Natural Ways to Treat Toothache

Dentists Be Damned

This eBook teaches you all the remedies and tricks that you need to know to Never visit the dentist again, and still have the most perfect mouth full of the teeth that you know of. This book contains a toothache remedy that will treat the root of the problem, how to restore your gums to full health, a supplement that makes plaque fall off your teeth in no time, and a solution that can stop cavities Forever. This book doesn't just teach you how to get rid of some pain, it teaches you how to Eliminate the source of pain once and for all. After taking to heart the information in this book, trips to the dentist will become a thing of the past. Alice Barnes has taken her 15 years of tooth research and compiled it all in this eBook for you. And when you order, you get two free eBooks! You will also receive How to Prevent and Cure Canker Sores, and How to Get Rid of Bad Breath. All of these resources will keep you OUT of dentists' offices as long as you live! More here...

Dentists Be Damned Summary


4.7 stars out of 14 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Alice Barnes
Official Website:
Price: $47.00

Access Now

My Dentists Be Damned Review

Highly Recommended

This e-book comes with the great features it has and offers you a totally simple steps explaining everything in detail with a very understandable language for all those who are interested.

I personally recommend to buy this ebook. The quality is excellent and for this low price and 100% Money back guarantee, you have nothing to lose.

Caries Causing Bacteria

6 months of age) and continues throughout life. There is evidence to suggest that the initial colonization of a baby's teeth with cariogenic bacteria may arise by infection from the mother's mouth. The common practice of sampling the food in a baby's dish, to check that it is not too hot, using the same spoon that is to be used to feed the baby may be a particularly effective way of transferring bacteria from carer to baby. Brushing the teeth with a toothbrush will remove part, but not all, of this film and its accompanying bacterial population. Many of the bacteria present are harmless, but a number of species are capable both of metabolically converting carbohydrates to acids (acidogenic bacteria) and of continuing to be metabolically active when the local pH has become too acid for most bacteria to tolerate. It is these bacteria that cause caries.

Experimental Models of the Caries Process

Because direct manipulation of the caries process in human subjects is impossible for ethical reasons, a number of techniques have been developed that provide insights without risking clinical damage to the teeth of experimental subjects. Much of the earlier work relied on measurements of the change in plaque pH that followed a single consumption episode of a food or drink containing a source of fermentable carbohydrate. This approach provides an indication of the potential cariogenic challenge of these exposures and addresses the fundamental question of whether pH falls to a level that is expected to give rise to demineralization of the tooth enamel. Plaque pH measurements have thus been used to assess whether a food or drink may be considered safe for teeth. But this technique does not provide any information on the influence of the repair processes that follow exposure to a demineralizing challenge. These models have provided useful information not only on the relative cariogenic...

Protection from and Prevention of Dental Caries

These factors may provide a reasonable explanation for many of the differences in caries experience observed between individuals and populations and between different locations within an individual's dentition. They do not explain the dramatic reduction in caries prevalence seen throughout the developed world in the last 30 years. There is no doubt that this improvement has been caused by the introduction of fluoride toothpaste.

Practical Approach to the Prevention of Caries

The success of fluoridated toothpaste in preventing dental caries has resulted in a change in professional approaches to prevention. Instead of focusing simply on attempts to reverse the main causative factors, attention is now centered on exploiting protective influences. The interaction of the three main causative factors is illustrated in Figure 1. Numerous attempts to change the impact of any of these influences on caries have proved ineffective, except, perhaps, under the most extreme situations, such as during war time. Figure 2 A new model to explain and guide caries prevention. The local factors - insufficient use of fluorides, insufficient oral hygiene, and protection from saliva - form a 'window of risk' through which the circle of cariogenic food (shown dashed) can be seen in the background. (A) In this example it is clear that it would be impossible to reduce the food circle to such an extent that the window is not completely filled (less caries risk). (B) If oral hygiene...

National Trends in Caries Prevalence

Data on the prevalence of dental caries within populations are nowadays very reliable as they are collected to internationally recognized standards. Surveys of 12-year-old children are carried out in most countries, and the data are collated by the World Health Organization (see Table 1). In contrast, data for adults are scarcer. The general picture emerging from the repetition of these national surveys is clear. In many countries the prevalence of caries is falling, often dramatically. In poorer countries this is unlikely to be the case, and, even within the richest countries, the dental-health experience of the economically disadvantaged Table 1 Prevalence of caries by region the table shows the mean number of teeth with decay experience in 12-year-old children

Other Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of Caries

The influence of other factors that might be expected to have a bearing on caries experience has proved difficult to establish for practical reasons. These include the susceptibility of particular sites within the dentition or in an individual's mouth and local salivary flow rates. Both of these factors are known to be strongly influenced by genetic inheritance. The morphology of the teeth and, especially, the depth and shape of the fissures on the surfaces of the molar teeth are strongly heritable. It is generally difficult to predict, in advance of caries developing, which sites will be particularly susceptible. But one successful preven-tative approach has been to identify children with deep fissures in their molar teeth at an early age and offer prophylactic treatment in the form of sealants. This addresses the most common site of early childhood caries (the molars) and targets those children most at risk because of unfavorable tooth morphology. The rate of salivary flow, both at...

