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Kindle Money Mastery

If you have ever wanted to be able to be an author for a living or as a side hobby, this is the online course for you! This course gives you access to all kinds of ebook and materials on how to make the most of the Amazon Kindle Store to make a huge amount of money! You don't need to be a creative genius, spend Hours on end writing, or even know how to use Kindle! All that you have to do is follow the instructions in this course by Stefan Pylarinos. Stefan built this course based on what he does for a living Every Single DAY. This is REAL information that has been perfected in a real business Why would this NOT work for you? This is how Stefan makes his money Why not you? Just think You can make living money writing Kindle books. And you can learn all about how to get started making money with K Money Mastery! Read more here...

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Modulation Of 5fu Activation Pathways

Intravenous infusions of uridine must be performed via a central venous catheter in order to avoid phlebitis at the site of administration. Therefore more convenient ways of administering the drug have been explored. Preclinical data showed that with oral administration of uridine to mice it was possible to obtain plasma concentrations of approx 100 M (188) that are sufficient to reduce 5-FU toxicity (189). Similar pharmacokinetic data have been obtained in humans (190) when uridine was administered repeatedly, the dose had to be lowered to 5 g m2 every 6 h due to the occurrence of diarrhea. Using this schedule the myelosup-pression of 5-FU was reduced (191). Initial studies have been performed with UDPG administration to patients plasma uridine peak values were 40-60 M, and a concentration of 20-25 M was still present 8 h after the second dose (unpublished results). The studies could however not be continued. Another prodrug, PN401 (an acytelated prodrug of uridine), has also been...

Test User Qualification Levels

For the person who seeks information about psychological tests, a good starting point is the Testing and Assessment section of the APA's Web site (http www .apa.org). Within this section, among other things, there is an excellent article on FAQ Finding Information About Psychological Tests (APA, 2003) that provides guidance on how to locate published and unpublished tests as well as important documents relevant to psychological testing. Published tests are commercially available through a test publisher, although they sometimes go out of print as books do. Unpublished tests have to be obtained directly from the individual investigator who created them, unless they appear in the periodical literature or in specialized directories (discussed shortly). Another way to obtain information about both published and unpublished tests online is through the electronic indexes of the periodical literature in psychology, education, or business. The PsycINFO database of the APA, available through...

An Example Of A Timing Experiment 131 Procedure and Results

FIGURE 1.3 Response rate as a function of time since food for fixed-interval reinforcement schedules of 30, 60, and 120 sec. (Unpublished data from our laboratory.) FIGURE 1.3 Response rate as a function of time since food for fixed-interval reinforcement schedules of 30, 60, and 120 sec. (Unpublished data from our laboratory.)

CDNA clones and their application for cDNA microarray analysis

Altogether, 19 RIKEN Arabidopsis full-length (RAFL) cDNA libraries from plants grown under different conditions were constructed as reported previously (4, 35, 36). We have isolated 245 946 RAFL cDNA clones and they are clustered into about 18 000 non-redundant cDNA groups, covering about 70 of predicted genes (36 Seki et al., unpublished results).

Functional analysis of the TAS2R bitter taste receptor family

Bitter tastants comprise a chemically complex family of compounds (Drewnowski 2001), belonging to a multitude of chemical classes ranging from small salts such as potassium chloride or sodium isothiocyanate to complex organic molecules such as alkaloids, polyphenols or flavonoides (Chon 1914). Thus, the perception of bitter tastants is a chemically most demanding challenge. Although humans perceive thousands of structurally very diverse compounds as bitter (Keast and Breslin 2002) the human genome only contains -25 TAS2R receptors (Bufe et al. 2002, Shi et al. 2003). This raises the question whether these relatively few receptors suffice to detect all bitter tastants. The answer to this question depends on the ligand profile of these receptors. If they recognise only a few compounds, an additional family of bitter taste receptors would have to exist. Initially, functional expression and screening of various rodent and human receptors with 55 taste compounds resulted in the...

Butter Vegetable Oil Blends

In the early 1980s blends of butter and vegetable oil products appeared in the U.S. market. These blends generally were 40 butter and 60 vegetable oil for a total fat content of 80 , within the margarine Standard of Identity and designation. With the increasing popularity of reduced-fat (less than 80 ), spreads, starting in the mid-1980s, other blends with butter fat contents of 2 to 25 were introduced. As noted in Table 1, the full 80 fat blends have declined in preference to the lower-fat spreads the blend spreads have taken a portion of this market share (Land O'Lakes, unpublished data, 1996). With the popularity of blends in the United States, several products were introduced in Europe and Australia and have subsequently expanded the market for butter fat usage (Land O'Lakes, unpublished data, 1996). An even earlier entry into the blend category was Swedish Bregott in Europe.

Discussion And Conclusions

The relative amplitudes of zooplankton and algae oscillations are strongly affected by environmental conditions involving nutrient supply and shading. Preliminary investigations (not discussed here) indicate that this is unrelated to stoichiometric effects but that it may rather depend on food edibility (Hall et al., unpublished manuscript).

Genetic variations of taste receptors and their consequences on human taste perception

PTC tasters and non-tasters differ drastically in their bitter perception of PTC but also many other N-C S group containing compounds (Harris and Kalmus 1949, Barnicot et al. 1951). Some of these chemicals are natural food ingredients that occur, for example, in cruciferic vegetables such as brussel sprouts and cabbage (Drewnowski 2001) leading to rejection by the consumer. These observations support the hypothesis that food choice is influenced by individual taste sensitivity. Thus, inherited differences in taste perception could lead to different dietary habits and might therefore contribute to nutrition-related diseases. Although various research groups tried to correlate the PTC taster phenotype with differences in food liking or disliking and consumption, this issue is still far from being understood (for a review, see Prescott and Beverly 2004). To some extent these studies are hampered by technical problems (Prescott and Beverly 2004). Due to the recent discovery that...

