How To Get Rid Of Termites

Oplan Termites

Oplan Termites

You Might Start Missing Your Termites After Kickin'em Out. After All, They Have Been Your Roommates For Quite A While. Enraged With How The Termites Have Eaten Up Your Antique Furniture? Can't Wait To Have Them Exterminated Completely From The Face Of The Earth? Fret Not. We Will Tell You How To Get Rid Of Them From Your House At Least. If Not From The Face The Earth.

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Termite Extermination Information

Termites create great damage to your home, which is why you should identify and eliminate them as quickly as they appear. This eBook Oplan Termites teaches you how to solve your termite problem once and for all. Learn how to identify termites, find out if your house is really infested, and eradicate them. Discover Some Of The Most Effective And Time-Proven Methods To Get Rid Of Termites! Learn Some Mean Ways To Really Get Rid Of These Pests From Every Nook And Corner Of Your Home.

Termite Extermination Information Summary

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Novel Strategies for Biopesticide

Approach that takes advantage of the biological nature of entomopathogenic fungi is the lure and infect approach, best demonstrated by research on Z. radicans for control of diamondback moth. Furlong et al. (1995) have shown that using pheromone lures to attract moths to traps containing sporulating Z. radicans can result in contamination and spread of the fungus through the target population. Such an approach has been investigated for use with scarab beetles in the Azores (Klein and Lacey 1999). Autodissemination of entomopathogenic fungi for control of Popillia japonica in the Azores used a trapping system of commercially available attractants with M. anisopliae. The viability of conidia in traps after 6 days was found to be about 35 , but the basic process was successful for introducing fungi into pest populations. Another approach has been bait stations, such as those used with termites (Rath 2000). The entomopathogenic fungus is placed in a trap together with a food-based bait,...

Improvement Of Nutritional Environment For Invertebrates

Ingested enzymes, from the fungus, also play an important role in the digestion of plant litter in siricid wood wasp, fungus-growing termite and fungus-growing ant mutualisms (Martin, 1992). Cellulose and hemicellulose are digested during passage through the alimentary tract, predominantly the midgut of Sirex spp. larvae, and by the termite and attine ant workers. These acquired enzymes survive gut passage and, in the case of the ants and termites, are concentrated in the faecal droplet which is deposited on fresh plant material (Martin, 1992 Ronhede et al., 2004). This prepares plant material for fungal colonization and increases the initial growth. Basidiomycota also render palatable wood and leaf litter that is initially repellent or unpalatable to invertebrates due to the presence of allelopathic compounds. Again there are well-documented examples for termites (see references in Swift and Boddy, 1984). There are several examples of trees whose central heartwood is resistant to...

Mouth Structure Dentition And Gastrointestinal Morphology

Mouth structure and dentition tend to be specialized to accommodate efficient capture and consumption of particular types of prey. Classical carnivores, such as lions and tigers, have well-developed incisors and carnassial teeth that facilitate effective grasping of terrestrial vertebrate prey and shearing of flesh. Simple pointed teeth for grasping and holding fish prior to swallowing are found in pinnipeds such as dolphins. The tusks of walruses are used to dislodge crustaceans from their underwater locations. Small insectivores, such as shrews, have teeth with cusped surfaces that efficiently grasp the rigid exoskeletons of insect prey. Dentition is much reduced in carnivores that consume colonial insects, such as anteaters, which have a long manipulable tongue used to catch and ingest ants and termites from tunnels and cavities. Whales that consume zooplankton have baleen rather than teeth platelike structures that project downward from either side of the upper interior mouth...

