Subject Index

A549 cell lines 26 A549-pulmonary type II 115 absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) 15, 108, 275 acellularization 10 acute cytotoxicity 116 acute oral toxicity 106 adenoviral vectored HIV vaccines 166

adenoviral vectors 156 adenovirus type 5 182 adenoviruses 156, 181

- E1 region 181

- E1B 55k 181 adherent cells 57

ADME see absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination ADME-testing 275 adult stem cells 18, 215 aerosols 105 agonistic activities 134 AIDS 158, 190 ff. air pollution 115 airborne contaminants 103 ff.

- dust 104

- fiber 104

- fume 104

- inhalation 103

- mist 104

- smoke 104

- toxicology 106 ff.

- vapor 104

airborne formaldehyde 112 air-liquid interface 114 alginate 4 ff., 13 alphaviruses 156 alternative methods 244 ALVAC-HIV vaccines 165 alveolar tissue models 22 ff. alveolar type I and type II cells 22 alveoli 23 ALX 40-4C 191, 194 Ames' test 256 animal models 115 animal studies 191, 255 animal test replacement 263 animal testing 205, 208

- Alzheimer's disease 205

- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) 205

- autoimmune encephalomyelitis 205

- cancer 205

- multiple sclerosis (MS) 208

- neurodegeneration 205 animal toxicology studies 106 antibody maturation 69 antigen presentation 156 antigen-presenting cells (APC) 66,

160 ff.

antiviral drug screening 189 APC see antigen-presenting cells apoptosis 145, 181

- activation 145

- caspase-3 145

- mitochondrial membrane potential 145

- nuclear condensation 145 ARF 181

arrest M0 181 artificial blood vessels 62 ff. artificial immune system 65 ff. artificial lymph model 66 artificial organoids 168 assay quality 134 f. astrocyte attachment 37 astrocytic cell lines 33 ff. astrocytic projections 32 ff. astrocytes 28 ff. atmospheric aerosols 112 automated fluorescence microscopy 146

avian influenzy virus 27 b bacteriophage T7 promoter 194 BAL see bioartificial liver basal lamina 26 batch consistency 156 batch process 59 ff. BBB see blood-brain barrier B-cell activation 68 B-cell vaccination 158 Bcl2 181

BfR see Federal Institute for Risk

Assessment bioadhesiveness 20 bioartificial liver (BAL) 15 ff bioassays 116 bioavailability 221 biochips 81 ff. biocompatibility 12 biocompatible materials 82 biodegradability 4 ff., 20 biohazards 234 biohybrid system 88 biohydrid technology 80

bioimpedance 86

- spectroscopy 81 bioinformatics 220 biological endpoints 109

- cell adhesion 109

- cell metabolism 109

- cell morphology 109

- cell proliferation 109

- cell viability 109

- membrane leakage 109 biological pharmaceuticals 54 biologics 271

biomarker signatures 208 ff. biomechanical factors 63 bioreactors 19, 55, 57 ff., 59, 63, 69, 273, 277

- circulation loop 57

- control strategies 59

- disposable 70

- drug screening 69

- fixed-bed 57

- fluidized-bed 57

- high aspect ratio vessel 19

- microcarrier cultures 55

- multipurpose 59

- organ support devices 19

- oxygen supply 63

- parameters 277

- process strategies 59

- rotating wall vessel 19, 59

- slow-turning lateral vessel 19

- tissue penetration dephth 63 biosensor 142 f.

- arrays 96 biotransformation 110 blastocytes 215 blood oxygenation 105 blood vessels, acellularized 10 blood-brain barrier (BBB) 28 ff.

- co-cultures 35

- extracellular matrix 29

- hemodynamic forces 38 ff.

- human in-vitro models 37

- hypertension 38

- impedance spectroscopy 89

- monocultures 35

- neurovascular physiological unit 28

- permeability 32

- pharmacological models 37

- porcine models 37

- shear stress 38

- three-cell type 35 brain parenchyma 32 brefeldin A 162 bronchial tissue 22 bubbling test 112

Ca-chelators 138 Caco-2 179 Ca-imaging 218 CAMP 138 canarypox 155 capillaries 274 cardiac myocytes 17 ff. cardiac tissue engineering 16 ff. cardiac tissue repair 17 cardiac valve engineering 20 cardiomyocyte-based sensor 94 ff.

cardiomyocytes 94 CAT reporter genes 192 CCA see cytokine capture assay CCR5 receptors 193 CD107a 164 CD4 receptors 193 f CD4+ T-cells 158 CDKN2A 181 cell banks 241

- ATCC 232

- cell cultural collection 232

- Coriell Institute 232

- DSMZ 232

- ECACC 232

- ICLC 232

- JCRB 232

- quality control regimes 241

- validation 232

cell-based assays 239, 243, 281 ff.

- bioelectronic 81

- guidelines for validation 243

- light-emitting 81

- quality 239

- reproducibility 239 cell-based biosensors 80 cell-based sensors 88 ff. cell-based therapy 53 cell culture 237

- conditions 237

- differentiation state 237

- identity 237

- validity 237

- vitality 237

cell culture device 273 cell culture models 259 cell culture system 277

- design of 277

- parameters 277

- process development 277 cell cycle control 181

- arrest M0 181

- CDKN2A 181

- E2F transcription factor 181 -phosphorylation of Rb 181

- progression 181 G1 181

- p53-pathway 181

- P16 INK4a 181

- Rb-pathway 181 cell density 131 f. cell expansion 55

cell lines 115, 129 f., 133, 146, 155, 179, 182, 188

- A549-pulmonary type II 115

- authenticity 232 ff.