Pcrrflp on mitochondrial DNA

The primers do not match completely the mitochondrial DNA of all species to be analysed. Figure 2.1 indicates the relative positions and mismatches of generic primers (Meyer et al., 1995 Wolf et al., 1999a) and of primers designed for bovine species (Verkaar et al., 2001) or for bovid and cervid species (Van Cann, unpublished laboratory results), respectively. In general, mismatches near the 3'-OH end of the primer have more influence than near the 5'-OH end and may cause a preferential amplification of one of the components in a sample of mixed origin (Partis et al., 2000). So for analysis of admixture, the effect of mismatches should be checked and, if necessary, primers should be designed that amplify all components of the mixture equally well. Fig. 2.1 Mismatches of primers for amplification of cytochrome b sequences described by Meyer et al. (1995), Wolf et al. (1999a), Verkaar et al. (2001) and Van Cann (unpublished laboratory results) to primer binding sites of the indicated...

What are the advantages with metaanalyses

There are some drawbacks to the meta-analytic approach. One strength also represents a source of weakness. Combining all trial results, published and unpublished, leads to the pooling of data from both methodologically sound and perhaps poorly conducted trials. Publication bias represents another potential problem.6 Articles with neutral or unfavorable findings may never be published, sometimes due to investigator inertia, but probably more often due to the lackluster results. In addition, trial reports without statistically significant positive results have a hard time finding their way into leading medical journals. The under-representation of neutral or negative trial results in a meta-analysis or any other systematic review tends to overestimate the beneficial effects of a therapy. inhibitors (SSRIs) that have been conducted in adolescents,9 three reported favorable results for the SSRIs while 10 showed no difference compared to placebo. The former were published in high profile...

Isolation And Detection

Selective agents and blood or charcoal (to quench toxic compounds or to prevent accumulation of photochemi-cally generated oxygen derivatives) is necessary to improve isolation. Other media such as Campylobacter cefoperazone deoxycholate selective agar (CCDA) contain the antifungal agent amphotericin B and the broad-spectrum antibiotic cefoperazone, which inhibits both yeast and fungi. The medium and incubation temperature used can influence the genotype of Campylobacter spp. detected, 12 rate of survival (Murphy et al., unpublished data), oxygen tolerance, 13 and percentage isolation. 14 Using culture-based methods, presumptive results can be obtained in 2-3 days, whereas definitive results can take 3-5 days.

Production Formulation and Application

Production of entomopathogenic fungi has not advanced greatly beyond the use of simple grains as substrates for the Deuteromycete fungi, such as Metarhizium and Beauveria. For many other entomopathogenic fungi, especially among the Entomophthorales, growth in culture is difficult or has yet to be achieved. Both liquid and solid substrates have been substantially investigated (Burgess 1998). Two-stage systems, where both liquid and solid substrates are used, have occasionally proved successful. For example, fermentation to produce hyphae to use as starter cultures is now a widespread practice. There are number of advantages to using liquid cultures as starter cultures (a) the competitive ability of the fungus is enhanced, reducing the risk of contamination from other microbes, (b) growth is more rapid in the early stages, (c) the liquid culture can be screened for contamination prior to use, and (d) the liquid ensures even coverage of the solid substrate (Jenkins et al. 1998). Liquid...

Novel Strategies for Biopesticide

Development of biopesticides for social insects has been problematic because the method by which social insects defend against disease is mainly behaviorally-based rather than biologically-based. For example, hymenopteran wasps such as Vespula spp. have well-developed hygienic behaviour which includes removing all suspected material from a nest before contamination of nestmates occurs. Vespula do not reuse nests and, therefore, disease in one season does not result in disease in another season. Behavioral defense against disease requires novel application and formulation methods for any chance of success for entomopathogenic fungi. Similarly, termites are highly susceptible to entomopatho-genic fungi, including M. anisopliae and B. bassiana but many factors such as avoidance of conidia, the removal and burial of fungus-killed termites, together with defensive secretions and inhibitory components in termite frass (Rath 2000), and grooming to remove spores (Milner and Glare, unpublished...

Expectations and potential limitations of offpump bypass surgery

The observational studies, survival free from myocardial infarction after off-pump bypass surgery compares favourably with off-pump surgery. A striking feature is a higher occurrence of angina pectoris after off-pump bypass surgery and a higher frequency of percutaneous revascularisation during the follow up period.4 This may be explained by less complete revascularisation and, thus, the learning curve of this surgically more demanding operation. This was not observed in the randomised clinical trial we conducted (Natho H, et al, unpublished data).

Effector Molecules To Retain Es Cell Selfrenewal

Directly inhibited by Oct-3 4 because their expression is rapidly up-regulated as Oct-3 4 is repressed. We observed that ectopic expression of Cdx-2 induced differentiation toward trophectoderm (unpublished data), indicating the significance of a gatekeeper function of Oct-3 4.

Synergistic Action Of Pufa

Figure 7A gives an example where 15 M carbamazepine shifted the voltage dependence of the sodium current steady-state inactivation by 5.4 mV to more hyperpo-larized levels. The addition of 0.5 M EPA almost doubled this shift, without affecting the slope of the curve. When tested in isolation, this dose of EPA was without discernible effect (see Fig. 5B). This overadditive or synergistic effect was also found for DHA (not shown). In a similar fashion, subthreshold levels of the two-branched fatty acid valproic acid (100 M) boosted the effect of 15 M carbamazepine or 10 M phenytoin on the Vh of sodium currents (M. Vreugdenhil, unpublished data). This synergistic action of valproic acid in vitro was confirmed in vivo in the cortical stimulation model for anticonvulsant action of drugs subthreshold doses of valproic acid significantly boosted the anticonvulsant effect of phenytoin (Della Paschoa, Kruk, Hamstra, Voskuyl & Danhof, 1998). This knowledge might be relevant for...

Structure to Physicochemical Function Relationships of Soybean Proteins

Similarly, we measured the emulsifying ability of glycinin prepared from mutant cul-tivars having subunit compositions different from a normal one (unpublished data). Group II exhibited higher emulsifying ability than that of group I, and that of glycinin containing all subunits (normal glycinin) was intermediate between those of group I and II. A5A4B3 exhibited slightly higher ability than A3B4 did, and the ability of group II was intermediate between those of A3B4 and A5A4B3. These results indicated that A5A4B3 has the highest emulsifying ability among all subunits of glycinin, and that the heterohexamer exhibits the arithmetic mean of the abilities of constituent subunits. Variable region IV (the hypervariable region), the longest in five variable regions of glycinin, is rich in negative charges. The length of this region is different among subunits of glycinin, and that of group II, especially A5A4B3, is longer than that of group I. Therefore, it can be considered that the length...