Gastrointestinal Morphology And Metabolic Adaptations

The animal and plant foods consumed by omnivores appear to be associated with gastrointestinal structures that are generally more complex than those of carnivores, although not as complex as the compartmentalized gastrointestinal tract of the herbivore. 4 Omnivores tend to have a simple stomach, a small intestine of moderate length, and a cecum and or colon with a structural configuration allowing some digesta retention, accommodating modest fiber digestion by microorganisms. This arrangement is found in a number of omnivores, including the domestic pig, African warthog, African bush pig, bandicoots, sugar gliders, American opossums, lorises, some lemurs, many New World monkeys, and humans. The chimpanzee, with a gastrointestinal tract similar to that of humans except for more distinct colonic haustrations, is generally considered herbivorous but has been observed hunting and eating termites, small monkeys, and duikers. The omnivorous raccoon and American black bear do not have a...

Novel Contrasts in Biological Samples

In VPSEM GSEI of various poorly or nonconductive samples, a novel contrast relating to charge behavior in the sample, termed charge contrast imaging (CCI), has been observed (16). The contrasts relate to lattice-scale properties of the sample that affects charge transfer and electron emission in the near-surface region of the sample. The CCI images have been found to relate closely to CL imaging in many material samples. In some instances, the sample data evident by CCI is unique (17). Additional novel GSEI contrasts have been observed. One example is the patterning seen on a termite leg that evidences either a thin secretion or bacterial presence (see Fig. 8). The contrast in this example appears similar to those seen and discussed for fluid mixtures, for example, oil-water emulsions (18). These novel contrasts are seen in GSEI under specific operating conditions that relate to the sample and instrument. CCI is dynamic and they are visible only within a 'window' of operating...

Variable Pressure Vpsem Applications Robust Samples

A gaseous secondary electron image of an as-collected termite leg. The dark patterning is thought to be a coating or a secretion. The contrast revealing its presence is a result by variable charge behavior on the surface (charge contrast). Fig. 8. A gaseous secondary electron image of an as-collected termite leg. The dark patterning is thought to be a coating or a secretion. The contrast revealing its presence is a result by variable charge behavior on the surface (charge contrast).

Plantmicrobe interactions

Although straying away slightly from the remit of this section, it is interesting to point out that soil microbial activity has a major influence in the balance of stable atmospheric gases. These include the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, nitrous and nitric oxide and methane, so called because they trap heat re-emitted by earth from energy radiated by the sun. The atmospheric balance of less stable gases which include ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and dimethylsulphide are also subject to microbial activity, as will be apparent from an understanding of the foregoing chapters on metabolism. A final word on soil microbes concerns the degradation of lignin. This is a major constituent of woody plant material and is recalcitrant to degradation. However, filamentous fungi are responsible for its degradation worldwide, augmented in the tropics by bacteria living in the gut of termites. This degradation requires the presence of oxygen, hence wood residing in anaerobic conditions is somewhat...

Nutrient Requirements Carnivores

Most amphibians appear to be obligate carnivores. 13 Adult frogs and toads consume invertebrates and small vertebrates, although most species are herbivorous as larvae (tadpoles) and have a long, coiled intestine permitting them to digest plant matter. At metamorphosis, the intestine is much shortened and the diet becomes strictly carnivorous. Tadpoles of a few species are carnivorous and have a much shorter gut than do herbivorous tadpoles. Salamanders and newts are carnivorous both as larvae and as adults, feeding on insects, slugs, snails, and worms. Caecilians (limbless, viviparous amphibians) prey on worms, termites, and orthopterans. Metabolic features characteristic of carnivory have not been well studied in amphibians.

Effects On Invertebrate Behaviour

Effects on termites are particularly well documented (see references in Swift and Boddy, 1984 Su, 2005). Mycelium of brown-rot fungi (Chapter 2), wood decomposed by them and extractives from such wood are often attractive to termites, and VOCs can stimulate termites to eat more sound wood and build more galleries. White-rot fungi and white-rotted wood are often unattractive and even toxic to termites, though P. ostreatus was attractive. White-rot fungal mycelia are, however, attractive to other arthropods. For example, fungus gnats (Bradysia Sciaridae) are highly attracted to and oviposit in interaction zones of mating incompatible mycelia of Stereum spp. and Phlebia spp. (Boddy et al., 1983 Figure 2a). Collembola are also attracted to and preferentially graze in interaction zones between mycelia growing from woody resources into soil (Figure 2b). These regions are presumably more palatable and leak nutrients, and VOCs are upregulated (Hynes et al., 2007). Sciarids and phorids...

