict and prevent or soften recurring episodes, learn to not be afraid when experiencing normal sadness, grief, or joy, how and when to let others take charge of their decision making, and how to better care for their significant others and friends. A combination of cognitive, behavioral, and supportive therapies can accomplish these goals with many individuals. An important part of psychotherapy is recording in a chart or journal how moods change over time, how they are affected by medication, and reactions in differing environments. Methods of this type are also used to identify internal thoughts or cognitive nonverbal self-talk. The messages we silently give ourselves can highlight strengths, fears, and...

Studies in humans

In an attempt to summarize the human data, there is no conclusive evidence that ageing per se is associated with a faulty regulation of the HPA axis, although this must be considered impossible to study in a meaningful way because it requires all external influences to be absent. There is, however, suggestive evidence that in the ageing person there is often a diminished rate of return of cortisol secretion to basal values after challenge, which may be due to an inefficient feedback regulation. This would then agree with the better-controlled animal data on the input of ageing. It is impossible, however, to judge whether this is a consequence of the ageing process or due to repeated exposure to stressful events during a long life. Normal ageing is unavoidably associated with exposure to the wear and tear of daily life. There are clearly individual differences in the sensitivity and perception of such challenges, and these differences most likely have a genetic basis. Increased...

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is caused by the disregulation of insulin produced by a malfunctioning of the pancreas. Because insulin regulates the amount of glucose available to cells, this disorder has serious consequences for life expectancy. The traditional management of diabetes is lifestyle changes through education, diet, and physical exercise along with hypoglycemic medication. The role biofeedback plays in the management of diabetes is through stress reduction techniques with biofeedback-facilitated relaxation training. The BFRT techniques reported in the literature have been frontal EMG training and finger temperature training, usually combined with some form of general relaxation training such as PMR or autogenic phrases. This application helps to stabilize and reduce insulin demands.

Telogen Effluvium

Telogen effluvium is hair loss resulting from a major stressful event. This may include pregnancy and delivery, major surgery, major illness usually requiring hospitalization, or crash diets. The event causes hair to arrest in the telogen growth phase of the hair. Two to three months after the event, when new hairs are growing, the telogen hairs are shed. The patient often notices hair clogging the shower drain or numerous hairs on the pillow upon rising in the morning. The patient and the patient's family notice appreciable thinning that is sudden and often quite alarming. Diagnosis is based on diffuse hair loss in the appropriate clinical setting. A related disorder is anagen effluvium, which is secondary to systemic chemotherapeutic agents. Patients should be reassured that complete hair loss is unlikely and actually heralds new hair growth.

More Products

The Well Being Way Stress Management Program
Stress Overload

Stress Overload

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Recognizing Stress Overload. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To Stress Symptoms, Signs And Outcomes.

Get My Free Ebook