Barriers to exchange form a multistage process

It is an observation (rather than a hypothesis) that barriers to genetic exchange are often genetically controlled. It is also an observation that individual barriers are one of many processes, and yet organisms exchange genes in spite of these barriers (e.g. Mimulus guttatus and Mimulus nasutus Kiang and Hamrick 1978, Diaz and Macnair 1999 Sweigart and Willis 2003 N.H. Martin and J.H. Willis, unpublished work). Because of this, it is likely to be more important to study the potentially creative aspects

Posttranscriptional Regulation Of Ts

Amplification of the region of TS pre-mRNA (by RT-PCR using gene specific primers) from exon 7 that is complementary to rTSa mRNA and sequencing of this region demonstrates that editing (adenosine to inosine) occurs at five sites (Fig. 1). We have developed a method to quantitate TS pre-mRNA and editing of TS pre-mRNA using DNA dendrimer probes complementary to the region of TS pre-mRNA with the 5'-most editing site (25). Examination of the levels of TS pre-mRNA and the extent of TS pre-mRNA editing as function of cell population density demonstrate that the amount of editing (for H630 cells) correlates with the decrease in TS pre-mRNA levels and TS mRNA levels (Fig. 2). As demonstrated in Fig. 2, the level of unedited TS pre-mRNA decreases approx 90 by the time the cells have reached a population density of 105 cells cm2, 24 h after plating. Under these conditions, changes in the fraction of the cells in S-phase are not observed until the cell population density increases above 2 x...

Determinants Of Fasmediated Apoptosis In Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Lines

In a series of 10 human colon carcinoma cell lines, four were sensitive to the anti-Fas Ab CH-11, and six were resistant (61). In nine lines expressing Fas PCR-sequencing indicated the death domains to be of wt sequence. Downstream of Fas, expression of FADD, procas-pase-8, sFas, FAP-1, Bcl-2 (61), and DcR3, c-FLIP, and SADS (unpublished) demonstrated no correlation between levels of expression and sensitivity to anti-Fas. However, levels of the Fas antigen varied by > 1,000-fold, and correlated with the sensitivity of the lines to CH-11. Fas expression is relatively high in TS- cells (29), whereas Fas-mediated apoptosis may be limited in other colon carcinoma cell lines because of reduced expression of Fas, but may be elevated following treatment with the cytokine recombinant human IFN-y (29,43,61). In HT29 cells, four-fold elevation in Fas expression in the presence of IFN-y (100 IU mL non-cytotoxic) caused a synergistic effect when combined with CH-11 (50-200 ng mL noncyto-toxic)...

Microscopical appearance motility and ecological features Table

Table 3.2 Estimating major algal species populations in a mixed phytoplankton sample as organism counts and biovolumes (unpublished data from Andrew Dean, with permission) Table 3.2 Estimating major algal species populations in a mixed phytoplankton sample as organism counts and biovolumes (unpublished data from Andrew Dean, with permission)

Other Reactor Configurations

In addition to saturated salt solutions, there are other means to buffer the water activity. Pairs of salt hydrates (see Chapter 11) have been used in connection with a twin-core packed-bed reactor (9). The salt hydrate and reaction medium are physically separated by the shell of the reactor. This system is similar to the one we have described apart from the membrane. The water activity could also be buffered by air of a fixed water activity. This has been demonstrated in ref. 10. Our packed bed with the biocatalyst kept inside the tubing can also be used in this manner using air on the outside (unpublished results).

Heterogeneous Nodes Flexible Links and Food Web Dynamics

Faced with the brimming complexity of natural food webs (Polis, 1998), it is tempting to ignore variation within populations. Lumping individuals, or even different species, into single food web nodes simplifies and homogenizes our view of food webs. However, the work presented here suggests that heterogeneity, as caused by induced defenses in prey species, has major effects on the functioning of food webs. Inducible defenses occur in many species in both aquatic and terrestrial systems and theoretical work indicates they have major effects on important food web properties such as trophic structure, local stability, persistence, and resilience. All of the theoretical results presented here can be tested in experimentally assembled plankton communities, using strains and species that have inducible, permanent or no defenses. Preliminary experimental results show highly replicable differences in the dynamics of such communities and strong effects of different defense strategies on...

Genome Organization And Reproduction

One of the major difficulties with Trichoderma biocontrol strains is their genetic instability, whose reason is only poorly understood at present. This is in part due to the fact that only little is known about the genome organization and its plasticity of Trichoderma. Not even the number of chromosomes is known with certainty Fekete et al. (1996) separated six chromosomes in five Trichoderma biocontrol strains with sizes ranging from 3.7 to 7.7 Mb estimated genome sizes were between 30.5 and 35.8Mb. When fractionated chromosomes of the five species were probed with a fragment of the ech42 (endochitinase-encoding) gene, strong hybridization signals developed, but their physical position varied among species indicating a polymorphic chromosomal location. Herrera-Estrella et al. (1993) compared the molecular karyotype of T. reesei with that of T. atroviride (named erroneously T. harzianum in their study), and T. viride, and detected largely similar chromosomal organization of genes in...

Cis and Trans Acting Genetic Factors Relevant to the Expression of Biocontrol Genes

Another cis-acting element was recently identified that may contribute to the regulation of ech42 gene expression the ech42 promoter sequence contains two short nucleotide sequences which resemble the consensus for binding of the Aspergillus nidulans brlA (bristle) regulator (5'-MRAGGGR-3' Chang and Timberlake 1992). The encoded BrlA protein is a general regulator of conidial development, which itself responds to carbon starvation (Skromne et al. 1995). Cell-free extracts of T. atroviride, prepared from mycelia subjected to carbon starvation, form a specific, consensus-dependent complex with BrlA site-containing oligonucleotide fragments of the ech42 promoter (K Brunner, CK Peterbauer, and CP Kubicek, unpublished data). Deletion of the promoter areas containing the BrlA sites in vivo resulted in a derepression of the starvation induced expression of ech42, but had no effect on the expression of ech42 during sporulation. This motif therefore likely binds a new repressor of Trichoderma...