The role of dairy products in preventing dental caries

An individual's dietary and social patterns are major contributors to one's oral health. The quality of life can be greatly impacted as a result of poor oral health leaving a negative impact on self-esteem, eating ability, and social functioning (Moynihan, 2005). Several oral diseases can be linked back to poor nutrition, and as teeth deteriorate the conditions are exacerbated. Studies (Johansson et al., 1994, Norlen et al., 1993) have shown edentulous individuals are more apt to have inadequate dietary intake (high carbohydrate, high fat, low nutrient density foods) than dentate individuals. Sugars, specifically sucrose, are recognized as being a major contributor to dental caries' etiology. Other social factors such as alcohol and tobacco use, drug abuse, poor hygiene, and poor nutrition are also cited as being major contributory factors to oral diseases. Saliva secretions supersaturated with calcium phosphate continually moisturize the tooth surface. Saliva serves as a reservoir of...

Immunodeficiencies and oral health

Response are prone to develop oral thrush, C. albicans infection of the oral mucosa. Boys with a deficiency of the CD40 ligand are unable to develop leukocytosis in response to a bacterial infection, and many develop neutropenia, resulting in severe local gingival infections by oral bacteria. Passive administration of granulocyte-macrophage cell-stimulating factor reverses the neutropenia and alleviates the dentogingival infections. Hereditary angioneurotic edema due to a lack of the complement component, CI inhibitor, manifest oral symptoms characterized by the swelling of oral tissues, especially the lips. As described above, deficiencies in the number or function of PMNs are associated with oral bacterial infection of the gingival crevicular area and rapid loss of tooth supporting tissues. The loss or significant decrease in saliva flow in Sjogren's syndrome or after glandular damage from radiotherapy results in rampant dental caries, increased severity of periodontal disease,...

Etiology of Caries

The causes of dental caries and factors influencing their formation have been the subject of research for more than 100 years. The importance of oral bacteria was discovered well before the specific influence of sugars derived from the diet became known in around 1950. While the protective effect of fluoride has also been known for more than 50 years, the mechanism of this effect is still a subject of debate. Different approaches have been used to try to understand the caries process. Experimental studies have either induced clinically apparent caries or attempted to model the early stages of caries. Ethical limitations on studies that might cause caries in humans and increasing resistance to animal experimentation have stimulated a great deal of imaginative recent work with laboratory modelling. Direct studies of caries induction are rarely conducted nowadays. But, in the past, important evidence in this field has come from experiments in which caries were induced in laboratory...

Dental Caries

Sucrose, glucose, lactose, and fructose are excellent substrates for the first step of caries formation, which involves bacterial fermentation. This process results in acidification and subsequent demineralization of the tooth surface, allowing bacterial invasion. The more substrate there is available, the more fermentation and subsequent enamel invasion. In spite of that clear relational pathway, the precise contribution of sucrose intake to dental caries is not simple. Several experts consider that dental hygiene is a more powerful determinant of cavity prevalence than sucrose intake. For example, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) from the US showed no correlation between sucrose intake and dental caries in people under the age of 25 years, who were born after widespread use of fluoride. Conversely, the association is found in older people, before fluorida-tion was common. In studies in the UK, the correlation between socioeconomic status and...

Species Associated with Intraoral Diseases

Actinomyces spp. are early colonizers of various niches within the oral cavity. Species commensal in the mouth include A. israelii, A. gerencseriae, Actinomyces odonto-lyticus, Actinomyces meyeri, Actinomyces naeslundii viscosus, Actinomyces georgiae and, probably, Actinomy-ces graevenitzii. Some members of the genus, particularly those of the A. naeslundii viscosus complex, are known to coaggregate with other bacteria and adhere to mammalian cells by means of fimbriae. Consequently, they play an important role in development of dental plaque. However, despite numerous studies, their roles in the highly complex processes of dental caries and periodontal diseases remain somewhat controversial. The recently described species Actinomyces radicidentis has been isolated, so far, only from infected root canals.

Molecular Detection from Clinical Material

Extensive studies designed to detect both cultivable and noncultivable bacteria, including novel taxa, have utilized PCR with all-bacterial or selective primers, followed by cloning in Escherichia coli and sequencing of clones. Together with checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization for selected taxa, this method has been used to determine species identity for the investigation of bacterial diversity in subgingival plaque 5 and tongue dorsa 6 and species associated with childhood caries. Among the large numbers of novel phylotypes detected in these studies, several Actinomyces spp.-like clones were recognized. A. naeslundii and A. naeslundii-like clones and A. gerencseriae were detected in cases of refractory periodontitis and in healthy subjects. A. israelii and A. georgiae were detected in healthy subjects and A. odontolyticus was associated with refractory peri-odontitis. In the study of childhood caries, it was concluded that A. gerencseriae and other Actinomyces spp. may play an...

Dental Paleopathology

Caries (cavities) is very much a disease of civilization but has probably always been associated with humans and is found in wild apes as well. Caries have been noted in Australopithecines, Homo erectus, and Neanderthals. Neolithic populations show caries in 2-10 of all teeth. For the Roman period and the middle ages the figure is slightly higher, 5-14 , but with the increase in the use of more refined sugars and flours in the diet over the past 1,000 years the incidence has risen to the modern figure of 50-90 . Caries has an inverse relationship with dental attrition, tooth wear, which has decreased since antiquity. The diet in ancient times contained much grit, as flour or meal was made by grinding wheat or corn on stone slabs.

Fermentable Carbohydrate

Clearly, the wide range of individual dietary choices and eating habits may influence the risk of developing caries. The physical characteristics of fermentable carbohydrates will affect the rate at which they are cleared from specific sites in the dentition. Foods that are inclined to remain for long periods in stagnation sites (for example, between the teeth), such as toffees or raisins, are likely to give rise to a greater local fall in pH than are those that are rapidly cleared, such as chocolate. Clearance rates are also influenced by the increase in salivary flow that is stimulated by eating or drinking. When salivary flow is greater, for example after consuming a strongly flavored food, clearance will be faster and demineralization is likely to be less than that after consuming a bland food.

