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Single Parenting Becoming the Best Parent For Your Child

Single Parenting Becoming the Best Parent For Your Child

Parenting is a challenging task. As a single parent, how can you juggle work, parenting, and possibly college studies single handedly and still manage to be an ideal parent for your child? Read the 65-page eBook Single Parenting Becoming The Best Parent For Your Child to find out how. Loaded with tips, it can inspire, empower, and instruct you to successfully face the challenges of parenthood.

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Smart Parenting Guide

This ebook from Daniel Dwase gives you the very best tips and information about how to raise your children in such a way as to get smart, responsible, caring, and loving children. If you have problems disciplining your children, this is the book for you. You don't have to be concerned about your children running amok; Dwase gives you the insight that you need to make sure that your children turn out well in the end. This ebook lets you give your child the best gift that you ever could: a loving, nurturing, healthy and loving childhood. By building a quality relationship with them, you will be able to raise a child that continues that relationship into adulthood. Building a quality relationship is the best way to give your child a healthy future and a loving family. You will both empower your child to succeed and reduces behavioral problems Start building your child's future today!

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The Survey What You Told Me About Your ChiLDREN

Now, for all you parents who want to compare your child's math skills to those in this sampling of skills, here goes. (Note that with 99 subjects, in most cases the percentage and number are the same.) Math Skills Most Helpful. When asked, What math skill do you think would be most helpful to your child 65 responded that money shopping skills would be most helpful 37 telling time 26 adding and subtraction 22 practical use life skills and 8 basic math. Other most helpful skills were measuring, numbers, multiplication division, calendar schedule, calculator, relative value of numbers, counting, conservation, problem solving, weighing, math facts, 1 1 correspondence, games, number line, estimations, sequencing, fractions, more less, and rounding off.

The Adolescents Family Context Social Structure

What is known of the social situation of ancestral adolescents Aside from the likelihood that hominid adolescents underwent intensive training for adulthood, several facts can be adduced about the social context of adolescence in our species. A virtually universal feature of not just forager societies but all preliterate human societies is the extended family, if we define it as three generations of family members dwelling together or nearby (Stephens, 1963). The great majority of ancestral adolescents' social contacts would have been with kin, including clan members of more remote consanguinity. Through the genetic benefit of kin altruism, this arrangement would have rewarded cooperation in endeavors such as hunting, gathering, warfare, and child care. In addition, because foraging communities tend to be small (hunting requires low population density), ancestral human

Early Versus Late Abortions Controversies in Medicine

Similar laws have since been passed in more than two dozen states and found unconstitutional the most significant decision was issued by the Supreme Court in a challenge to Nebraska's Partial-Birth Abortion law in the case of Stenberg v. Carhart in 2000 (Annas, 2001). The case involved Dr. Leroy Carhart, a Nebraska physician who sued in federal court to have Nebraska's law declared unconstitutional because it endangered women's lives and was void because of its vagueness in that physicians could not know exactly what procedure was proscribed. Ultimately, the Supreme Court ruled on June 28, 2000, that the Nebraska law and all other laws banning partial birth abortion are unconstitutional. The majority opinion held that the law was unconstitutional for two reasons. First, it did not provide an exception to protect the health of the woman as required by Roe v. Wade. Second, the law imposed an undue burden (as proscribed in Planned Parenthood v. Casey) because it was written so broadly as...

Contemporary Teaching

The Declaration on Abortion recognizes that pregnancy can pose serious burdens for the health and welfare of women, families, and children themselves. It advocates that individuals and nations exercise responsible parenthood by natural means of avoiding conception. It also exhorts all those who are able to do so to lighten the burdens still crushing so many men and women, families and children,

Contemporary Views Of Cbt With Children

CBT for anxious children focuses on dysfunctional cognitions (misperceptions of environmental threats and or one's ability to cope) and how these affect the child's subsequent emotions and behavior. ICBT aims to help children develop new skills to cope with their specific circumstances, facilitates new experiences to test dysfunctional as well as adaptive beliefs, and assists in the processing of such experiences. Modeling and direct reinforcement are used to facilitate the child's learning of new approach behaviors, and cognitive strategies address processes such as information processing style, attributions, and self-talk. Although ICBT has been found effective in helping children to build emotional resilience, children also learn by observing and helping others. As such, group-based CBT (GCBT) programs have been developed based on peer and experiential learning models. Learning in a group context provides a safe and familiar environment in which participants can gain peer support,...

The Diversity of Gender and of

The cross-cultural consistency of gendered war roles is set against a backdrop of great diversity of both gender roles and war considered separately. Human beings have many forms of marriage, sexuality, division of labor in household and child-care work, ownership of property, and lines of descent. Overall, human societies have organized gender roles outside war in an almost infinite variety of ways (Sanday, 1981, p. 1). Similarly, forms of war vary greatly, except for their gendered character. Different cultures fight in very different ways, and for different purposes. Thus, the connection of war with gender is more stable, across cultures and through time, than are either gender roles outside war or the forms and frequency of war (Goldstein, 2001, pp. 6-9).

Artistic Developmental Levels

A phase-specific developmental sequence has been associated with children's drawings. Although different phases or stages have been identified by different researchers, children's artistic development is sequential and contingent on mastery of skills. Knowledge of typical developmental variants is essential to understanding the graphic productions created by children. Many factors and influences will contribute to maturation in developmental spheres including artistic. Cathy Malchiodi in 1998 explored developmental aspects of children's drawings in her text, Understanding Children's Drawings.

Individual Interventions

Two of the most widely used CBIs are self-instruction training and self-management. The main goal of self-instruction training is to teach children to utilize self-directed speech to guide their own behavior with the assumption that this will lead to improved self-control. Russell Barkley and others have observed that children with ADHD exhibit a developmental lag in developing verbal Another popular set of strategies for helping children develop self-control is self-management. Self-management is often divided into self-evaluation and self-reinforcement. The original impetus behind these strategies was to develop a set of strategies that could allow teachers to shift the responsibility for monitoring children's behavior to the children themselves (Shapiro & Cole, 1994). In a typical procedure, the teacher identifies one or two behaviors the child needs to improve in class. For example, a third-grade teacher identifies staying in my seat and finishing my work as target behaviors...

Evolution and Disease

Differential fitness involves more than disease resistance, of course. The evolution of successful reproductive traits and strategies is a central interest in biocul-tural anthropology (Trevathan, 1987) and underlies much of life history theory (Hill & Hurtado, 1996). Parental care (especially maternal stimulation and bonding) has been studied in relation to normal and abnormal infant and child development in various environments,

Other Micronutrients

Most of these conditions are rare in their overt form in westernized countries because of the variety of children's diets. There remain questions as to whether levels of micronutrient nutrition that do not lead to clinical deficiency syndromes may nevertheless have effects on immunity, growth, and development in children. This seems possible for iron deficiency and psychoneurological functioning and is proven for folic acid and embryological development. For other micronutrients the evidence is less strong. Similarly, there is currently no good evidence that raising children's micronutrient intakes above recommended levels incurs any particular benefit to health or intellectual development.

Psychology of Sexual Aggression

Also disregard cultural variation, certain forms of female aggression, and the fact that women have been aggressive in work situations as well as violent with their children and other family members. Given mounting cultural and sociological evidence, many psychologists now attribute American men's heightened aggression to the gender-specific ways in which parents teach children about the acceptability and uses of aggression.

Attainment of Adulthood

Adulthood (obukhulundu) is a time of meeting responsibilities to others. For girls it begins with marriage. A married Samia female is addressed as omukhasi, wife (also woman). However, a wife's early years of marriage are ruled by her mother-in-law it is not until she has been married for several years and has two or three children that she gets her own kitchen and is considered to be truly adult (omukhasi mudwasi), able to manage her children and make her own decisions about food preparation and her work schedule. Some women today are refusing their mother-in-law's domination by setting up kitchens when they marry or going with their husband to live where he works away from home. When a man marries he is addressed as omusacha, husband (also man), but he too achieves full adult status through parenthood. Children make him omusacha omukhulundu, an elder of his family and clan. In the past, most women became fully adult in their twenties, men not until their thirties or even forties....