Absolute Count Enumeration

One important aspect that needs to be considered when introducing new and potentially more accurate technologies is the impact that this will have upon clinical decision-making. UK NEQAS for Leukocyte Immunophenotyping have examined the variability that single-platform and dual-platform approaches have upon CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts that are used to determine disease progression of HIV. A previous study by Kunkl et al. (68) of 18 laboratories using the dual-platform approach to determine CD4 counts highlighted that there was as much as 16 variability at a count at 200 CD4+ cells per pU. This is reduced to as low as approx 6 with a single-platform approach (Barnett, unpublished observations), thus giving greater confidence when making clinical decisions based upon absolute counts.

Biocontrol of Leaf and Stem Blights

Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) Rehm (anamorph Phoma cucurbitacearum Fr. Fr.) Sacc. is an important pathogen on greenhouse- and field-grown cucumbers and other cucurbits, and causes the disease gummy stem blight. The disease is favored by warm, humid conditions and the pathogen infects stems, fruit, leaves, and flowers of susceptible plants, especially through wounded or senescing tissues, and natural openings such as stomata and hydathodes. There are few reports on the potential of using biological control agents to control this disease. Utkhede and Coch (unpublished) applied the yeast R. diobovatum and the biocontrol agent

Gcirms Studies in the Suckling

We have recently extended the observations on the dominance of carbon recycling as a route of a-linolenate metabolism in the brain to the suckling rat lung in which the data are similar to those obtained for the brain (Cunnane, unpublished data). Our report (Menard et al. 1998) extends those of Sinclair (1975) and Dhopeswarkar and Subramanian (1975) showing that under physiological conditions in the suckling rat, carbon recycling appears to be quantitatively much more important as a route of a-linolenate utilization than desaturation-chain elongation to docosahexaenoate. When the proportion of a-linolenate that is -oxidized to CO2 is taken into account (51 Sinclair, 1975), the loss of a-linolenate to -oxidation and carbon recycling normally exceeds that going to docosahexaenoate by about 11-fold.

Pathogens Targeted For Bcpd Of Fruits

Significant successes were achieved with biocontrol of latent infections caused by Colletotrichum spp. on mango and avocado (Korsten and Jeffries 2000), and to a lesser extent by B. cinerea on strawberries (Helbig 2002 Ippolito et al. 1998 Peng and Sutton 1990 Takeda and Janisiewicz, unpublished results). Biological control of these diseases must start in the field, relies on multiple application of the antagonist, and is generally more difficult to achieve.

Drosophila Genome Size

There is a fundamental question in Drosophila cytogenetics that can be stated as follows What is the functional significance of the selective genome reduplication that is the signature of development in so many dipteran species During the life-span of many dipterans, organs other than just the larval salivary glands (Malpighian tubules, gastric folds, fat bodies, hindgut, rectum, and nurse cells of germ-line origin in the ovarioles) regularly show large, densely stained nuclei in certain tissues at certain times during growth and differentiation (20,25,26,32-34). Analysis of these phenomena requires, in part, the capacity to measure DNA amounts in individual nuclei from extremely small tissue samples, a task admirably suited to cytophotometry, using the sperm C value of 0.18 pg DNA (2-4). For example, we can now say, with reasonable assurance, that larval hemocytes of Drosophila are predominately at the 4C level (0.72 pg DNA), but are almost exclusively at the 2C level (0.36 pg DNA)...

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Fish Banding Methods

FISH banding approaches such as the chromosome bar code technique using YACs, region-specific humanhamster somatic cell hybrids, or nonoverlapping microdissection libraries (SCAN) have, per definition, the disadvantage that unstained and noninformative gaps are left along the chromosome. Such gaps can cause problems, as breakpoints within the unstained gaps cannot exactly be described. Conversely, techniques based on locus-specific probes would theoretically provide the advantage that chromosomal breakpoints could be defined very exactly by the corresponding breakpoint-spanning or flanking clones. However, the coverage of the human genome by nonchimeric clones seems to be presently too low for such a molecular cytogenetic approach (Liehr et al., unpublished data). The IPM-FISH approach, Rx-FISH technique, Rx-FISH combined with somatic cell hybrids, and the MCB method provide the advantage of leaving no noninformative gaps.

Macroecological Patterns And Food Web Stability

The topological properties of the Ythan Estuary food web have been studied extensively in the past and are now well known (Hall and Raffaelli, 1991 Huxham et al., 1996 Raffaelli and Hall, 1996). Here we make use of a conservative version of the food web, which was used by Emmerson and Raffaelli (2004a) and which features 88 species. This version of the food web excludes a number of species known to be consumers, but for which no food resources in the web have been identified (Emmerson and Raffaelli, 2004a). Information on the body size of these 88 species was reviewed from previously published studies, Ph.D. theses, M.Sc. theses, and unpublished data. Abundance estimates for the 88 species used in this version of the Ythan web have been made previously (Leaper and Raffaelli, 1999), but unfortunately, this comprehensive data is not available in the present study. Emmerson and Raffaelli (2004a) reviewed abundance data for this version of the previous food web for body size however,...

Continuous Butter Manufacture

There are two classes of continuous processes in use one using 40 cream, such as the Fritz process, and the other using 80 cream, such as the Cherry-Burrell Gold'n Flow. As much as 85 of the butter in France is made by the Fritz process. In this process 40 fat cream is churned as it passes through a cylindrical beater in a matter of seconds. The butter granules are fed through an auger where the buttermilk is drained and the product is squeeze dried to a low moisture content. It then passes through a second working stage where brine and water are injected to standardize the moisture and salt contents. As a result of the efficient draining of the buttermilk, this process is suitable for the addition of lactic acid bacteria cultures at this point. The process then becomes known as the NIZO method when the lactic starter is injected (Land O'Lakes, unpublished data, 1985). Advantages of the NIZO method over traditional culturing are improved flavor development acid values as a result of...

Histone Modifications

Chromatin remodeling during spermiogenesis is associated with a specific set of histone modifications. Several stage-specific histone modifications, mainly acetylation, ubiquitination and methylation, have been reported to occur during spermatogenesis in several species. Among these modifications, histone acetylation and ubiquitination are known to be associated with the start of a global chromatin condensation and histone replacement. Bars indicate timing of histone modifications. Data showing H3 S10 and S28 phosphorylation as well as H3 K9 methylation are from our unpublished results Fig. 2. Chromatin remodeling during spermiogenesis is associated with a specific set of histone modifications. Several stage-specific histone modifications, mainly acetylation, ubiquitination and methylation, have been reported to occur during spermatogenesis in several species. Among these modifications, histone acetylation and ubiquitination are known to be associated with the start of a...