Studies of Risk Factors

A large number of observational epidemiological studies have been conducted that have attempted to show associations between caries experience and one, or several, of the known risk factors. The large majority of these studies have been of poor design, examining insufficient numbers of subjects and ignoring important confounding influences. Many have been cross-sectional in design and have sought to draw conclusions about the causes of caries by assessing the dietary and other habits of subjects at the same time as measuring their caries experience. Such a study design is somewhat unsatisfactory for this purpose. The few longitudinal studies in the scientific literature are equally weakened by poor data on dietary habits and, in some cases, idiosyncrasies in caries assessments. Taken together, these studies provide scant evidence about the relative importance of the different etiological factors. It is fortunate that more convincing evidence is available from experimental studies.

Other Health Professions

Bioethics education in health professions other than medicine and nursing takes place both in professional schools and in continuing-education settings. The group to which other health professions refers is so diverse that no generalizations embrace all of the professions equally. Some major groups include therapists (e.g., occupational, recreational, respiratory, physical), technologists (e.g., radiologic, medical laboratory), physician assistants, pharmacists, dietitians, dentists, and medical social workers. This entry emphasizes major common themes that have emerged in the content and pedagogy of their educational offerings it also describes common factors that have led to the introduction of bioethics teaching in these fields.

What We Do Not Know Longitudinal Cohort Studies

Currently, much is unknown about the long-term effects of contragender hormonal treatment. In light of recent studies on increased breast cancer risk in non-transgendered females due to hormone replacement therapy, it is critical that longitudinal studies are undertaken in the transgender community. Questions of increased risk of breast cancer in MTF transsexuals remain open, as do questions of breast cancer in the FTM transsexual community. Questions of the effect of estrogen on bone mass in this population are also important and go unanswered, as do questions of the effect of estrogen on oral health and the potential to affect cardiovascular problems. Only recently have studies begun to address the issues of excessive smoking in this population. Little is known about the effects of replacing estrogen with testosterone in FTM

Phylum Firmicutes The low GC Grampositive bacteria

Pathogenic species of Streptococcus include S. pyogenes ('strep' sore throat, as well as the more serious rheumatic fever), S. pneumoniae (pneumococcal pneumonia) and S. mutans (tooth decay). Cells of Streptococcus exist mostly in chains, but in S. pneu-moniae they are characteristically paired.

Organized Dentistry and Ethics

Ultimately, the content of a profession's obligations is the product of a dialogue between the profession and the larger community that entrusts the profession and its members with a high degree of autonomy in practice, including the power of self-regulation. In the case of dentistry this dialogue is often subtle and informal. Codes of ethics formulated by professional organizations such as the American Dental Association's Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct (American Dental Association, 2002) play an important role in articulating the most fundamental principles of dentistry's professional ethics within American society. However, such codes, like state dental-practice acts, can never articulate more than a small part of the content of a practicing profession's ethics. It therefore is incumbent on both individual dentists and organized groups of dentists to monitor this ongoing dialogue continuously and offer representative statements of its content as they are...

Dentistry in the Twenty First Century

Dentists deeply committed to preventive healthcare for the whole community lobbied successfully during the twentieth century for the fluoridation of water supplies. As a consequence most twenty-first-century dentists' patients will need much less restorative work to remedy the effects of caries than their predecessors' patients did. In these circumstances how will dentists maintain their practices fiscally and still remain true to their fundamental ethical commitments For many patients and dentists the answer has been an increasing interest in aesthetic dentistry. However, there is a risk here. Too strong a shift in the focus of dental care in this direction could bring about a significant change in the community's view of dentistry, seeing it much more as a taste-driven commercial enterprise and much less as an expertise-grounded, value-based health profession. The second success story concerns the tremendous advances made in dental research in recent decades. For example, the ways...

Issues and Themes in Dental Ethics

The specific requirements of a dentist's ethical commitments in any aspect of professional practice depend on the specific facts and circumstances of the situation. However, the principal categories of dentists' professional obligations can be surveyed under nine headings 6. What is the ideal relationship between dentists and coprofessionals 7. What is the ideal relationship between dentists, both individually and collectively, and the larger community THE CHIEF CLIENT. For every profession there is a person or set of persons whose well-being the profession and its members are committed to serving. The patient in the dental chair is the most obvious chief client of a dentist, but dentists also have professional obligations to the patients in the waiting room and all their patients of record, to patients who present with emergency needs, and arguably to the entire larger community, especially in matters of public health. The relative weight of a dentist's obligations to each of these...

Immunemediated oral disease

Although PMNs are essential for oral health, periodontitis does occur in individuals with normal PMN function, indicating that there are numerous immune mechanisms involved in the protection or destruction of the oral tissues. A significant number of middle-aged adults develop adult chronic periodontitis, a chronic inflammation of the gingival tissues that varies from site to site in its progression and can eventually cause extensive loss of tooth-sup-port tissues. All the components required to initiate and maintain the immunopathologic processes involved in hypersensitivities types II, III and IV are present at some time during the progression of this disease. During the entire inflammatory response, PMNs are migrating from the vascular system into the gingival fluid and eventually into the oral cavity. Consequently, both PMNs and mononuclear immune cells have the opportunity to contribute biologically active agents which promote inflammation or tissue destruction at the disease...

Clinical Features

The history should examine recent prodromal events (e.g., insect bites, trauma), allergen exposure, chronic dental caries, painful mastication, previous treatments with radiation, or silicone injections. The presence of dental or cosmetic appliances, nasal discharge, or vision changes should be ascertained. Systemic signs of infection should be excluded, such as fever and vomiting. A thorough head and neck exam is required. Occult infection, with extension from other head and neck structures, should be excluded.