Courtship and Marriage

In the past marriage was universal, but today some women are choosing single parenthood over marriage. Women who are widowed (and most women are at least by the time they reach their sixties) would ordinarily be inherited by a male of the late husband's family. With younger women, such a marriage might become a real marriage with women past childbearing it might involve little more than the purification rituals. Today, however, some widows are rejecting widow inheritance. Sometimes younger women choose their second husband themselves, and some older women (especially older women who are saved, i.e., born-again Christians) are rejecting remarriage altogether and with it the possibility of domination by a new husband.

Parental and Other Caretaker Roles

Attained the highest status a woman can achieve. Meanwhile mothers who do not sacrifice their own needs for the needs of their own children are looked down upon and criticized. The mother-child relationship is the closest relationship among Armenians, regardless of the gender of the child, and mothers act as confidantes to both their sons and daughters. They view their sons as their protectors (bashban) and their daughters as their helpers (ogknagan). In Armenia, the most common pledge is mors arev which means upon my mother's life.

Developmental Origins Of Cognitive Vulnerability To Depression

In addition to parental inferential feedback, negative parenting practices may also contribute to the development of cognitive vulnerability to depression. In particular, a parenting style involving lack of emotional warmth and negative psychological control (criticism, intrusiveness, and guilt-induction), has been most consistently implicated in the association between children's risk for depression and parent-child relations (see Alloy et al., 2003, for a review). In the CVD Project, negative cognitive styles (HR status) were associated with low emotional warmth from participants' fathers, whereas a tendency to ruminate was associated with high negative psychological control from both parents (Alloy et al., 2003). Low emotional warmth from fathers and high psychological control from both parents predicted prospective onsets of depression among the participants, mediated, at least in part, by participants' negative cognitive styles. Thus, both low emotional warmth and overcontrolling...

Future Directions

In addition, the developmentally relevant findings from the CVD Project are mostly retrospective. Thus, they may be seen as providing a conceptual and empirical basis for further investigations of the development of cognitive vulnerability to depression. Future studies, particularly prospective studies beginning earlier in childhood, should devote considerable attention to the role of negative parenting practices

Occupational Therapy

In the area of task adaptation, occupational therapists serve a vital role in determining the appropriate type of augmentative alternative communication aide that may be necessary to accomplish daily tasks. To promote independence in daily activities, electronic aids and or devices are available to assist the individual to access and control his or her environment. Switches are useful to teach children cause-and-effect relationships and may be used as electronic aids for a variety of daily tasks. Examples include head switches or hand switches to activate a toy, blender, or television. Keyguards preventing unwanted keystrokes, touch screens, mobile arm supports, and computer mice with various methods of activation, are but a few of the devices available to improve computer accessibility for an individual with a disability.

Husband Wife Relationship

Most Canela couples have affection if not romantic love for each other, even though marriage is principally for raising children and family matters. Some young couples clearly have romantic love for each other. However, almost all Canela judicial hearings are about marital disputes. Considering that extramarital sex was extensive, we might expect that spouses were jealous of each other. At times they surely were, so that the uncles had to suppress their nephews' bad feelings. Nevertheless, I consider that the Canela cultural attitude of favoring fun, joy, and presenting oneself as a generous person has had a lot to do with keeping spousal relationships light-hearted and warm.

Ferber Techniqueeffect

The Ferber technique effect requires that the care-giver place the infant in its crib, then leave the room and ignore the infant's crying for at least 20 minutes. Subsequently, the care-giver returns to the crib, pats the infant on the back, but doesn't pick it up, and then leaves the room quickly. This procedure is repeated every night, increasing the waiting period by five minutes per night before responding to the infant's crying with patting. This often controversial child-care practice is similar, theoretically, to a modification of the operant behavioral conditioning procedure called fading used in stimulus control and errorless discrimination learning situations (where discriminative stimuli are faded out gradually) but, in this case, fading occurs by slowly extending (fading out) the waiting time period before the reinforcing stimulus (pat or attention given by the care-giver) is administered. The Ferber technique effect seems to work for some infants, but not for...

Benign Epilepsies Of Infancy

Benign myoclonic epilepsy in infancy is a rarely documented clinical syndrome, usually in healthy children between 6 months and 3 years of age (Vigevano et al., 1997 Pachatz et al., 1999). Patients have a normal developmental trajectory, although family members with epilepsy or febrile convulsions have been described. The myoclonic attacks are brief, usually involve the head or arms, and may be augmented during drowsiness attacks may subsequently subside during sleep. EEG sleep recordings document a temporal

Preschool Age 3 to 5 Years

PHYSICAL ASPECTS Growth rate slows significantly during this period, and appetite decreases further. Children develop a more lean body habitus. The incidence of injuries increases with increasing activity. The preschool child is no longer restrained in a car seat and is at risk for defined injury complexes from improperly fitting lap and shoulder belts. A DPT booster is given shortly before beginning school, between the ages of 4 and 6 (see T ble 111 3). NEUROLOGIC ASPECTS Preschool children develop progressive autonomy in terms of mobility and self-care. Attraction to books, drawing, and coloring is common. Expressive language skills expand rapidly, and children this age are often able to identify site(s) of specific complaint. However, a strong sense of fear of pain remains, and the level of anxiety remains high in the emergency setting. Preschool children live in the present and have a limited sense of time and history, so that prior symptoms are frequently forgotten. Self-centered...

Contemporary Treatment Practices

Given that a major source of reinforcement for children is their interpersonal environment, particularly the family, the therapist seeks to ameliorate negative or coercive interaction patterns in the family that interfere with the child receiving positive reinforcement and promote negative cognitive patterns in the child. For example, studies have established that children who are depressed often have parents suffering from depression. Parents who are depressed may neglect their children, model depressed affect, or be excessively critical. Children, in turn, may suffer from the lack of positive reinforcement and learn depressive beliefs from their experiences with their parents. Recent treatment studies have begun to include parents by providing education about depression and interventions to change parenting practices that may exacerbate depressive symptoms. Children may also experience rejection from peers and school personnel that exacerbates depression. In this case, social skills...

Healthcare And Research Issues

Access to good parenting, food, housing, and sanitation is the primary method for enhancing children's well-being and opportunities. The consensus that children also should have basic healthcare and social services grew throughout the twentieth century. Initially, advocates for better health and social care for impoverished, neglected, abused, and exploited children included those active in the women's rights movement, the newly recognized specialty of pediatrics, and the visiting home-health nursing programs. As the century progressed, lawyers and social scientists joined the reform movement, attacking the long-dominant views that children are the property of their parents or guardians and that the state has no authority to intervene even if children are abused or neglected.

Depression in Children

More generally, one of the important breakthroughs in understanding the mental health of children has been the recognition that what children can tell us depends upon what adults are prepared to hear. That is, children reveal their mental health status in ways that make sense to adults if the adults have the technical skill and psychological availability necessary to receive the child's messages. For adults to be responsive to the mental health issues facing children, they need to understand some basic features of child development, particularly the operation of risk and opportunity.

Secular Trend Toward an Earlier Age of Menarche

Explained simply many observations associated with early or late menarche. Observations of earlier menarche are associated with attaining the critical weight more quickly. The most important example is the secular (long-term) trend to an earlier menarche of approximately 3 or 4 months per decade in Europe in the past 100 years (Figure 2). The explanation is that children become larger sooner therefore, girls on average reach 46 or 47 kg, the mean weight at menarche of US and many European populations, more quickly. Theoretically, the secular trend should end when the weight of children of successive cohorts remains the same because of the attainment of maximum nutrition and child care this has happened in the United States.