Nutritional Programming of Disease How Does It Happen

In the brain, protein restriction reduces the volume of key hypothalamic nuclei involved in the control of feeding and alters the density of neurones present and the types of neuropeptides they produce or respond to.31 Similarly in soleus muscle from rats subject to protein restriction in utero, the number of secondary fibres present is decreased, suggesting that proliferation of myoblasts is impaired in fetal life, or that myoblast differentiation occurs early (Langley-Evans, Brameld and Hurley, unpublished data). In all of these examples, it can be argued that the basic process leading to metabolic consequences or disease is a reduction in the numbers of active functional units for the organ or system, subsequent to impairments of early cell proliferation and differentiation.

Questions Primary prevention

Those that were found had already been included in an unpublished review of 11 intervention studies, which also included randomised pretest and post-test studies. This review suggested that, where effective interventions have been identified, little work has been undertaken to identify the most effective strategies for disseminating interventions, particularly in schools, the community and workplaces. The analysis indicated a low prevalence of sun-protection behaviours, particularly for the use of hats (randomised observational study) and protective clothing, although the use of shade was increasing in a number of target groups. In a randomised observation study of beach behaviour in Australia, 17 used hats, 15 used shade, and recommended shorts and shirts were used by 15 . Outdoor market traders did not use such clothing.15-18

Array preparation labeling hybridization and data analysis

After data normalization, automated statistical procedures are required for reliable detection of genomic copy number changes. One such algorithm is the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) which, in our hands, is not only suited for distinguishing genuine copy number changes from random microarray noise, but also for precisely localizing the start- and end-points of each copy number alteration (unpublished results see Figure 11.1). Finally, digitized intensity differences in the hybridization patterns of the DNAs onto the cloned fragments can be interpreted as copy number differences between the test and reference genomes.

On The Role Of Body Size In Mutualism Webs

Frugivore and pollinator species use only a subset of the available plant species, because they respond differentially to the chemical composition of their food source (e.g., the ratio of sucrose hexose in nectar the presence of tannins and secondary metabolites in fruits), and there are also physical constraints on mutualistic links that are imposed by the size and morphology of the consumer and the resource. This size-dependent coupling can be very tight, especially where mutualistic links have coevolved for a long time, as is true, for instance, of many orchids and their specialist pollinators. The ratio between gape width and fruit size is important in Neotropical birds (Wheelwright, 1985) and Canarian frugivorous lizards (Valido and Nogales, unpublished manuscript) small animals cannot use large fruits (i.e., body size influences the linkage level (the number of links per species)). Similarly, the range of beak corolla tube length ratios determines linkage level among long-beaked...

Interaction Chemistry Volatile And Diffusible Organic Compounds

When two fungi grow in close proximity, changes in both mycelial morphology and secondary compound chemistry occur, resulting in the formation of characteristic 'barrages' and colour changes in the mycelia of both species. These changes are mediated by up-regulation of genes involved in antagonism (Iakovlev et al., 2004 C.A. Eyre, L. Boddy and H.J. Rogers, unpublished), resulting in production of stress compounds, enzymes and low molecular weight secondary metabolites, in the hyphae and into the surrounding environment. The production of such metabolites by one species may have profound effects on other species in the vicinity, mediating antagonism at a distance or following contact, or leading to attraction or stimulation of growth.

Variability In Soil Food Webs

The scales at which ecosystem functioning is relevant to study (Anderson, 1988, 1995). Therefore, for the analyses in this paper, the focus is not on the species composition of functional groups but on the functional group composition of the food web, which are based on what is known about feeding habits (cf. Moore et al., 1988). We have not estimated the variability in trophic link strength because in the Hunt et al. (1987) model link strengths are calculated from the biomass of the food web components and we do not have independent data on trophic fluxes. For a more detailed analysis on variability in food web and species composition in our study system, we refer to Berg and Bengtsson (unpublished manuscript). We also observed a significant seasonal effect on food web composition when all animal functional groups were analysed. This indicates that the composition of food webs was more variable within a year than between years, just as in the data after Huhta et al. (1967) shown in...

Ecological Significance Of Fungalfungal Interactions

Mineral nutrient uptake, partitioning, movement and release are also affected by interspecific mycelial interactions. 2P-uptake kinetics of cord-forming bas-idiomycetes was significantly affected by the presence of a competing mycelium (J.M. Wells and L. Boddy, unpublished). Changes in uptake capacity or rate constants were not related to the outcome of the interaction, but probably reflected the ability of species to divert effort preferentially from phosphorus scavenging to territory defence. In some interactions this ability was over-ridden when there was concurrent supply of uncolonized wood resources. There was reciprocal 32P exchange between R. bicolor, P. velutina and H. fasciculare mycelia in soil which, as with carbon, presumably occurred via leakage in the interaction zone. In contrast, labelled mycelial systems of P. impudicus lost 32P only to R. bicolor, and this was only detectable 39 days after 32P supply. In addition to nutrient exchange between mycelia, there was...

Therapeutic Potential Of

If NEP inhibitors are to ever become a therapeutic option in heart failure, then it is likely that they will be combined with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, since the latter are an integral part of the treatment of heart failure. In animal models of heart failure, NEP inhibitor induced natriuresis appears to be potentiated by ACE inhibitors 17 , whereas the opposite appears to be true in man. In normal man, a single dose of enalapril blunts the natriuresis due to NEP inhibition 20 , and in as yet unpublished work, we found the same thing in patients with heart failure. Having said that, NEP inhibition does still produce a natriuresis in the presence of an ACE inhibitor and therefore the magnitude of the natriuresis produced is unlikely to be crucial in deciding whether the combination of NEP and ACE inhibition has a therapeutic future. More likely is whether NEP ACE inhibition improves symptoms and survival in heart failure and whether NEP ACE inhibition has any...