Gender Roles in Economics

As stated above, the traditional division of labor required men to work in occupations outside the home and women to carry out all work inside the home. In working-class families who migrated from Taiwan, women had to become wage laborers to make ends meet and save for the educational expenses of their children. In contrast, in many first-generation Taiwanese American middle-class families women do work mostly at home, take care of their children's upbringing, and are actively involved in community organizations. However, the few firstgeneration Taiwanese American women who were educated in the United States usually work in professional occupations comparable in pay and status to men after their children have entered middle school. Like men they work as doctors, dentists, engineers, computer analysts, and economic advisors. In addition, many initial home-makers, especially women whose husbands have returned to work in East Asia, work part-time jobs in the service sector of the ethnic...

Postapproval Maintenance

Another mechanism to uncover new adverse events is MedWatch. This is a voluntary reporting system established by the FDA whereby the general public can report serious adverse events, although most of the reports are received from health care providers such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists. MedWatch reports should only be submitted for serious adverse reactions. Serious adverse events are defined with the following criteria 1, death (if an adverse event from the drug resulted in a patient's death) 2, life-threatening (if a patient was at risk of death at the time of the adverse event) 3, hospitalization (the adverse event requires a patient to be hospitalized or an existing hospitalization to be prolonged) 4, disability (if an adverse reaction results in a persistent or significant disability incapacity) and 5, birth defects (a congenital anomaly birth defect).

Virtual Reality in Medical Education and Surgical Intervention

Three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of anatomy is yet another VR application. With 3-D visualization, not only is the surgeon able to visualize the intended procedure more accurately, but the technology is able to scale, rotate, reposition, overlap, and reconstruct images that have been previously scanned and stored digitally into specialized equipment such as a Picture Archiving Communication System (PACS). Oyama and others (1997) report that 3-D visualization offers new breakthroughs for cancer research, diagnosis, and treatment. For example, VR software enables estimates of cancer invasion to surrounding organs based on virtual cancer images of individual patients. The software can be used to help explain procedures and findings to cancer patients in order to obtain their informed consent. 3-D visualization can also be combined with other VR techniques to simulate complicated surgeries. Satava (1995a) notes that in difficult brain tumor operations, for example, MRI scans of the...

Chronic Vesiculoulcerative Disease

Graft-versus-host disease occurs in up to 50 percent of allogeneic bone marrow transplants despite HLA matching and immunosuppressive therapy. In graft-versus-host disease, the transplanted bone marrow cells recognize the host as foreign, and transplanted hematopoetic cells attack the host. Systemic manifestations of the disease vary by the severity of disease, organ system affected, and acute versus chronic disease. Oral manifestations include lesions in a fine white papular pattern, interlacing white striae in a lichenoid or reticular pattern, and a desquamative pattern occurring commonly on the tongue and labial and buccal mucosa. Posttransplant ulcerations related to the induced neutropenic state occur in the first 2 weeks. Ulcerations that persist longer must be attributed to graft-versus-host disease. Xerostomia and a burning oral sensation are common. The oral lesions and xerostomia as a result of chronic graft-versus-host disease may persist for years. An increased incidence...

Secondary Causes of Headache

SINUSITIS Infection of the sinuses may result facial pain or headache. Maxillary sinusitis, by far the commonest type, causes pain over the anterior aspect of the face, rather than headache. Involvement of other sinuses can cause headache frontal sinusitis over the forehead, ethmoid sinusitis behind and between the eyes, and sphenoid sinusitis a diffuse headache. The headache frequently varies with head position. Symptoms predictive of sinusitis include colored nasal discharge, maxillary toothache, and poor response to decongestants, while reliable signs include purulent nasal discharge and abnormal transillumination (not easy to do properly in the ED). Regardless of plain sinus x-ray findings, patients with four or more of the abovementioned features have a very high likelihood of sinusitis, while those with fewer than two features are very unlikely to have sinusitis.

Oral diseases and cariogenicity

Hydroxyapatite Ca10 Po4

Oral refers to the mouth, and includes the teeth and gums (gingival) and their supporting tissues, the hard and soft palate, the mucosal lining of the mouth and throat, the lips, salivary glands, chewing muscles, and upper and lower jaw bones. Digestion begins in the oral cavity, and there are numerous supporting structures for the mouth including the nervous, vascular, and immune systems. Humans contract oral diseases for a number of reasons including genetics, poor hygiene, poor nutrition, alcohol and tobacco use, drug abuse (Shaner et al., 2006), and complications from other diseases such as diabetes (Sandberg et al., 2000, Twetman et al., 2002), cancer (Woo et al., 1993), obesity (Ritchie and Kinane, 2003), and osteoporosis (Norlen et al., 1993). Oral infections themselves may play a role in progressing pathogenesis of many systemic diseases in healthy individuals, ill patients, and those immunocompromised (Ridker et al., 1998). The theory is that oral infections, specifically...

Toddler 18 to 36 Months

PHYSICAL ASPECTS Decelerating growth rate and decreased appetite are seen during this period, although the head approaches its adult size. The 20 primary teeth are in place by 36 months, and dental caries are common. High center of gravity, mobility, and curiosity lead to increasing risk for head and orthopedic injuries. A toddler's open growth plates are far more likely to sustain epiphyseal fracture than ligamentous injury. Traction injuries to the arm will frequently result in subluxation of the annular ligament of the radial head (i.e., nursemaid's elbow ).