Gender over the Life Cycle

While childhood is distinguished from adulthood, there are no cultural names for stages in the life cycle among the Bamileke. There are also no organized age-grade societies for boys or girls. In the past nja, translated as circumcision but in reality referring to puberty rites, was practiced for both boys and girls as a prelude to marriage. Male circumcision was (and still is) universal. Families who could afford it would enclose their daughters in a fattening house or fattening room (nda nja) at puberty, followed by a public display of the now nubile girl. This female initiation rite did not involve genital surgery. Adulthood is attained gradually for both men and women, through building a house and the establishment of marriage for men, and through marriage and the birth of children for women. Marriage, parenthood, and heirship all bring with them increased rights and responsibilities for men and women. Both parenthood and increasing age confer increasing respect on Bamileke men...

Toxicological Considerations

Perchlorate is thought to exert its toxic effects at high doses by interfering with iodide uptake into the thyroid gland. This inhibition of iodide uptake can lead to reductions in the secretion of thyroid hormones that are responsible for the control of growth, development, and metabolism. Disruption of the pituitary-hypothalamic-thyroid axis by per-chlorate may lead to serious effects, such as carci-nogenicity, neurodevelopmental and developmental changes, reproductive toxicity, and immunotoxi-city. Specific concerns relate to the exposures of infants, children, and pregnant women because the thyroid plays a major role in fetal and child development.

Conducting A Family Interview

The sources of data for these domains come from tests, observations, interviews, and rating forms. The Bailey and Simeonsson (1988) book has a useful form for eliciting family needs. Their child observation form covers developmentally referenced assessment and has a section for family supports and needs, and this chapter offers my own procedure for assessment of caregiver-child interactions. Readers may also find the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1995) a useful instrument, and Trivette, Dunst, Deal, Hamer, and Propst (1990) described several family strength scales. For children between the ages of birth to 3 years, the information from these sources facilitates the development of the Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP Johnson, McGonigel, & Kaufmann, 1989), which is required for provision of early intervention services. For service provision to preschool children (ages 3 to 5), there is no formal IFSP (although there is an Individual Education Plan for the child), but the...

Caregiverchild Interactions

Consciousness and anxiety and to induce trust and spontaneity of the individuals who will be observed. Interactions should be videotaped, if possible, to allow for more reliable scoring, as well as availability for feedback review with the caregivers and for documentation of change in response to program interventions (Farran, Clark, & Ray, 1990). In my experience, caregivers can quickly adapt to the presence of a camera if the assessor is clearly comfortable with its use and convinced of its importance. (Be aware that caregivers should sign a form granting permission to be videotaped if the tape is to be used for training and professional purposes.) I usually joke with the caregiver to try to interact as normally as you can with your child with the camera staring at you and me sitting here writing notes. The importance of rapport and trust with this assessment approach cannot be overstated. An important contributor to this trust is the assessor's conviction that this observation...

Empathyaltruism Hypothesis

A scale for the measurement of accurate empathy. Psychiatric Institute Bulletin, 1, 12. Berger, S. (1962). Conditioning through vicarious instigation. Psychological Review, 69, 450-466. Feshback, N., & Roe, K. (1968). Empathy in six- and seven-year olds. Child Development, 39, 133-145. Stotland, E., Shaver, K., & Sherman, S. (1971). Empathy and birth order. Lincoln, NE University of Nebraska Press. Hoffman, M. (1977). Empathy, its development and prosocial implications. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 25, 169-211. Stotland, E., Mathews, K., Sherman, S., Hans-son, R., & Richardson, B. (1978). Fantasy, empathy, and helping. Beverly Hills, CA Sage. Gallese, V. (2001). The shared-manifold hypothesis From mirror neurons to empathy. In E. Thompson (Ed.), Between ourselves Second-person issues in the study of consciousness. Charlottesville, VA Academic.

Nature of the Intervention

The intervention arising from growth monitoring may be quite specific (e.g., the identification and treatment of a particular growth disorder) or it may be more general (e.g., referral to a growth clinic, a dietician, or a feeding station). If the mother is involved, it may alter her view of her child's health and so modify her child care. At the population level, it may affect the allocation of resources (e.g., between regions for malnutrition relief).

Negotiating Health and Social Stratification

The sick role is a mode of communication and the first step in the healing process because it is the acknowledgment of illness or abnormality. In assuming the sick role, the individual communicates several important messages the first is a wish to be absolved of regular duties second, a desire to validate illness via a healer and third, an acknowledgment that this is not a normal or usual state. The patient might visit the doctor, ensuring formal medical validation, and the submission of the sick person to the ministrations of the physician (Foster & Anderson, 1978, p. 146). The sick role may be undertaken for utilitarian purposes. Nervios, susto, and stress may be excuses individuals use to separate themselves from expected social roles. Sufferers from legitimate illness are often excused from daily duties, including housework, occupational responsibilities, and child care.

Appendix Information on Recommended Measures Child Health Questionnaire

The inventory has been extensively tested for reliability and validity. Internal consistency is adequate for group comparisons and the measure correlated moderately with measures of morbidity and illness burden as well as distinguishing between healthy children and those with a variety of acute and chronic illnesses. It is available in English and Spanish. Further information about the PedsQL is available at http www.pedsql.org. To order the PedsQL, contact Caroline Anfray at the Mapi Research Institute (e-mail canfray mapi.fr).

TABLE 1153 Differential Diagnosis of Congestive Heart Failure Based on Age of Presentation

COR PULMONALE If an infant presents in pure right-sided congestive heart failure, the primary problem is most likely to be pulmonary in origin. Hepatomegaly and anasarca may be present, but most often, in early stages, lid edema is the first noticeable sign. Moreover, the lid edema is likely to be appreciated by the parents more than by the physician and must be specifically searched for on examination. Often it will have to be elicited by asking Do your child's eyes look puffy If the underlying problem is bronchopulmonary dysplasia resulting from prematurity and infantile respiratory distress syndrome, the infant may already be on appropriate home oxygenation and diuretic therapy. Upper airway obstruction from hypertrophied adenoidal and tonsillar tissue can produce cor pulmonale, presenting as edema or anasarca. The clinical features of airway obstruction, however, are subtle a careful history will reveal continuous mouth breathing while awake and sleeping, with or without snoring....

Gender Roles in Economics

Prior to contact, men tended to be involved in raising pigs, planting and gathering arboricultural and root crops (e.g., breadfruit and taro), fishing, fighting wars, and making tools and structures from stone and wood. By contrast, women were primarily responsible for raising children, cleaning house, and making tapa cloth and woven mats, baskets, sails, etc. However, both men and women contributed to the production and preparation of foods (though women were subject to more tapu as to when and how they could cook for whom). For both men

The Normal Impulse Gradient Murmur and the Increased Flow Murmur

About 90 of healthy children up to age 14 have ejection murmurs on ordinary clinical examination in a quiet but not soundproof room 2 . 'These murmurs are usually maximal at the left sternal border. About 15 of adults under age 40 have an innocent ejection murmur.

Anemia and Polycythemia with Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

Children with this problem require an increase in hemoglobin concentration to compensate for hypoxemia. Children develop tachycardia, feeding difficulty, or congestive heart failure when hemoglobin concentrations fall to normal. Often, anemia will be compensated for by polycythemia, which will cause increased viscosity and the potential for cerebrovascular complications. Iron supplementation is important for prevention of anemia. When polycythemia occurs, therapeutic phlebotomy may be warranted.