Competitive and Antagonistic Interactions

We have examined the effects of two white-rot fungi, Hypholoma fasciculare and Resinicium bicolor, on numbers of bacteria near exploratory hyphae (cords) in soil and on numbers of bacteria inhabiting beech wood blocks (Folman, Boddy and de Boer, unpublished results). Culturable bacteria increased slightly, but significantly, in the vicinity of soil mycelia. In contrast, numbers of culturable wood-inhabiting bacteria and total (detected by microscopy) bacteria were considerably reduced after colonization of the blocks by the rot fungi. The fact that not only numbers of colony-forming units but also total microscopic numbers decreased points at a fungal-induced lysis of wood-inhabiting bacteria. In a follow-up study with H. fasciculare we observed that decrease in numbers of wood-inhabiting bacteria was already apparent only a few weeks after colonization of the wood blocks by the fungus.

Seasonal changes in phytoplankton biodiversity

The major seasonal changes that occur in phyto-plankton biomass, with the succession of spring diatom bloom, clear-water phase, and mixed summer algal bloom (Figure 3.14), are also accompanied by changes in biodiversity. An example of this is presented in Figure 3.28, which shows changes in algal biomass, with related indices of species richness, species dominance, and general biodiversity in a typical temperate eutrophic lake (Levado and Sigee, unpublished observations).

Nature of the mismatch

Methylated cytosines most commonly occur in CpG dinucleotides and are susceptible to deamination favoring the formation of thymine (CG> TG). CG> CA substitutions occur if, following deamination of a methyl-cytosine in the antisense strand, there is a miscorrection of G> A in the sense strand. In an update to the study of Hoskins et al. 16 (unpublished) these types of mutation accounted for 21 of substitutions and 33 of transitions consistent with Krawczak et al.'s findings. The majority of the remaining transitions were A> G substitutions, with five of seven adenines preceded by another adenine. The local DNA sequence environment may therefore influence the sensitivity of techniques such as MCHA.

Specific Associations

We observed species-specific effects of the white-rot fungi H. fasciculare and R. bicolor on the bacterial community composition in decaying beech wood blocks, both at the level of bacterial genera and within a bacterial genus (Burkholderia) (Folman, Boddy and de Boer, unpublished results). Since both fungi acidify the wood environment and produce lignolytic enzymes (reactive oxygen species), it was to be expected that the specificity was due to differences in secondary metabolite (antibiotics) production.

Candidate Genes For Folatesensitive Ntd Risk

In addition to studies of the protein-coding region, evaluations of FR-a as a candidate gene for NTD risk have included examination of the FR-a promoter region. The nucleotides encompassing a segment of the FR-a 5'UTR that has been shown to be necessary for maintenance of normal transcription rates (42) were screened for polymorphism by ddF in a sample of 185 case and 288 control women from the Rio Grande valley of Texas (Barber et al., unpublished data). Data analysis revealed three different polymorphisms within the promoter region of the FR-a gene (631T C, 610A G and 762 G A). These three polymorphic sites formed only two variant alleles, as two of the substitutions (631T C and 610A G) were always observed together. No statistically significant association or trend was observed for either a risk, or a protective effect, for children or mothers with any of the different allelic forms of this gene (p > 0.05). Although the frequency of the polymorphic alleles showed significant...

Wyatt F Cross Amy D Rosemond Jonathan P Benstead Sue L Eggert and J Bruce Wallace

In this chapter, we examine the role of stream invertebrate food webs in the storage, utilization, and translocation of C, N, and P in small Appalachian headwater streams. We combine a number of studies (both published and unpublished) on the production, storage, export, and elemental composition of stream food web components to gain a broader understanding of the role of invertebrates in elemental dynamics of headwater streams. Our basic approach was to combine long-term measurements of food web component biomass and secondary production with their C, N, and P content (Cross et al., 2003). These data were used to assess general patterns in elemental storage and utilization by stream invertebrates. In addition, unpublished data from an experimental invertebrate removal were used to quantify the effects of invertebrates on the downstream translocation of C, N, and P, and the elemental stoichiometry of bulk organic matter export.

Paediatric Treatment For Heart Failure

Ultimately many children with heart failure may deteriorate sufficiently to require mechanical support. For small children extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is used but for older children pneumatic external assists such as the Berlin Heart or the Medos can be used. Both have been used as successful bridges to transplant. The number of paediatric donor organs is closer to the number of children requiring transplantation than is the case in adults, providing bridging is available. This makes long term implantable mechanical support attractive as a bridge to transplant, although it is as yet unclear whether the new impeller pumps can be used in paediatric cardiomyopathy as biventricular pneumatic devices have usually been required. Paediatric transplantation has a five year actuarial survival of approximately 70 overall since 1982 (for 4419 cases,w25 with infants having a worse outcome of approximately 60 ). Our unpublished institutional data show that survival is better when adjusted...

Exploiting An Erratic Resource

FIGURE 2.2 (a) Water-vapor uptake of leaves of the fern Cheilanthes fragrans with sealed petioles in a moist chamber. The different symbols stand for four replicates (L. Kappen, unpublished results). (b) Water uptake of leaves of C. fragrans placed on filter paper in a moist chamber (open circles) with petiole in a vessel with water and standing in a moist chamber (closed circles), and (open and closed triangles) with petiole in water in a room (approximately 60 rh) (L. Kappen, unpublished results).

The Metaanalysis Method

From the greater likelihood of studies with statistically significant results to be published) was addressed by calculating a fail-safe sample size which represents an estimate of the number of non-significant, unpublished, or missing studies that would need to be added to the analysis in order to make the overall test of an effect statistically non-significant.

Ecosystem Processes Consequences

Mineralization from extra-resource mycelium of P. velutina growing from woody resources into the bulk soil (G.M. Tordoff et al., unpublished). Nonetheless, nutrient release from conservative mycelial systems of cord-forming Basidiomy-cota is likely to occur during grazing (along with during inter-specific mycelial interactions Chapter 7). Changes in nutrient partitioning within mycelia have the potential to affect the dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of forest floor nutrients.

The work of the original committee 199298

Self-evidently such a definition was rather strict. In the years 1992-98, when the committee received 45 complaints and investigated 25 cases, dishonesty was found in only four cases. Nevertheless, the committee did not restrict itself to concluding whether dishonesty was found or not. It used another norm in that, when it thought that the behaviour had violated good scientific practice, it said so in its conclusion of the case. For example, the committee has stated that a researcher acted against good scientific practice when he publicly presented research results which at the time had not yet been published in the usual scientific way. In its view, prior to presentation to the public, a research paper should undergo peer review and discussion in the research community. An aggravating circumstance was when a researcher publicly discussed not his own but another researcher's unpublished work.