Applications of germfree animals Surgical application

The use of germ-free animals and the principles of gnotobiology have provided much information concerning the origin of caries and periodontal disease. The flora in these animal models can be modified, giving information about the cause of both diseases. Also, treatment and prevention can be studied with the help of gnotobiotic animal models.

Classes of Carbohydrates

The popular notion is that dental caries is due to sucrose consumption. However, the etiology of dental caries is much more complex and multifactorial in nature, involving the susceptible teeth of the host, presence of viable microorganisms, lack of fluoride exposure, poor oral hygiene, and duration of time of exposure to media for the bacteria.

Folklore and Evidence Fact or Fiction Totality of the Evidence

'An apple a day keeps the doctor away' prevents cavities and tooth decay Relieves toothache mild laxative Causes tooth decay causes hyperactivity eating too much causes diabetes and heart disease Is natural and will not raise blood-sugar levels a mix of honey and water is a good cure for colic Causes acne eating chocolate helps to prevent heart disease

Occupational Risks And Exposures

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimates that approximately 5.6 million workers are at risk for contact with blood and other body fluids during the performance of their work duties.2 Of these, 4.4 million health care workers are at risk of exposure to potentially infectious materials. OSHA defines health care workers to include nurses, physicians, dentists and dental workers, laboratory and blood bank technologists, medical examiners, phlebotomists, ED personnel, intensive care and operating room technicians, orderlies, housekeeping personnel, and laundry workers. OSHA defines an additional 1.2 million non-health care workers also at risk for infectious exposure to include those in law enforcement fire, rescue, and emergency medical services correctional facilities research laboratories and the funeral industry.

Pharmacological Uses and Toxicity of Vitamin B6 Supplements

Supplements have also been used empirically, with little or no rational basis, and little or no evidence of efficacy, in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including acute alcohol intoxication, atopic dermatitis, autism, carpal tunnel syndrome, dental caries, diabetic neuropathy, Down's syndrome, Huntington's chorea, schizophrenia, and steroid-dependent asthma.

Trace Elements Copper Selenium Chromium Fluoride Manganese and Molybdenum

For fluoride, there is no evidence that increasing the AI in pregnancy above that for the nonpregnant woman would benefit fetal tooth or bone content or afford protection against later tooth decay in the child. The UL is set at 10 mg day to avoid fluorosis (discoloration of tooth enamel, joint pain, and skeletal abnormalities).

Food and health applications of probiotics translational aspects

Ninety-five percent of the general population has dental caries or periodontal disease (Caglar, 2005). Controlling these diseases has not been highly successful despite preventative therapies such as fluoride and vaccines against oral pathogenic bacteria. Probiotics are now being explored as a treatment option for alleviation or prevention of dental diseases. Streptococcus mutans is a lactic acid bacterium that has long been recognized as a principal agent in dental caries. However, the presence of S. mutans is not sufficient to result in caries, indicating the involvement of other factors in cariogenesis. Dental diseases may result due to changes in the complex microbiota present in the oral cavity. Replacement therapy or bacteriotherapy occurs when a pathogenic strain is replaced by a nonpathogenic strain (Caglar, 2005). Bacteriotherapy for S. mutans has resulted in human clinical trials with S. mutans BCS3-L1. This strain was modified to eliminate cariogenicity, promote...

Health Effects of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates and Dental Caries The quantity and frequency of sugars in the diet play a significant role in the development of dental caries. Their digestion by salivary amylase provides an acid environment for the growth of bacteria in the mouth, thus increasing the rate of plaque formation. Sucrose is the most cariogenic of the sugars, followed by glucose, fructose, and maltose. The milk sugars (lactose and galactose) are considerably less cariogenic. There is no epidemiological evidence to support a cariogenic role of polysaccharide foods with no added sugars. Dental caries is a multifaceted disease, affected not only by the frequency and type of sugar consumed, but also by oral hygiene and fluoride supplementation and use. Despite the increase in sugar consumption, the incidence of dental caries has decreased worldwide because of the increased use of fluoride and improvement in oral hygiene.

Post Colonial Medicine

Divination spirit mediums medical doctors who include traditional medicine in their practices a wide variety of dentists, optometrists, and surgeons who use traditional medical techniques and medicines and entrepreneurs who sell manufactured and prepared traditional medicines. Practitioners of traditional medicine are often referred to simply as dukun, even though with more frequency there are those who prefer other terms such as the currently popular paranormal.

Where Are the Whole Grains

Intense sweeteners are also called non-nutritive sweeteners, because they are so much sweeter than sugar that the small amounts needed to sweeten foods contribute virtually no calories to the foods. These sweeteners also do not promote tooth decay. Currently, four such intense sweeteners are available, both for use in processed foods and for home consumption. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set acceptable daily intakes (ADI) for these sweeteners. The ADI is the amount that can be consumed daily over a lifetime without risk.

Medication Related Soft Tissue Abnormalities

Many other medications are known to cause abnormalities of the oral mucosa or dental structures. Allergic mucositis, erythema multiforme, and fixed drug type reactions are examples. Xerostomia and associated mucosal alterations are a side effect of many medications such as anticholinergics, antidepressants, and antihistamines.1 Tetracycline taken systemically during tooth formation results in a characteristic gray-brown discloration of the dental enamel. Systemic flouride ingestion, although significantly reducing caries rates, in higher than the recommended 1 ppm may result in significant enamel defects called flourosis. Flourosis is dose-dependent and is primarily an aesthetic concern, with the most common abnormality being lusterless, opaque white discolored areas on the teeth.