Communicating about Risk Menace and Safety

Risk fills a particular cultural niche in contemporary society. Anthropologists have long said that non-Western cultures explain misfortune partly through magic and witchcraft. Anthropologist E. E. Evans-Pritchard wrote in his classic book Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande that his African village informants were perfectly capable of explaining that a raised granary collapsed because termites had eaten through the supports (Evans-Pritchard 1937). But witchcraft explained why that particular granary collapsed just when that particular individual was seated underneath it enjoying the shade. A contemporary social anthropologist suggests that the concept of risk plays an equivalent role in post-industrial Western cultures where control over one's life has become increasingly viewed as important, the concept of 'risk' is now widely used to explain deviations from the norm, misfortune and frightening events (Lupton 1999 3).

Natural Dietary Habits

Carnivores derive most or all of their energy and nutrient needs from consumption of animal tissues, either by predation or scavenging. 1 We are most likely to associate carnivory with predators such as lions, tigers, and leopards, which feed primarily on terrestrial animals. However, carnivores that are specialized to feed on aquatic vertebrates (fish) and invertebrates (squid), such as dolphins, have been called piscivores. 2 Those that feed on aquatic invertebrates of limited mobility (crustaceans and clams), such as walruses, have been called crustacivores. 2 Carnivores that feed primarily on colonial insects (ants and termites), such as anteaters or pangolins, might be called myrmecivores. Those that feed on noncolonial insects or arachnids, such as tarsiers and shrews, have been called insectivores. 2 Those that feed on zooplankton, such as baleen whales, have been called plaktoni-vores. 2 Bats in the family Phyllostomatidae are adapted for feeding on the blood of warm-blooded...

Saprotrophs of Attached and Fallen Wood and Litter

Saprotrophic fungi are the principle decomposers of nonliving plant and animal detritus in the natural environment, thus recycling chemical elements back to the environment in a form other organisms may utilize. Filamentous fungi usually dominate wood and litter decomposing communities, but under particular ecological circumstances, for e.g., for wood in tropical ecosystems termites may predominate, and under waterlogged conditions bacteria may prevail (Rayner and Boddy 1988). Other wood and litter residents may include yeasts, bacteria, Myxomycetes and invertebrates such as Insecta, Oligochaeta, Acaria, and Nematoda. These may influence fungal community dynamics and consequently affect overall decay rates, either via direct interaction, such as antibiosis or grazing of fungal mycelium or spores, or by indirect interaction through impact on the abiotic environment (Dighton 1997 Rayner and Boddy 1988). Thus, invertebrate activity can increase the exposed surface area for decay...

Invertebrate Effects On Fungal Community Structure

The mutualism between Macrotermitinae and Termitomyces species, in which the former cultivate the latter within their nests, is even more dramatic. Termitomyces species are poor competitors and are rapidly over-run if the termites abandon the nest, but are maintained in the fungus comb in active nests in more or less pure culture, despite continual inoculation with other fungi on plant material collected by the termites (Wood and Thomas, 1989 Shinzato et al., 2005). Passage through worker guts reduces germination of non-mutualistic symbiont spores, oral secretions are fungistatic, and nest microclimate (30 C and elevated CO2) is optimal for the fungal symbiont. There also seems to be genetic screening of Termitomyces strains, either directly via active selection by the termite or indirectly by intra-specific competition on the fungus comb, as evidenced by identical fungal molecular sequences in multiple samples from four different nests of species that have horizontal symbiont...