- baby hamster kidney (BHK) 130

- chinese hamster ovary (CHO) 130, 188

- COS cells 130

- cross-contamination 232 ff.

- gepatoma BC2 179

- hamster kidney 188

- hazards 243

- HEK293 130, 182

- HepG2 179

- HepG2-hepatoma 115

- human 232

- Jurkat 192

- microbial contamination 238

- NIH-3T3 cells 130

- Ntera2 179

- quality control regimes 240

- recombinant 129

- stable target-expressing 129

- 3T3-L1 adipocytes 133

- u937 cells 146

- validation 232

- Vero cells 240 cell storage 133 cellular assays 146, 192

- fetal bovine serum 192

- human serum 192 cellular autofluorescence 141 cellular bioinformatics 147 cellular dieletric spectroscopy 85 cellular fusion assay 191 cellular immune mechanisms

158 ff. cellular network 68 cellular resistance 88 ff. cellular screening assays 134 ff cellular target 137 centrosome cycle 184 cerebral microvascular endothelium 28 ff.

cerebral milieu 32 channelopathies 91 chear stress 19 chemical diversity 210 chicken embryo fibroblasts 155 chicken HS4 insulator 186 chitosan 13

chromosomal abnormality 239 chronic toxicity 244

chronotropic compounds 94 CMV see cytomegalovirus coatings 82

- attractant 82

- repellent 82 co-expression 185

COLIPA see European Cormetics,

Toiletry and Perfumery Association collagen 4 ff., 13 colon 274

conductive polymers 5

- polyacetylene 5

- polyaniline (PANi) 5

- poly(para-phenylene vinylene) 5

- polypyrrole (PPy) 5

- polythiophene 5 conductivity 20 Contergan 215 continuous cultivation 59 control materials 232

CPCRs see protein-coupled receptors Cre 186 Cre/loxP 184 CTL response 159 CTL see cytotoxic CD8+ T-lympho-cytes culture media 131 culture systems 57 ff. cyclin-dependent kinases 181 ff. cyncitia formation 194 cystic fibrosis 27 cytochrome P-450 15, 178, 256 cytokine capture assay (CCA) 162 ff. cytokine secretion 162 cytomegalovirus (CMV) 160 cytopathic effect 189, 193 cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocytes (CTL) 158 ff., 163 f.

- chromium release assay 163 -flow cytometric assay 164

- Lysispot assay 163 cytotoxicity 163

- assays 112

- testing 107

3D in-vitro models 26 3D in-vitro tissues 88 3D microenvironment 54 3D tissue cultures 63 DCs see dendritic cells deacetylation of histones 186 dedifferentiation 57 dendritic cells (DCs) 66 dengue virus 155 designed host cells 190 designed-cell-based systems 191 designer cell lines 183, 188

- avian 188

- human 188 designer cells 185 f. detoxification 11 developmental restriction 215 developmental tocicity 208 diabetic patients 264 dielectric behavior 85 ff. differentiation 215, 237, 273 diffusion chamber system 115 diffusion gradients 18 dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DRP-2) 221 dispersions (a, P, y) 85 distal airways 21 divisional asymmetry 273 ff DNA methylation 186 DNA repair control 184 DNA replicons 156 donated human tissue 233 ff. Draize eye test 257 DRP-2 see dihydropyrimidinase-

related protein 2 drug development 264, 271, 275 drug discovery 88, 107, 127, 136,

142, 177, 275 drug-induced arrays 96 drug-metabolizing systems 255 drug screening conferences 96, 184, 281

drug targets 143, 144 ff.

- CPCRs 143

- kinases 143

- primary human cells 144 drug testing conferences 281 dynamic range 135

E2F transcription factor 181 EBV see Epstein-Barr virus ECIS see electric cell-substrate impedance sensing ECM see extracellular matrix ectoderm germ layers 215 ECVAM see European Centre for the Validation of Laternative Methods edge effect 132 efficacy 153, 218 elastin 4 ff.

electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) 86

- apoptosis 86

- barrier function 86

- cell attachment 86

- cell-substrate interaction 86

- chemotaxis 86

- sensitivity 87

- signal transduction 86 electrical resistance 28 electrogenic cells 93 electrospinning 7 ff. embryoid bodies 215 embryonal environment 277 embryonic stem cells (ESC) 18,

- differrentiations 208

- human 206

- murine 206 embryonic tissue 182 embryotoxicity 215, 217 ff., 244 EMEA see European Agency for the

Evaluation of Medical Products emphysema 27 endocrine disruptors 214 endocrine homeostasis 214 endoderm germ layers 215 endothelial cell lines 33 ff.

- transendothelial electrical resistance 33

endothelial cells 18, 87, 180 endothelial differentiation 182 endothelial juctions 28 endpoints 259

environmental asymmetry 273 ff. enzyme-linked immunospot assay 160

- IFN-Y 160 epigenetic events 219 epigenomic phenomena 188 epithelial cell lines 26 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) 160 ESC see embryonic stem cells European Agency for the Evaluation of Medical Products (EMEA) 97 European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) 110, 208, 232, 244, 251 European Cosmetics, Toiletry and

Perfumery Association (COLIPA) European Network of Research

Tissue Banks 235 European Pharmacopoeia 244 expansion in-vitro 278 experimental animal numbers 256 f.

experimental animals 252 ff.

- developing alternatives 252

- EU Directive 86/EEC 252

- legal framework 252 exposure 106

- long-term repeated studies 106

- short-term studies 106

- single 106 exposure chambers 115 exposure technique 111

- direct methods 111 ff.

- indirect methods 111 ff. expression level 188 extracellular matrix (ECM) 3, 6, 22 extracorporeal liver device 57

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