ENT and Dental Surgery

In the main, dental surgery in children is restricted to simple exodontia. Historically the main indication was caries but with improvements in dental hygiene and fluoridation of water the reason has changed but the procedure has not. Currently children lose teeth not because of caries but because of crowding within the mouth. Until the conclusions of the Poswillow report (Poswillow 1990) were applied, this procedure tended to be carried out in general dental surgeries with little or no monitoring equipment and minimal facilities. The report concluded that whenever and wherever dental anaesthesia were carried out the equipment and monitoring should be to the same standard as in the best equipped hospital operating theatres. Consequently, dental extraction under general anaesthesia is now carried out in very few practices, all of which are licensed and carry the full range of monitoring and resuscitation equipment.

Differential Diagnosis

Other diagnoses to consider include nasal polyp or foreign body. While a foreign object or polyp may cause purulent rhinorrhea, a physical exam localizing either can exclude sinusitis as the primary etiology of the discharge. Dental pain is usually localized to a single tooth, exquisitely sensitive to percussion, with little other symptoms to support the diagnosis of sinusitis. Likewise, temporomandibular syndrome may result in facial pain, but it is usually localized to the region of the

Health Maintenance And Disease Prevention

Dental Caries The incidence of dental caries is influenced by a number of factors (1). Foods containing sugars and starch may be easily hydrolyzed by -amylase and bacteria in the mouth, which can increase the risk of caries as a result of excess production of organic acids. Starches with a high glycemic index produce more pronounced changes in plaque pH than low glycemic index starch, especially when combined with sugars. However, the impact of carbohydrates on caries is dependent on the food, frequency of consumption, degree of oral hygiene performed, availability of fluoride, salivary function, and genetic factors.

Susceptible Sites

Dental caries are more likely to occur at stagnation sites between teeth or in the fissures of molar teeth. Plaque will accumulate in these sites, where it is less likely to be disturbed by tooth brushing. At the same time, the protective buffering of saliva and the remi-neralization that arises from its mineral content are attenuated by the inaccessibility of such sites, while food debris is retained for longer periods. The reduction of salivary flow during sleep makes food debris remaining in these sites at night particularly damaging to the teeth.


The observation that tooth decay was less common in communities whose water supplies naturally contained low concentrations of fluoride led to the introduction of appropriate concentrations of fluoride into many public water supplies that did not naturally contain it. The prevalence of dental caries appeared to fall by between 20 and 50 as a result of this simple public-health measure. There have been many thorough studies of the general health of populations receiving fluoridated water, which have found no credible evidence of adverse affects, except in a few areas where the fluoride content of the water is naturally very much higher than the level used for caries prevention. Despite vocal opposition to what is seen by Even greater improvements in dental health have followed the introduction of fluoridated toothpastes. The benefits seen at the population level from this innovation have been far greater than those predicted by the controlled clinical trials that preceded the...

Fluoride Toothpaste

The effect, at a population level, of the introduction and widespread availability of fluoride toothpaste is clear. Figure 3 shows the falls in caries incidence in 5-year-old and 12-year-old children in the UK seen in successive national representative surveys. A similar picture has been seen in Denmark (Figure 4). Fluoride toothpaste was introduced onto the UK market in around 1976 and rapidly became universal. The falls


Attempts to attribute the recent changes in caries prevalence to improvements in dietary habits have been unconvincing. Apart from the difficulty in determining what people are eating and drinking with any accuracy, data on when food and drink have been consumed are needed to assess the overriding dietary influence of frequency of exposure of the teeth to fermentable carbohydrate. These data are rarely collected in surveys and are then of uncertain reliability. All dietary surveys are seriously hampered by the unreliability of the subjective reporting of dietary habits by those surveyed. The use of nationally aggregated data (such as food-supply data) is hardly more useful, since a large proportion (up to 50 ) of the food available for consumption is never actually eaten. Nonetheless, some experts have pointed to changes in caries prevalence following dramatic changes in food supply as evidence of the practical utility of dietary

Nutritional Findings

What both laxative abuse and vomiting have in common is the depletion of fluid, leading to dehydration and electrolyte disturbances, particularly hypokalemia (low potassium). In some cases, hypo-glycemia may develop as a response to fasting or binge eating and vomiting. In extreme cases, death may occur through cardiac arrest or gastrointestinal complications, such as oesophageal or gastric rupture. Vomiting also leads to erosion of dental enamel, resulting in periodontal disease and an increased incidence of dental caries. Other effects of bulimia nervosa include menstrual irregularities, swelling of the salivary glands secondary to vomiting, and reflex constipation, which occurs as a consequence of laxative abuse and dehydration. Laxative abuse has also been found to cause stea-torrhea and protein-losing enteropathy in some cases.


The control of saliva may be impaired in children with severe spastic quadriplegia. Poor head control and oromotor deficits are the cause. With the head held flexed or to the side, there may be pooling of oral secretions in the anterior portion of the oral cavity. If bolus formation is not initiated, these secretions will spill over the lips and onto the face and body. Although primarily thought of as a social or cosmetic issue, drooling may lead to skin problems such as chapping on the face. Families and physicians have used a variety of techniques to stem the drooling when it persists in childhood and is perceived as a problem. As a side effect, some common medications are noted to decrease secretions. These drugs, including scopolamine, atropine, imipramine, trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride (Artane), glycopyrrolate (Robinal), benztropine mesylate (Cogentin), and antihistamines, have been used with limited success. 3 Side effects of these medications, toxicity (if the family should...

Cfr 10174

Coronary heart disease Dental caries Full claim ''Frequent between-meal consumption of foods high in sugars and starches promotes tooth decay. The sugar alcohols in name of food do not promote tooth decay.'' Shortened claim (on small packages only) ''Does not promote tooth decay.''

