Introduction

Exposure to occupational and environmental airborne contaminants is a major contributor to human health problems. The inhalation of gases, vapors, solid and liquid aerosols, and also mixtures of these, can cause a wide range of adverse health effects, ranging from simple irritation to systemic diseases [1—4]. Despite significant achievements in the risk assessment of chemicals, the toxicological database, particularly for airborne contaminants, remains limited. Therefore, as a part of preventive strategies that can assist in reducing the effects of toxic chemicals, it is critical to develop new alternative approaches that are both informative and time-/cost-efficient to identify the potential hazards of airborne chemicals.

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