Strategies toward the Elimination of FGC Does Meaning Matter

A number of scholars and activists have come to the conclusion that the most reasonable angle from which to argue for the elimination of genital cutting is that of health. Boulware-Miller concludes that the right-to-health argument integrates the issues of physical, mental, and sexual health as well as child development, and that it may be seen as less exclusive and more politically acceptable than any other approach (Boulware-Miller, 1985, p. 177). This is the same conclusion that was reached by the UN Working Group on Traditional Practices in 1986 (United Nations, 1986). The UN Working Group did not, in the end, conclude that the practice of FGC constitutes a human rights violation. Instead, the sub-commission chose to frame the issue in terms of weighing the health consequences of the practice against its cultural functions (United Nations, 1986). This conclusion is, in essence, the replacement of a universalist stance with a cultural relativist position, and consequently, meaning...

Other Cross Sex Relationships

Because of the nature of Na households, there can be many other significant male-female relationships between Na. Brothers and sisters (as well as cousins in larger households) grow up together. Grown siblings who reside together spend much time together, eat meals together, consult each other on projects, and work together. Uncles and great-uncles are involved in the care of the younger generations, as are aunts and great-aunts. Because of this, strong affective relationships may develop between uncles and nieces (or nephews) and aunts and nephews (or nieces). It is not uncommon that when households divided because they were becoming too large, generally a woman starts a new household with several children. She may bring nieces and nephews, and might leave some of her children behind. As described above, adults (and children) in a household share in child-care, and some Na report feeling more affection for an aunt or uncle than for their mothers.

Introduction And Definition Of Issues

Costs to individuals households1 Human illness costs Medical costs Physician visits Laboratory costs Hospitalization or nursing home Drugs and other medications Ambulance or other travel costs Income or productivity loss for 111 person or dying person Caregiver for ill person Other illness costs Travel costs to visit ill person Home modifications Vocational physical rehabilitation Child care costs Special educational programs Institutional care Lost leisure time Psychological costs

Clinical Management

The management of OI focuses on minimizing fractures and maximizing function in all aspects of the child's life. Until recently, the correction of deformities, intramedul-lary rodding of long bones, orthotic support, muscle strengthening, and mobility devices, such a wheelchairs, were the mainstays of treatment. 11 The recombinant human growth hormone has been used to augment growth and bone mass. The greatest potential currently resides in bisphosphonate therapy. Bisphosphonates as potent inhibitors of bone resorption have been shown to be highly effective in improving bone mass in children with severe forms of OI. 12 As a consequence, the fracture rate was reduced significantly and quality of life increased in all patients. However, in long-term therapy, bone turnover is suppressed to levels lower than those in healthy children, and the consequences of chronically low bone turnover in children with OI are unknown.

Identifying surgical risks

Studies have shown that treating endometriosis surgically is better sooner rather than later, especially if medical treatment isn't working after six months or so. The endometriosis lesions will cause less damage if a surgeon removes them sooner and symptoms should diminish. You may be doing your child a favor by deciding on surgery because it may prevent big problems or more extensive surgery in the future. As with all other treatments, a discussion with the doctor about risks, benefits, and alternatives is essential. The good news is that surgery has never been safer. A large incision isn't usually necessary because most surgeries are by laparoscopy and require only a few tiny incisions. (See Chapter 11 for more about surgery options.) Some of your daughter's friends may have had arthroscopic surgery for sports injuries, so your child can feel better knowing her surgery may use a scope too.

Social and Political Issues

In the private sector, abortion and family planning services are offered both by for-profit and not-for-profit clinics, managed care organizations and by private physicians. The not-for-profit Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., with affiliates across the country, continues to be one of the most important providers of family planning services in the private sector. In addition, family planning became intensely politicized in the United States after the election of Ronald Reagan in 1980. Since then, the agendas of public and private providers of family planning services have often been at odds. Difficulties with Title X-funded programs illustrate these contradictions. A significant proportion of Title X-funded services in many communities across the country is provided by Planned Parenthood, which is also a prime target of those who are politically conservative because of the organization's visibility as an abortion provider. Political appointees within the Department of...

Duties to Future Persons

Heyd's view, however, does not appear to be widely shared. For example, in her 1998 book, Child versus Childmaker, Melinda A. Roberts noted that Heyd's view implies that my neighbor's future child, but not my own, has a claim to my good behavior (p. 20). Using his analysis, a homeowner who breaks a glass bottle in the backyard may have a duty to the neighbor's future children to pick up the glass, but not to the homeowner's own future children. That conclusion is difficult to defend persuasively. Heyd's theory assumes that the power to create a person implies the absence of any obligation to use that power responsibly. In his view, childbearing is inherently a selfish choice. Yet, this assumption is certainly not self-evident and it conflicts with commonplace expectations of responsible parenting.

Developmentbased Testing

As well as behaviors that are easy to elicit, rather than offering a comprehensive reflection of development. The behaviors are hierarchically ordered, although the authors admit that this is not always appropriate for all domains at all ages. Assessors who use this instrument should be aware that it is not a normed test. The normative information is taken from other procedures, some of which were never normed, and the age levels were not empirically determined either for this or for many of the sources. Nevertheless, there is in many cases a general consensus (and significant discrepancies) among the instruments, as well as in the child development literature, to support the placement of many of the behaviors. The cognitive functioning domain of this instrument is particularly strong in its inclusion of higher mental functioning and symbolic thought. The procedure does not include specific classroom activities to address the items, but the authors intended to provide items...

Change in Attitudes Beliefs and Practices Regarding Gender

Households, nurturing family ties, and raising children to be Spaniards. Extended kin groups are as important as ever, or possibly more so, and social ties to groups of like sex are significant in all lives and in the social structure. The concerns for personal appearance and the stylistic differences that make women feminine and men masculine persist, as do concerns for collective judgments, consciousness of local and regional roots of individuals, families, and traditions, a generally Catholic cultural heritage, and the insistence on the importance of maintaining marital partnerships in the face of changing circumstances.

Which Genetic Disorders Can Be Detected During

PGD can detect many though not all genetic diseases or defects. Following is a partial list of those that can be identified using the PGD technique. If you and your partner are not affected by one of these but instead are carriers, you could still pass the disorder on to your child. Here's a list of genetic disorders that can be detected using PGD

Cultural Construction of Gender

The construction of gender categories among Taiwanese Americans is influenced by several cultural concepts derived from the Confucian teachings of the five reciprocal relationships that maintain order within both family and society (subjects obey rulers, children obey their fathers, wives obey their husbands, younger brothers obey older brothers, and friends respect friends). Although these rules are mostly hierarchical in nature, they are not static divisions but rather reflect the fact that both polars in a dyad are compatible and inseparable (Barlow, 1994, p. 257). The main responsibility of men is to continue the patriarchic line and ensure the welfare of his family and the greater society. Women are required to support their husbands' quest in establishing a family. Having children is supposed to be their main purpose in life. In general, both men and women are obliged to marry, raise children, and care for their parents (Ahern & Gates, 1981).

Using Pgd To Determine The Sex Of Your Baby

If you are looking to use PGD technology to choose the gender of your child, find out ahead of time if this is an option at your fertility clinic. Couples may desire a child of a specific gender for a variety of reasons. The euphemistic term for this gender selection is family balancing.

Piagets Principle Of Conservation See Piagets Theory Of Developmental Stages

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1956). The child's conception of space. London Rout-ledge & Kegan Paul. Bruner, J. S. (1968). Processes of cognitive growth. Worcester, MA Clark University Press. Piaget, J. (1970). Piaget's theory. In P. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichael's manual of child psychology. New York Wiley. Vuyk, R. (1981). Overview and critique of Piaget's genetic epistemology 19651980. New York Academic Press. McShane, J. (1991). Cognitive development An information processing approach. Oxford, UK Blackwell.