Otitis Externa

DIAGNOSIS The hardest part of the diagnosis is to distinguish between OE and otitis media. Ideally, clinical inspection of the TM with a pneumatic otoscope helps establish the diagnosis however, the TM of a child with OE may be as red and distorted as that of a child with otitis media, although mobility of the TM is normal or slightly decreased in OE. In addition, visualization of the TM may be difficult because of edema of the canal in OE. Tympanometry can be helpful if the canal is clear and a tight seal for the earpiece can be formed without too much discomfort. Parotitis, periauricular adenitis, mastoiditis, dental pain, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction should be considered when the discomfort is poorly localized and the ear canal and TM appear normal. In addition, pain can be referred from pharyngitis or tonsillitis, but such pain is often made worse by swallowing or eating. Foreign bodies in the ear can also cause OE. 21


Occupational dystonia is a term used to describe patients with dystonic muscle contractions that result in employment disability. Occupations most often associated with these disorders are associated with chronic, stereotyped movements of the hands and fingers. Typists, stenographers, musicians, blackjack dealers, dentists, and surgeons have been reported to have this condition. Similar sports-related dystonias have also been reported in trapshooters, dartsmen, and golfers. The sudden jerklike movement of the extensor muscles of the lead forearm, while moving the club toward the ball when putting, is, in golfer's terminology, the yips.


Used for thousands of years for medicinal purposes and to flavor and preserve food through pickling, vinegar is the result of a natural process, the invasion of an alcoholic drink with air-breathing bacteria that turn it to acetic acid. In fact, the English word vinegar is derived from French vin aigre, meaning sour wine. There was no shortage of sour wine in the Middle Ages, when most wine was drunk young because it did not keep well. The same was true with beer, which also served as the basis for vinegar. Medieval cookbooks sometimes ask for wine or vinegar, beer or vinegar, and watered vinegar. For the lower classes vinegar was the universal seasoning that was widely available and cheap, but aristocratic cooks also used it for sauces, stuffings, and fish, for instance. As a cool and dry foodstuff it was recommended to be eaten in the summer and in warm regions. It was good for fighting toothache, for cooling the body, quenching the thirst, stopping the flow of blood, treating burns...

Ethical Dilemmas

Because dentists rarely make life-or-death decisions, some people are unaware that the professional obligations of dentists require careful study. Important human values are at stake in dental care relieving and preventing intense pain as well as less intense pain and discomfort preserving and restoring patients' oral function, on which both nutrition and speech depend preserving and restoring patients' physical appearance and preserving and restoring patients' control over their bodies. These matters are important, and as a result dentists who are committed to responding to them in accordance with ethical standards often face complex questions.

Endocarditis basics

Microbiological expertise is essential in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of infective endocarditis (IE). Unfortunately old habits die hard and there are still doctors who persist in referring to this infection as SBE (subacute bacterial endocarditis) whether the patient has been ill for days, weeks or months, and think that it is generally caused by a microbe they know as Strep viridans and can often be blamed on dentists. IE cannot be considered as a homogeneous infection. It may arise in the community or, increasingly, in hospital or as a result of procedures undertaken in hospital it may affect native valves (previously normal or abnormal) or prosthetic valves and may occur in intravenous drug users (IVDU) as well as those who do not use drugs. Although overall most cases of IE are caused by staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, the incidence of each group of organisms differs in the various types of IE. A wide variety of organisms account for the infections not...

Fats OiLs SweEtEnErs

On the one hand, these foods play a vital role in our enjoyment of what we eat. Fats and oils give a creaminess, richness, crispiness, or pleasing mouth-feel to foods. Sweeteners also satisfy a universal and natural craving. On the other hand, the pleasure that fats, oils, and sweeteners bring can come at a cost. These foods generally are high in calories, making it difficult for someone who eats a lot of them to maintain a healthful weight. They also have other health disadvantages. Too much of the wrong kinds of fats and oils can increase the blood cholesterol level, which in turn can increase risk for cardiovascular disease. Sugar and highly sweetened foods also are typically high in calories and provide few nutrients. For that reason, empty calories is a term often used to describe sweeteners or foods rich in them. Sugar and tooth decay are linked when sugar is eaten in excess and dental hygiene is poor.


Sugar has been criticized as an ingredient in baby foods for two basic reasons it adds calories without other nutrients and it may, if improperly used, cause tooth decay (infant dental caries). Both of the allegations or hypotheses were only partially substantiated, but most baby foods are prepared without added sugar.

Mobile Health Care

Nonetheless, the transition and transformation from traditional computing technology and methodology to a wireless platform is already happening in many of our routine work and leisure activities. Hence, it is only a matter of time before this transformation moves into the realm of health care. The benefits for mobile health will be significant, given that immediate data capture and retrieval will become convenient when specialists, physicians, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, nurses' aides, public health professionals, and home health care workers all begin using wireless-enabled personal data assistants (PDAs).

Salivary Secretion

Salivary Gland Schematic Diagram

Saliva protects the mouth by diluting and buffering harmful substances. Hot solutions of tea, coffee, or soup, for example, are diluted by saliva and their temperatures lowered. Foul-tasting substances can eventually be washed out of the mouth by copious salivation. Before vomiting, salivation is stimulated strongly. This saliva dilutes and neutralizes corrosive gastric juice, preventing damage to the mouth and esophagus. Dry mouth, or xerostomia, is associated with chronic infections of the buccal mucosa and with dental caries. Saliva dissolves and washes food particles from between the teeth. Saliva also contains a number of organic substances that are bacteriocidal. These include a lysozyme, which attacks bacterial cell walls the binding glycoprotein for immuno-globulin A (IgA), which together with IgA forms secretory IgA, which in turn is immunologically active against bacteria and viruses and lactoferrin, which chelates iron, preventing access by organisms that require iron for...