Induce proliferation but not migration of SMCs

Insulin stimulates SMCs to proliferate similarly to IGF1. Our recent unpublished results obtained from in vitro experiments with cultured human arterial SMCs show that the mitotic induction of insulin occurs by occupation of the IGF1 receptors. This has been demonstrated using receptor-blocking antibodies. The blockade of insulin receptors does not inhibit the insulin-induced induction of SMC proliferation, but the addition of IGF1 receptor blocking antibodies does. The opposite results have been obtained in chemotaxis experiments (Fig. 4). The addition of IGF1 receptor-blocking antibody has no effect on migration, whereas insulin receptor-blocking antibody does.

Atherogenesis and ageing

Relationship between hormone-induced migration and corresponding inhibition due to Ca2+ channel blockade by diltiazem in vascular smooth muscle cells from rat aorta and human femoral artery. The inhibition decreases directly proportionally to stimulation level either by IGF1 or insulin (bottom). Unpublished experiments performed in the Boyden chamber. FIG. 3. Relationship between hormone-induced migration and corresponding inhibition due to Ca2+ channel blockade by diltiazem in vascular smooth muscle cells from rat aorta and human femoral artery. The inhibition decreases directly proportionally to stimulation level either by IGF1 or insulin (bottom). Unpublished experiments performed in the Boyden chamber. This work was made possible by a grant of the Fondo de Investigation Sanitaria (FIS), Spanish Ministry of Health, Nr 98 0177. The unpublished results described here were obtained with the collaboration of Raffaele Carraro, Rosario Lozano, Manuel Macia and Marcia Soares de...

Systematics and taxonomic position

Based on gene sequences (e.g. genes for elongation factor 1 alpha, a-tubulin) Keeling and Doolittle (1996, 1997) suggested that the two hexamitids isolated from the systemic disease in salmonids (Mo et al., 1990 Kent et al., 1992 Poppe et al., 1992) are not Spironucleus. This suggestion has not been accepted by other workers (e.g. Sterud et al., 1998, 2003 Guo and Woo, 2004a,b). Keeling and Doolittle (1996,1997) also indicated that the two isolates from salmonids, one now described as S. barkhanus (Sterud et al., 1997) and the other perhaps being an undescribed species or subspecies of Spironucleus (F.C. Guo and P.T.K. Woo, unpublished), belong to a single species. This latter parasite is currently under study and will be referred to as the 'chinook Spironucleus' in the current discussion.

Gene Expression Changes May Stabilize The Ftireverted Phenotype

An intriguing feature of FTI biology is that drug treatment is required to initiate but not maintain phenotypic reversion of Ras-transformed cells. For example, after a single drug application, H-Ras-transformed cells revert to a normal morphology and proliferative capacity that will persist for up to 7-10 d (9). Cells remain reverted even though FT activity and farnesylated H-Ras return to their initial steady-state levels within a few days. Experiments with the protein synthesis inhibitor cyclohexamide have shown that inhibition of new protein production significantly delays FTI-induced reversion (P. Lebowitz and G. C. Prendergast, unpublished observations). Ifgene induction is part ofreversion, as this finding suggests, then long-lived products required for reversion may lengthen its persistence such that drug maintenance it is unnecessary. Identification of FTI-regulated genes may provide insights into this phenomenon, as well as offer a starting point for bottom-up investigation...

RCC cDna Microarray Studies

To date, several papers on gene expression profiling of primary RCC have been published. One of them sought to find the molecular markers of different pathological subtypes (38). In this paper, four ccRCC, one chromophobe RCC, and two oncocytomas were subjected to microarray analysis containing 7075 genes. Poly(A)-rich RNA was extracted from the RCC samples and matched normal kidney tissues and reverse-transcribed with incorporation of Cy3 and Cy5 dyes. These reverse transcripts were competitively hybridized to microarray spots, and the ratios of expression levels in tumor to those in normal kidney were determined. Using at least a twofold alteration of transcript expression in at least two tumors as the criterion for significant differential expression, a total of 189 genes were identified. Hierarchical average linkage analysis (39) revealed two distinct classes of tumor expression patterns, which were for ccRCC and chromophobe RCC oncocytoma. Each histopathological group was...

Fungal Succession And Interactions In Forest Litter A Molecular Approach

Briefly, the methods are based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a small part of the fungal genome (usually the ITS region) using fungal-specific primers (White et al., 1990) and DNA extracted from field samples as template. The PCR products, containing a mixture of DNA from many different fungal taxa, are incorporated into plasmid vectors and cloned into bacteria. When the transformed bacteria are cultured on agar plates, each bacterial colony originates from a single bacterial cell and thus contains DNA from a single fungal taxon. Bacterial clones (e.g. 25-250 per sample) are collected and the cloned fungal DNA is re-amplified and sequenced (Landeweert et al., 2003). Taxonomic identities may be assigned by comparisons with reference sequences obtained from identified sporocarps or sporulating cultures. Cloning is costly and involves a large amount of laboratory work, and if large numbers of samples are analysed, the cloning approach has to be combined with a...

Nitrogen Import During Early Decomposition Stages

Additions of nitrogen increased both fungal respiration and biomass (chitin assay) as well as weight loss of Scots pine needles inoculated with M. epipterygia in laboratory systems (Boberg and Lindahl, unpublished data), indicating that the needle decomposer was constrained by low nitrogen availability. Furthermore, cellulase activity increased in response to nitrogen additions to litter in the field (Carreiro et al., 2000). When litter-filled mesh bags were incubated in the field, the nitrogen content of leaf and wood litter increased during the first years of decomposition, not only in relative concentration, but also in absolute amounts (Figure 1 Berg et al., 1982 Fahey et al., 1985 Dighton and Boddy, 1989). Using 15N tracer isotope, Hart and Firestone (1990) and Frey et al. (2000) demonstrated vertical translocation of nitrogen into surface litter in a forest and an agricultural soil. Thus, fungi appear to translocate nitrogen into fresh, nitrogen-poor litter, and thereby promote...