Environmental Factors

Child-Rearing Practices, Family Sociability, and Attachment Styles. Research has examined the association of various child-rearing practices with the development of SAD. Two types of parenting styles that have been associated with SAD include low levels of warmth and high levels of control and overprotection. Some studies have found that adults with SAD rated their parents as less warm and more controlling than nonclinical controls. Similarly, some studies have reported that insecure attachment styles are related to increased risk of anxiety disorders. Family sociability is another environmental factor that may be related to the development of SAD. Research indicates that individuals with social anxiety recall their parents as being socially isolated and encouraging family isolation and limiting contact with others. Parents may also model fear responses when in social situations by providing and reinforcing avoidant responses, highlighting information about risk, and expressing doubt...

Implementing Treatment Dimensions of Family Therapy

The therapist also examines the family beliefs and myths about causality these usually have one or more of the following themes genetic influence (i.e., bad seed), vaguely defined biochemical imbalance, some supernatural influence (e.g., god, devil), influence of peers, or a bad parent (typically the one not present in therapy). These beliefs are typically associated with an assumed cure for example, if the assumed problem is peer influence, then new friends would alleviate the problem. Finally, part of the assessment includes appraising the development stage of the family. This includes considering the age of the children and their parent(s). Parents of a young child face a very different set of problems than do parents of a preadolescent, an adolescent, or a young adult living at home. At each stage of development, individuals within the family have expectations that influence their behavior. Collectively, these expectations influence the expression of the presenting problem. Each...

Just for Moms and Dads Being There for Your Adult Daughter

Parents have a hard time dealing with an adult child's chronic illness. If your child has endometriosis, you may vacillate between an Oh, poor baby and a Just get over it attitude, with feelings of guilt for good measure. Parents can forget their children are still children and, unknowingly, cause hurt feelings. Believe it or not, even as adults, your children are looking for your approval on some level. 1 Remember that your child is an adult. This advice means that she has the right to make her own decisions (even if you know they're the wrong ones). 1 Keep your mouth shut when the occasion warrants it. When is that Every time you start to say, I think you should . . . when your child hasn't asked. 1 Remember that your child still cares about your opinion. If you think she's making huge mistakes in the way she's dealing with endometriosis, stay quiet unless the result is life threatening or she asks you what you think. When she does ask, be tactful. Talk to her like you talk to a...

Environmental Relationships

Small children are the least likely to observe good hygienic practices and are, predictably, the most often affected with diarrhea. This likely does not reflect greater susceptibility so much as greater exposure. When infants and small children share a dirt floor or yard with creatures such as dogs, poultry, and pigs, they tend to share their parasites as well. Young children in child-care facilities exchange many infections, diarrheal pathogens included.

Raising A Child Conceived With Donor Material

Of course, you must decide if you will explain your child's conception to him or her. And you'll also want to discuss your wishes with close family members and friends so that they will abide by your wishes. In the case of donor sperm, eggs, or embryos, you'll also need to decide if you want to explain this to your child. If you do decide to be open about the conception, consider how much information to share with the child. Some people choose to portray the donor in the same way as a biological parent who placed the child for adoption. Others explain that the donor was more of a helper who assisted in conception but has no further role. At some point, will the child be able to find out about the donor Should they meet and form a relationship Many agencies keep this information on file, and so it may become available to the child once he or she reaches age 18. Ideally, this type of information should be spelled out in your donor agreement prior to conception. At the very least, the...

Relative Status of Men and Women

In the Caribbean in general men enjoy higher social status in respect to the power to make economic and community decisions, and in their influence in religion, control of their sexuality, marriage choice, and divorce choice. Males are perceived as household heads despite the fact that women often make household decisions, raise children, and provide partial or total household economic support (Leo-Rhynie, 1997, p. 37). For the most part, West Indian American women enjoy greater social status than do their peers who remain in the Caribbean.

Developmental Asymmetry And Asynchronicity

In right-handed individuals and approximately 94 of left-handed individuals, the left cerebral cortex is specialized for language functions and sequential information processing, whereas the right hemisphere is specialized for spatial functions and wholistic or intuitive information processing. Just as children demonstrate growth spurts or uneven patterns of physical growth, the evolutionary functions of given brain areas tend to show asymmetric, nonlinear growth patterns in what some child development specialists have referred to as brain growth period-ization. A child may show delayed language production with accelerated motor skills and then demonstrate accelerated language growth corresponding to dominant hemisphere growth acceleration. The importance of this asymmetry and asynchronicity in pediatric neuropsychological assessment is obvious over-reaction to such false positive indices of abnormality leads to over-diagnosis of abnormality, whereas

Growth and Development of Children

Many children in developing country settings experience poor growth, in comparison to relatively healthy children from more developed countries. The prevalence of low height-for-age and weight-for-age indices among children under 5 years of age are used as indicators of poor living conditions, to which poor diet, poor environmental and social conditions, and higher exposure to infectious diseases contribute. Similar conditions can result in impaired neurobehavioral development and cognitive function, putting children in developing countries at further disadvantage. Evidence exists for a specific role of zinc in both of these aspects of child development. Table 4 provides a summary of countries in which improved growth or development in response to supplemental zinc has been clearly demonstrated.

Theories on the Cause of Homosexuality

Unlike these first three perspectives, experience-based developmental theory recognizes the potential role of biology and posits that biological factors code for childhood personality types and temperaments, which then are molded into gender roles. Once children develop gender roles, those who are different are seen as exotic and other. Lesbians develop from girls who fit masculine gender roles, and heterosexual women develop from girls who fit feminine gender roles. This theory is similar in many respects to the indirect biological model of homosexuality.

And Etiological Profile in Developing Countries

In tuberculous meningitis seizures can occur at any stage of the illness and about 10 of adults and 55 of children develop seizures in the acute phase of illness.25 Seizures can be the presenting feature in about 10 of patients with tuberculous meningitis.26 The cause of seizures is attributed to associated, inflammatory response of the brain, tuberculomas, vasculitis and associated infarcts, and metabolic disturbances.

Sex Segregation of Labor

Labor is strongly sex segregated everywhere, with males and females specializing in tasks congruent with their inherent interests, aptitudes, and training, and with practicalities such as distance from the settlement and compatibility with related tasks (Friedl, 1975 Murdock & Provost, 1973). The universality of sexual division of labor suggests that this arrangement has generally been advantageous. In all preliterate cultures the labor of husband and wife is complementary women perform most of the domestic tasks, including child care, cleaning, and cooking, and men specialize in work requiring strength, such as handling heavy and hard materials (C. R. Ember & Ember, 2001 van den Berghe, 1980). Women in many forager societies provide most of the calories by gathering plants, a reliable and preservable source of food, whereas men supply protein-rich game and fish. Of the 46 tasks analyzed in terms of which sex performed each in how many traditional cultures (Murdock, 1965), 36...

Esther Deblinger and Melissa K Runyon

Recent reviews of the treatment outcome literature in the area of CSA find that cognitive-behavioral models have the strongest empirical support for the effective treatment of PTSD and related difficulties in this population (Cohen, Berliner, & March, 2000 Saunders, Berliner, & Hanson, 2003). One such model manualized by Deblinger and Heflin (1996) conceptualizes the development, maintenance, and treatment of psychological difficulties of children who have suffered sexual abuse by integrating learning theory, particularly the influence of conditioning, modeling, and contingencies in the environment, with the importance of cognitive, affective, and physiological influences. This CBT model incorporates specific interventions that are designed to target the psychosocial processes that may be responsible for the maintenance and exacerbation of abuse-related difficulties long after the abuse has ended. These interventions include education about sexual abuse and healthy sexuality,...

Nurturant Supportive Affectionate Loving and Warm Parenting

Necessarily the same thing as caring about them. And contemporary scholarship frequently asserts that qualitative factors such as paternal warmth, support, or nurturance are more important for children's development than factors such as the simple amount of time fathers spend in child care (Cabrera, Tamis-LeMonda, & Bradley et al., 2000 Lamb, 1986, 1997, 2000 Lamb & Oppenheim, 1989 Lamb, Pleck, Charnov, & Levine, 1987 Pleck, 1997 Shulman & Collins, 1993).