Sugar Alcohols

Sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, and erythritol all have good heat stability, resistance to thermal and nonenzymic browning, and a low tendency to undergo fermentation with the production of acids and are considered to be noncariogenic. There is evidence that xylitol may actually be effective in reducing the number of new dental caries (11). All sugar alcohols have about the same caloric content as sucrose but are absorbed more slowly from the digestive tract and do not raise postprandial blood sugar and insulin levels thus they are suitable for the diets of diabetics.


In 1994, Ma et al. reported the production of monoclonal antibody Guys 13 in transgenic tobacco Guys 13 is a mouse IgG1 immunoglobulin that binds to the 185-kDa cell surface antigen of Streptococcus mutans, the main causative agent of dental caries in human beings. The 185-kDa antigen is streptococcal adhesin, which mediates initial attachment of the bacterium to the tooth surface. This monoclonal antibody was first expressed in tobacco by sequentially crossing plants expressing its individual components. This permitted the production of high levels of whole recombinant Guys 13 (500 mg g of leaf material) (Ma et al., 1995). Three years later, the same group showed that Guys 13 monoclonal plantibody afforded specific protection in human volunteers against oral streptococcal colonization for at least 4 months (Ma et al., 1998).

Rett Syndrome

These girls may present to the ED with a variety of symptoms, including fainting due to apnea or hyperventilation or with severe abdominal distension due to air swallowing. Apnea has been known to last 30 to 40 s and may involve cyanosis. Screaming attacks may occur in puberty. Children need to be assessed for possible pain due to an acute abdomen, dental pain, kidney stones, or other medical causes. If no source of medical concern is identified, the child may be suffering from a screaming attack.

Immunologic studies

Addition to this there is increasing literature showing that antibody levels, as measured by immunoblot-ting, are very high in enterococcal or streptococcal endocarditis and that these are species specific. For example, there is a strong immunoglubin M (IgM) and IgG response in patients with E. faecalis endocarditis to an 88-90 kDa band identified as a homo-log of heat shock protein 90. In S. mutans endocarditis there is an endocarditis-specific pattern of IgM, including antibody against a 190 kDa homolog of the PAc protein of S. mutans and the Spa protein of S. sobrinus. S. mutans antigen I II (PAc homolog) has been implicated in the bacteria's adherence to teeth surfaces. Furthermore, monkeys immunized with the protein were protected against dental caries. The viridans streptococci have recently been demonstrated as being not only a cause of endocarditis but also a cause of septicemia in cancer patients. There have been changes in the taxonomy which have led to the emergence and...


Most dentists in the United States practice as independent entrepreneurs either individually or in small groups. Nevertheless, dental care generally is not viewed as an ordinary commodity in the marketplace. Instead, the vast majority of dentists and most people in the larger community think of dentistry as a profession. That is, they consider dental care to be a component of healthcare and consider dentists to be experts in the relevant knowledge and skills, committed individually and collectively as professionals to giving priority to their patients' well-being as they practice their expertise. Consequently, when a person becomes a dentist, he or she makes a commitment to the larger community and accepts the obligations and ethical standards of the dental profession. Those obligations and standards are the subject matter of the subdiscipline called dental ethics.

Trace Elements

Recommendations for trace element intakes in infancy and childhood are shown in Tables 8 and 9. In general, there are few data on trace element requirements in young children, although some studies have been carried out in infants. In the manufacture of breast milk substitutes, quantities available in breast milk are considered to be adequate, although the bioavailability of trace elements added to cow's milk-based formula has not been fully elucidated. Preterm infants are born with low stores of trace elements. They require supplements of iron until age 1 year. Deficiencies of selenium and copper have also been described in preterm and low-birth-weight infants. Several authorities do not set dietary recommendations for molybdenum, manganese, and chromium, although all are essential for growth development and health. Recommendations for selenium have been set by the United Kingdom, EU, United States, and WHO. Where data for infants exist, recommendations for children are set between...

Varicella Zoster

Herpes zoster, a latent infection of varicella, typically begins with a 1- to 4-day prodrome of exquisite pain in the area innvervated by the affected nerve. Although more commonly found on the trunk, herpes zoster may occur in the distribution of the trigeminal nerve 15 to 20 percent of the time. During it prodomal stage, herpes zoster may present only as oral or facial pain, a headache, or a toothache. Vesicular eruptions characteristically occur unilaterally, not crossing the midline, and last 7 to 10 days. Intraoral lesions are most commonly associated with a facial outbreak but can occur alone. Treatment is largely palliative, although early treatment with acyclovir 800 mg 5 times per day for 7 to 10 days or valacyclovir 1 g tid for 7 days reportedly will lessen the outbreak and the likelihood or severity of postherpetic neuropathy.1,16

The elderly

Systemic infections are more likely because of disruption in cell-mediated immunity in the aging body (Cakman et al., 1996 Pahlavani and Richardson, 1996). Undernutrition, which is common in the elderly, may exacerbate immune dysfunction because of nutrient deficiencies (High, 1999). Risk for under-nutrition has been associated with eating alone, depression and dementia, dental pain and poverty (American Dietetic Association, 2000). Deficiency of protein, zinc, selenium, iron, copper, vitamins A, C, E, B-6 or folic acid in the elderly have been associated with decreased immune function (Lesourd, 1997).

More Products

Steel Bite Protocol
How To Stop Toothache In 10 Minutes

Download Dentists Be Damned Now

For a one time low investment of only $37.00, you can download Dentists Be Damned instantly and start right away with zero risk on your part.

Download Now