Microbial associations with animals

Termites are insects belonging to the order Isoptera that are found particularly in tropical regions. Their famous ability to destroy trees and wooden structures such as buildings and furniture is due to a resident population of flagellated protozoans in their hindgut, which are able to break down cellulose. Termites lack the enzymes necessary to do this, and would thus starve to death if the protozoans were not present. In return, they are able to provide the anaerobic conditions required by the protozoans to ferment the cellulose to acetate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The acetate is then utilised as a carbon source by the termites themselves. In addition to the protozoans, anaerobic bacteria resident in the hindgut also play an important role in the metabolism of the termites. Acetogenic and methanogenic species compete for the carbon dioxide and hydrogen produced by the protozoans. The former contribute more acetate for the termite to use, whilst the latter produce significant...

Interaction Of Living Things With The Environment

It is not only chemical changes that are wrought, but also physical ones, from the temperature of Earth to the form of our landscape. The temperature of Earth's surface is strongly affected by plants' ability to remove carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that prevents radiation of heat energy from Earth into space. Bacteria in the gut of termites have been found to be responsible for the release of methane gas, another greenhouse gas, into our atmosphere. Trees, grasses, and other plants reduce soil erosion, affecting the shape of the landscape.

Effect Of Microbes On Human Health

Higher organisms evolved in a microbial world. From the perspective of microorganisms, plants and animals represent another environment to colonize. Thus, it is not surprising that humans, as well as other animals and plants, have a diverse community of microbes living on and in them. Some of these passengers are normal, beneficial, or even necessary (e.g., rhizobia in some plants cellulose degraders in animals such as termites and ruminants), whereas others are abnormal, harmful, or even fatal.

People and Animals

Of rituals with social significance, possession of individuality as opposed to an exclusively communal identity, awareness of death, converting nature to culture by building structures, creation of art, altruism, and the use of language. However, exceptions to these criteria have been convincingly demonstrated. Examples of tool use are Galapagos finches who use cactus spines to probe for insects and sea otters who use rocks to open abalones and obtain meat. Jane Goodall found that chimpanzees* actually make tools with which to obtain termites, using premeditation and planning. Termite fishing is an acquired skill passed on as part of cultural learning from older to younger individuals. Japanese macaques also have learned food washing as a behavior invented by one individual and taught to others. Wolves and chimpanzees perform rituals with social consequences. Individualized behavior has now been documented among many species, including birds, who previously were held to be automatons...

Arthropods

Arthropods Crabs Respiratory System

Isoptera (termites) flies (order Diptera) have only one pair, and female ants and termites have wings only at certain times. Lice and fleas have no wings. The head of an insect usually has two large compound eyes and one pair of antennas. Most insects eat plants, although parasitic insects are common. Some are predators on other insects or animals. Fleas feed on the blood of mammals. Many wasps lay their eggs in or on spiders, centipedes, or other insects, on which the larvae feed after hatching. Many predatory insects benefit humans by attacking crop pests. Many larvae and beetles eat dead animals.

Litter Decomposers

However, in African savanna termites, notably Macrotermes michaelseni, consume a high proportion of grass litter (Dangerfield and Schuurman, 2000). These eu-social insects cultivate lignolytic basidiomycete mutualists belonging to the genus Termitomyces in conspicuous nests, providing the fungus combs with partially digested faecal material and consuming the resulting hyphae (Chapter 9).

Zoo Animals

Encouragement of natural hunting and foraging behaviors to obtain food is a common method of enrichment. Whole dead chickens from which cats pluck the feathers is thought to decrease fur pulling. Hanging meat from the ceiling or from tall poles is used in cat exhibits, and food is often hidden in exhibits. Polar bears and cats are provided with live fish to catch. Live insects are fed to several species of animals. Meerkats at the Minnesota Zoo are provided with bug puzzles that the meerkat must roll around in just such a way as to have the bugs fall out. Elephants at the Honolulu Zoo are provided with beer barrels containing treats that require the elephant to shake the treats out. Several zoos provide chimps with artificial termite mounds. The mound can contain insects or treats such as applesauce or pie fillings that the chimps can reach with a stick through a hole in the mound.