Middle Age and Old Age

In terms of career development, older age begins in Hungary for both women and men by the time they have reached their mid-30s. At this time, most people find it extremely difficult to change career paths because of discriminatory hiring practices. At the same time, in her delineation of the Hungarian woman's life course, Toth (1994a) considers the period of child-rearing, late twenties through forties, as middle age. For most Hungarian women, this is also the most difficult time of their lives. Most are attempting to combine raising children, taking care of their home, working outside of the home, and possibly caring for older relatives (Toth, 1994a).

Hunger and Malnutrition in Lowincome Countries

Cultural beliefs and practices, a shift to a market economy, women's work, time allocation, cash income, child care, and dietary planning in specific ecological and economic settings have been studied. Anthropological research can help to predict or identify the nutritionally vulnerable within households and help others design more effective interventions. Messer (1997) compared ethnographic studies in India, Nepal, Madagascar, Mexico, and Peru for an analysis of intra-household allocation of food and health care. Her aim was to clarify the cultural, economic, and biological factors that contribute to discrimination or neglect based on gender and age within households. The studies included in the analysis indicated non-egalitarian allocation of food within the household. However, according to Messer, the data suggest that there is no intent to discriminate, but culturally prescribed rules may have a negative impact on nutritional outcome. Allocation rules seemed to mainly aim toward...

The Uses of Sexual Orientation Science

However, as they mature, children develop some degree of moral right to protection from parents' choices, even if those choices are well-meaning. Both ethics and the law recognize, for example, the rights of maturing adolescents to enroll in clinical trials and to refuse life-sustaining treatment when they are profoundly ill. That is, maturing adolescents are entitled to act in ways that protect their interests, even if their parents profoundly disagree with the choices made. This model can be extended to sexual orientation therapy as well if maturing adolescents are profoundly unhappy about their emerging sexual interests, they might well accede to their parents' wishes and seek therapy. If, however, adolescents are not unhappy about their emerging sexual identity,

New Contraceptive Technologies

Norplant suppresses ovulation, and changes the female physiology to discourage pregnancy. For women who choose this contraceptive technique, it offers 100 percent compliance and effectiveness without the need to attend to individual acts of intercourse or to daily medications. There are some side effects and contraindications for use, including the possibilities of weight gain, headaches, and a general feeling of malaise. Implantation and removal remain expensive in the United States, costing between 500 and 750 (Planned Parenthood).

Hormonal Theory Of Hunger

The German-born American physician and psychiatrist Karen Clementine Danielson Horney (1885-1952) was trained originally in the method of Freudian psychoanalysis theory but she broke away eventually from the standard Freudian orthodoxy over the issue of female sexuality. Where Freud emphasized the concepts of penis envy, jealousy of the male, libido theory, and feelings of genital inferiority as determinants in the psychology of women, Horney argued that lack of confidence and overemphasis on the love relationship are at the heart of feminine psychology. Horney retained many of the basic Freudian concepts and methods, such as free association, transference, repression, and resistance, but she - like other analysts (e.g., A. Adler, E. Fromm, and H. S. Sullivan) - stressed the importance of environmental and social factors in developing the personality. She also kept the Freudian doctrine of unconscious motivation and psychic determinism. Horney redefined...

Singlecell Fish Analysis

The overall experience of preimplantation FISH analysis currently involves more than 5000 clinical cycles, approximately half performed by FISH analysis of blastomeres and half by FISH analysis of PB1 and PB2, which resulted in hundreds of unaffected pregnancies and healthy children born at the present time. The follow-up confirmation studies of the preselected abnormal embryos, and the babies born following the procedure, demonstrated an acceptable accuracy of the FISH analysis. 3,17

Cognitive Style Models

Psychological types. Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press. Bieri, J. (1955). Cognitive complexity-simpli-city and predictive behaviors. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51, 263-268. Kagan, J., Moss, H., & Sigel, I. (1963). The psychological significance of styles of conceptualization. In J. Wright & J. Kagan (Eds.), Basic cognitive processes in children. Monograph of the Society for Research in Child Development. No. 28, 73-112. Bruner, J. (1964). The course of cognitive thought. American Psychologist, 19, 1-15.

Abortion as Birth Control

Abortion in the United States is legal and may be used as part of family planning. In this application it appears that parents mostly carry out their decision to terminate a pregnancy at the personal or family level, often dealing with unwanted pregnancies. Anti-abortion groups have marshaled forces to thwart the practice of abortion, and have made attempts to overthrow the Roe v. Wade decision. One highly visible group, the Center for Bio-Ethical Reform, denounces abortion as an act of genocide through its display of highly graphic posters. This action is countered by Pro-Choice advocates, and organizations such as Planned Parenthood maintain that safe, readily available abortions should be contained within a broad framework of family planning. Not surprisingly, there is little likelihood that the abortion controversy in the United States will be resolved in the near future.

Libby Kumin PhD Cccslp

Communication is an activity of daily living. Speech, language, and communication are best learned and practiced in daily life. But there are specialized methods for teaching children with Down syndrome to speak. Through a family-centered comprehensive speech and language treatment program, families are taught the tools that they need to help their child (Kumin et al., 1996) Families have many opportunities to observe their child's communication difficulties. Families can provide feedback relating to the child's interests and activities and can help prioritize the communication goals that will have maximum impact on the child's daily life. Speech and language treatment is only valuable if the skills learned carry over into reallife use, into the classroom, the home, and the community. Families, teachers, and friends can provide the support for the child to ensure that there is practice in real life. They can provide ongoing feedback so that the speech language pathologist knows...

Equivalence Principle

Piaget's cognitive stage development theory, and H. S. Sullivan's interpersonal stage development theory. The notion of stage in developmental theories refers to the more or less clearly defined ages at which new forms of behavior appear in response to new maturational and social variables. Erikson coined the term identity crisis and posited that development proceeds in eight consecutive stages, where the first four stages occur during infancy and childhood, the fifth stage occurs during adolescence, and the final three stages occur during adulthood up to old age. Each stage contributes to an individual's whole personality in an epigenetic sense (i.e., overall development unfolds via interaction with the environment), but different people may have different timetables for entering and progressive through each stage (cf., psychosocial moratorium - denotes a time-out from life during which a person may retain a fluid identity, such as young adults taking time out to travel...

Immune globulin and vaccines

Based on efficacy data derived from the large clinical trials in the USA, the vaccine is estimated to be 80 effective in children with leukemia. In other clinical trials, the vaccine was administered to healthy children in Japan and the USA. Healthy children require only a single immunization. Immunized children have been followed for several years over 90 of the vaccinees showed persistence of both cellular and humoral immune responses. Like the children with leukemia, however, a few healthy vaccinees with declining immunity have occasionally contracted breakthrough chickenpox following a community exposure.

Pervasive Developmental Disorders PDD

Another group of researchers 60 compared children with PDD-NOS, ADHD or other mental disorders and healthy controls according to their ability to recognize emotions and theory of mind (ToM). Children with PDD-NOS and with ADHD showed difficulties in emotion recognition and ToM in ways that could not be distinguished from one another. In contrast, children who exhibited behavioural disorders or depression did not show such difficulties and responded like healthy children. A distinction between the two groups of ADHD and PDD-NOS could only be made for second-order functioning in the ToM.

Public versus Private Control

All governments have some degree of involvement in healthcare because essentially all countries have a centrally funded agency that is concerned with public health issues. The proportion of healthcare expenditures spent on public health tends to be higher in low-income countries, although the level of effort varies greatly from country to country. Government involvement usually includes surveillance of communicable diseases and interventions to prevent or curtail epidemics. Some countries have more extensive government involvement through direct delivery of services (e.g., immunizations, well-child care, screening for developmental disabilities, and treatment of communicable diseases) and programs of health promotion. Public health efforts in the United States are fragmented but have begun to receive more attention as the costs of personal, disease-oriented healthcare and concerns about bioterrorism have increased.

Prevention of Infectious Diseases akd IVkasuics to Control luuu

In the Orient (China, India) they believed that if a person could sustain a mild form of an infection, it could protect him from dangerous diseases during epidemic outbursts. They protected themselves from smallpox by rubbing the content of smallpox lesions into the skin or ingested crusts (variolation), or put contaminated underwear of smallpox patients on healthy children, etc.

Criticisms Of Cbt With Children

The combination of cognitive and behavioral strategies has consistently been shown effective in treating childhood anxiety. Yet some CBT approaches have been paired with superior and more sustainable change than others. In recognizing the social elements that influence children's behavior (e.g., relationships with family members, peers, teachers), the efficacy of GCBT and FAM has received considerable attention in recent years. Because sociocultural support styles and family dynamics differ between cultural groups, the efficacy of these intervention formats requires closer scrutiny. It may be argued that diverse types of family closeness (i.e., closeness-caregiving and closeness-intrusiveness Green & Werner, 1996) can dramatically impact therapeutic outcomes. Whereas caregiving serves to support child development, intrusiveness is characteristic of psychological coercive control and may even promote specific fears (Elbedour, Shulman, & Kedem, 1997). As multicultural populations...

General Theory Of Behavior In

His search for a general theory of behavior, the American social behavioral scientist Richard D. Alexander (1975) offers the desideratum that such a future theory must correspond with current knowledge concerning evolutionary theory, and he suggests that a useful, predictive, and general theory of behavior is unlikely to be constructed by building upward toward greater complexity starting from the engram, the reflex, or some other simple theoretical unit of activity. Alexander describes several principal critical elements that may be included, eventually, in a general theory of behavior group-living (when individuals congregate, they increase the intensity and directness of competition for existing resources, including mates) sexual competition (sex-ratio selection is such that approximately equal numbers of adult males and females are produced in all human and primate societies, regardless of the proportion of either sex that goes mateless) incest avoidance (avoidance of close...

Repeating Polysyllables

Among the more difficult words at the end of the Schonell Word Recognition test (Schonell and Schonell, 1952) is the word preliminary. What I have found with dyslexic children and adults is that responses which I had not believed were relevant to the diagnosis suddenly 'hit me in the eye' as having a significance which I had hitherto not appreciated. In this particular case I do not know how many times I had given the later part of the Schonell Word Recognition test to my subjects before I realised that stumbles over the word preliminary might be of diagnostic relevance. From then on I made a point of trying to notice whether such stumbling occurred. In this connection I consulted with my colleague Gill Cotterell, who had been teaching children at the Word-Blind Centre in Coram's Fields (see Chapter 4), and asked her if she had encountered anything similar. She said she had, and told me of a boy who had said 'par cark' for car park. Soon afterwards Elaine and I were giving lessons to...

Characteristics of the organism and its antigens

Oligodendrocyte Nucleus Size

BKV excretion in urine is associated temporally with hemorrhagic cystitis which is a frequent complication in bone marrow transplant recipients, especially in those receiving allogeneic marrow. Ureteral stenosis, an uncommon late complication of renal transplantation, is associated with BKV infection. BKV was incriminated as the likely cause of a fatal tubulointerstitial nephritis in a child with a primary immunodeficiency disease. Nonfatal cases of cystitis in healthy children have been occasionally linked to BKV infection. BKV and JCV are reactivated in pregnancy but do no apparent harm to the women and are not transmitted to the fetus.

Batesons Vibratory Theory

Term behavior therapy originated in a 1953 report by O. Lindsley, B. F. Skinner, and H. Solomon that described their use of operant conditioning principles with psychotic patients. Later, A. Lazarus (1958) used the term in referring to J. Wolpe's application of the technique of reciprocal inhibition to neurotic patients, and H. Eysenck (1959) used behavior therapy to refer to the application of modern learning theory to neurotic patients' behavior. The early usage of the term behavior therapy was linked consistently to learning theory it was called conditioning therapy, also, which had as its goal the elimination of nonadaptive behavior and the initiation and strengthening of adaptive habits. L. Krasner (1971) asserts that 15 factors within psychology coalesced during the 1950s and 1960s to create and form the behavior therapy theoretical approach the concept of behaviorism in experimental psychology instrumental operant conditioning research the treatment procedure of reciprocal...

Directions For Anger Management Interventions With Youth

There is a general consensus that angry youth have parents who lack effective parenting skills and who evidence similar patterns of impulsive and aggressive responses to perceived provocations. Often there is an early use of extensive physical punishment and many aggressive youth have been victims of their parents' rage reactions. These youth develop in a home environment void of models of prosocial coping and with limited understanding of and communication about emotional expression. Their parents fail to use consistent and contingent reinforcement and the functional nature of escalating aggression sets in motion a process of

Dairy products and probiotics in childhood disease

Similarly, the intestinal microbiota of atopic children has been found to be different from non-atopic individuals. The bacterial cellular fatty acid profile in stools from atopic children was significantly different from the one in healthy children. These findings correlated with more clostridia and a lower content of bifidobacteria in the faeces of allergic individuals (Bjorksten et al., 2001 Kalliomaki et al., 2001a). This might be a strong indication of an interaction of the gut microbiota with the immune system influencing the onset of allergy and atopy.

International Population Control

Million in funding for birth control, maternal and child health care and HIV prevention from the United Nations Population Fund in 2002 (Rosenberg Planned Parenthood UNFPA Funding Act, 2003). The loss of U.S. funding has a grave impact on UNFPA programs and the people they serve. UNFPA estimated that the 34 million loss would lead to two million unwanted pregnancies, 800,000 induced abortions, 4,700 maternal deaths, and 77,000 infant and child deaths. Restoration of U.S. funding would also save lives through HIV prevention campaigns. The 34 million would provide one-third of the annual needs for mass HIV prevention information campaigns aimed at behavior change. It would also cover the cost of 13 per cent of the condoms needed worldwide to prevent sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. President Bush also reversed the U.S. position in support of the 1994 global agreement that affirmed the right of all couples and individuals to determine freely and responsibly the number and...

Persevering Through Infertility Treatments Together

The middle of infertility treatments isn't the time to remodel the bathroom, plan a cross-country move, or start a new business. Keep outside distractions to a minimum, and both of you will be in much better shape to deal with the stresses of parenthood in a few months (For more information on fertility issues, check out Fertility For Dummies by Jackie Meyers-Thompson and yours truly, Sharon Perkins Wiley .)

Gender Identity Disorders

There are no specific clinical or psychological tests to diagnose cross-gendered identities the diagnosis is made on the basis of the case presentation. Moreover, there are no pharmaceutical or surgical treatments for this condition. Generally, behavioral or psychosocial treatments are used to orient a person to a gender identity no hormonal or pharmacological treatments are known. Some studies have shown that cross-gender identification can be reduced in children through a variety of psychological and social interventions (Green). Advocates of treatment with children focus their interventions on helping children become content with their birth sex. They counsel, for example, that young children should be taught that sex is irreversible (Green and Blanchard, p. 1658).

Socialization of Boys and Girls

During infancy and early childhood, girls and boys are treated pretty much the same. Infants are breast-fed and held almost constantly, usually receiving much warmth and affectionate indulgence. When they are a few years old children begin helping their mothers with child-care and household tasks. Young girls and boys often play together with simple homemade toys and in games such as hide-and-seek and guessing riddles they may also forage for snack foods such as grasshoppers and fruits. By age 8 or 9, play is more often in same-sex groups. Girls stay closer to home, working for their mothers, while boys are freer to roam around with brothers and friends, a pattern that continues through adulthood. All children learn primarily by imitation and experience work appropriate to their gender all are trained to respect and obey anyone older than themselves, to practice emotional self-control, and to behave properly. Boys are encouraged to greater independence, while girls are expected to be...

Prolonged QT Syndrome

This is searched for more than any other etiology as a cause of syncope in young healthy children. In nearly all cases, the syndrome is inherited and is associated with deafness in about 75 percent of cases. Secondary, noncongenital cases result from anorexia, bulimia, or chronic ingestion of antidysrhythmic medications. Undiagnosed, untreated, or undertreated congenital prolonged QT syndrome results in a mortality rate in excess of 90 percent.

Gender Related Social Groups

Two main types of gender-related social groups exist in Bamileke society (1) kinship groups (2) nonkin associations. Kinship relations organize religious duties of men and women, inheritance of property and titles, and access to land. Bamileke practice a system of dual descent, recognizing each person's patrilineage and matrilineage and honoring ancestors from these two distinct lineages. At the center of each descent group are lines of heirs or heiresses who inherit the property, titles, and skull custodianship of their ascendants. Patrilineal descent determines village membership and the inheritance of titles, real estate, usufruct rights to land obtained from the paramount chief, and wives. Matrilineal descent determines the inheritance of titles, movable property, and moral and legal obligation to lineage members. Descendants' most profound religious duty is to venerate the skulls of their ancestors and ancestresses, offering food sacrifices, libations, and prayers to increase...

Language and Speech Abnormalities 1 Characteristics

It is the delay or regression of language, usually at approximately age 2, that first prompts parents to seek professional help. Although such delays are significant indicators of problems in child development, they are not specific to autism and are commonly found in many other childhood disorders (e.g., general language delay). By itself, language delay does not account for most of the features of the disorder but can be used as a metric for predicting developmental outcome. For example, several studies have shown that autistic children without speech by age 5 are much less likely to live independently later in life than

The role of carers in flavour learning by the child

The Department of Human Development and Family Studies at The Pennsylvania State University have shown another interesting consequence of bottle feeding on later food consumption (Fisher, Birch et al. 2000). In this case comparisons were made between toddlers which had either been breast fed or bottle fed earlier in life. One of the main conclusions of this work was that breast feeding in the first year showed benefits on food intake and feeding style which persisted into the toddler phase. However, a noteworthy aspect of this work was the conclusion that these benefits were indirectly derived from the mother-child relationship that developed during breast feeding and that this had more to do with the behaviour of the mother than the child those who breast fed their babies could not see how much milk they provided and they developed a relaxed attitude to the fact that their infant was getting enough to eat, the mothers who bottle fed their children were able to see how much the babies...

Efficacy Of Cbt With Aggressive Youth

The efficacy of CBT interventions may vary depending on factors such as the specific components addressed (presence or absence of self-monitoring), number of therapy sessions, and child age. Children of older age (11-13 years), for example, and with greater cognitive ability have been shown to benefit more from CBT than younger (5-7 years), less cognitively developed children. In addition, a greater degree of dysfunction present in the child (e.g., higher number of conduct disorder symptoms), in the parent (higher parenting stress and depression scores, or adverse child-rearing practices), and in the family (more dysfunctional family environment) have all been associated with a poorer response to treatment (Nock, 2003).

Efficacy Of Cognitivebehavioral Therapy With Aggressive Youth

The efficacy of CBT interventions may vary depending on factors such as the specific components addressed (presence or absence of self-monitoring), number of therapy sessions, and child age. Children of older age (11-13 years), for example, and with greater cognitive ability have been shown to benefit more from CBT than younger (5-7 years), less cognitively developed children. In addition, a greater degree of dysfunction present in the child (e.g., higher number of conduct disorder symptoms), in the parent (higher parenting stress and depression scores, or adverse child rearing practices), and in the family (more dysfunctional family environment) have all been associated with a poorer response to treatment (Nock, 2003).

Everyday Feeding problems

Nutrient needs that are easily met in healthy children may be more difficult to achieve if children are offered, or accept, only a limited variety of foods or have poor appetites because of illness. Vegetarian diets for young children can provide adequate nutrition but some nutritional knowledge is advisable for those managing children on such diets. Plant proteins do not individually contain all the amino acids so mixing of protein sources is important for the provision of the amino acids needed for optimal nutrition and growth. Provided breast-feeding continues, or children take significant amounts of other milk or formula (cows' milk-based or soy-based infant formulas or, after 1 year, neat cows' milk), amino acid requirements can be met from milk or formula and little other protein is needed from plant or animal sources.

Nutrition and Health in the Urban World

Social determinants related to poverty in urban communities and households constitute the underlying reasons for impaired growth and poorer anthropometric indices. Discrepancies in women's status, that is their social and economic power relative to men in the same households and societies, has a profound influence on the status of their children and the risk of the latter to suffer stunting and wasting. Greater equality between the sexes generally results in overall improved prenatal, obstetrical, and child care, better complementary feeding and treatment of illness, and higher immunization rates. Urban settings would generally tend to foster less traditional social views and provide women with more options for self-realization. Moreover, campaigns and programs for empowering women through education and entry into the work-force would be logistically easier to maintain in towns and cities. Hence, both the better general nutritional status of children in cities may be a consequence of...

Parental Investment Theory

Trivers (1943- ) introduced the notion of parental investment into the field of ethology, and defined the concept as any contribution that a parent makes towards an offspring, and which tends to increase that individual offspring's chances of survival and reproduction at the expense of the parent's ability to contribute to other offspring, including the production of sex cells, and the feeding and guarding protection of the young (cf., parental imperative hypothesis - holds that biological and cultural factors cause humans to suppress certain behaviors and traits during parenthood where - when the demands of parenthood end - the suppressed characteristics and behaviors may appear for example, many marriages may disintegrate where the parents couples tend to return to earlier modes of behavior when their children leave home and the parents become empty-nesters, or when mid-life crises surface in the parents). Parental investment theory suggests that in...

Elizabeth A Gosch and Aaron Pollock

A number of cognitive and behavioral models of depression have influenced treatment approaches with children. Most notably, Beck's model of depression emphasizes that mal-adaptive schemas cause negative distortions in perceiving and processing information that lead to depressive symptoms. Negative cognitions about the self, world, and future (the cognitive triad) characterize and maintain depressive symptoms. Also influential, the learned helplessness hopelessness model (Abramson, Metalksy, & Alloy, 1989) posits that individuals who attribute the cause of negative events to internal, stable, and global causes while attributing the cause of positive events to external, unstable, and specific causes are at risk for depression. Thus, cognitive interventions are frequently geared toward helping children modify maladap-tive cognitive processes (self-talk, beliefs, attributions) through affective education, collaborative empiricism, behavioral experiments, cognitive restructuring...

Essential Math In A Capsule

In my upcoming book, Teaching Math to Children with Down Syndrome, I explain how to teach children with DS essential math to meet their individual needs. For this chapter, I am providing you with the sequence that I recommend for teaching this essential math. The secret (which I wish wasn't such a secret) is to provide a use for the skills she has. It is through the useful practice that she will maintain math skills and grow. And, as the need arises, additional concepts, such as fractions, place value, and decimals, can be taught. You have a long time to teach her the math she needs at each stage of her life. When there is a need and your child does not have the ability to meet that need, provide her with accommodations a means to compensate. Even rocket scientists have been known to have accountants to complete their income tax.

Gender and Religion

Many revivalists practice a popular form of healing known as balm, which is usually performed by an older woman referred to as a Mother, who offers divinations, baths, herbs, candles, incense, and prayers to cure spiritual afflictions. Therefore healing is associated with women, and the healing relationship is modeled on the mother-child relationship. In contrast, obeah, the practice of sorcery, is always practiced by men, as is Science, the use of magic for good fortune (Wedenoja, 1989).