Inhibiting entry of HIV1 subtype C viruses

Sensitivity of HIV-1 subtype C isolates to all three classes of entry inhibitors. Results are shown as the mean percentage inhibition plus standard deviation for isolates able to use CCR5 (black bars) or those able to use CXCR4 (R5X4 and X4) (patterned bars). The number of isolates tested is shown at the bottom of each bar. sCD4 and PRO540 were both tested at 50 g ml, PRO140 was tested at 167 nM, RANTES at 64 nM, AMD3100 at 500 nM and ENF at 1 g ml. The dotted line shows 90 inhibition. Data are from 4, 11, 12 , plus unpublished data. Figure adapted from the PhD thesis of Tonie Cilliers Effectiveness of entry inhibitors on HIV-1 subtype C viruses, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. 2005.

Characteristics of Polytene Chromosomes from Ovarian Pseudonurse and Nurse Cells of otu Mutants

The PNC and NC chromosomes develop a few large and many very small puffs. The main large puffs are 3CD, 7E, 8C, 11B, 22F, 42AB, 47A, 61AB, and 79D (18,22,25,27). Telomeric puff 61AB is the largest (see Fig. 7G). Chromosomes from the NCs of one egg chamber have the same puff pattern (see Fig. 7A-C), but chromosomes from different stages of egg chamber development show subtle differences in their puff patterns (see Fig. 7D-F) (Mal'ceva, unpublished data). Fig. 7. (A-C) Telomeric regions of the X chromosomes with different degrees of polyteny from one egg chamber have the same puff pattern. (D-F) Puff formation in 1A region. (G) Giant telomeric puff 61AB. The bar equals 10 im. (Courtesy of N. I. Mal'ceva, unpublished data.) Fig. 7. (A-C) Telomeric regions of the X chromosomes with different degrees of polyteny from one egg chamber have the same puff pattern. (D-F) Puff formation in 1A region. (G) Giant telomeric puff 61AB. The bar equals 10 im. (Courtesy of N. I. Mal'ceva, unpublished...

Proteolytic Processing

In addition to inhibiting caspases, XIAP and c-IAP1 can also serve as substrates for these proteases. Apoptosis triggered by a variety of mechanisms results in the appearance of proteolytic fragments of XIAP (53). In vitro protease reactions suggest that a number of caspases, including caspases-3, -6, -7, and -8 can cleave XIAP. The initial processing event occurs at Asp242, located in the linker region between BIR2 and BIR3, and generates two products a BIR1-2 fragment, and a BIR3-RING fragment. The BIR1-2 product, when synthesized in bacteria, retains the ability to inhibit caspase-3, and the corresponding coding region expressed from a plasmid will inhibit Fas-induced apoptosis. This inhibition does not appear to be as effective as full-length XIAP protein, and the BIR1-2 fragment is further degraded to small peptide fragments during apoptosis. The BIR3-RING fragment appears to be longer-lived, and retains the ability to inhibit caspase-9 and Bax-induced apoptosis. The...

Husband Wife Relationship

Prior to contact, divorces were difficult for elites to accomplish (given that so much intertribal business was invested in their marriages), but for commoners cohabitation might cease without any outcry. While the dissolution of nonmarried relationships is still easily and frequently accomplished, the break-up of married couples is complicated by the state and the Church, and the resolution of property rights is also messy. Nonetheless, official divorce is not unusual, while unofficial separation is fairly common (both men and women have been known to initiate the process). In all known cases, one of the partners leaves the valley, the house and children are retained by the partner who remains (usually the one whose family owned the land they settled on), and this partner frequently forms a new relationship though he or she is prohibited from marrying again in church (K. C. Riley, unpublished dissertation).

Basidiomycete Effects On Decomposition Rates

Similarly, white-rot basidiomycetes significantly increased the rate of mass loss during a field experiment in a secondary wet subtropical forest at Sabana in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico (D.J. Lodge et al., unpublished). A natural mixture of freshly fallen leaves (10 g fresh mass 4.0 g oven dry mass) was allowed to decompose for 3 months beginning in mid-June 2004 (rainy season). In paired comparisons, after 3 months, decay of litter placed on white-rot litter basidiomycete mats was 8.4 greater than on adjacent (< 50 cm away) forest floor lacking mats (12 pairs Figure 1).

Flowcytometric Test for Inhibitors

Clearly, upon co-chopping the unknown sample is at least as strongly inhibited as the standard, if not more so. The latter could occur through the co-localization of nucleus and inhibitor in the same cell at the moment of chopping, while the standard nuclei can only be influenced by diluted inhibitor. It is thus recommended that both materials should be chopped up in a sandwich-like fashion rather than sequentially (J. Loureiro et al., unpublished results).

Litter Mat Abundance Along An Elevation Gradient

Percent of ground covered by basidiomycete litter mats, and extent of individual mats, was assessed along an elevation gradient in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (from 8 June to 4 July 1994 rainy season), by examining leaves along transects to determine if they were attached to surrounding litter by hyphal strands, cords, rhizomorphs or holdfasts (D.J. Lodge et al., unpublished). The percentage of ground covered by litter mats generally increased with slope and decreased with elevation (Figure 2). Inputs from leaf litter fall decreased sharply in elfin forest at high elevation in the Luquillo Mountains (Weaver et al., 1986 Lodge et al., 1991). The litter layer in high-elevation forests is discontinuous and thin (Weaver et al., 1986) a condition unfavorable to basidiomycetes that require a nearly continuous layer of litter on the forest floor to maintain their mycelia and incorporate new resources rapidly. Most of the basidiomycetes that formed litter mats in Palo Colorado and elfin...

The First Of The Teaching Departments

Among those who instituted formal teaching of that which is called food science today were Walter Chenoweth (G. E. Livingston, unpublished) of the University of Massachusetts William V. Cruess, at California Ernest Weigand, at Oregon State University and Samuel C. Prescott (7), at MIT. The early teachers found that they could not truly teach food preservation unless they looked at the food and processes from the points of view of more than one discipline or commodity, for example, bacteriology in Prescott's case (4). That kind of thinking led to the departments becoming the first of the present food science and technology departments. Before discussing the evolution of the terms food science and technology, two other pioneers merit special mention. One of those is Dr. Carl R. Fellers (G. E. Livingston, unpublished). He was one of the most influential of the early teachers and researchers (8). He spent most of his career at the University of Massachusetts. From the early 1920s on, he...

Parasite morphology host specificity and life cycle

Live trophozoites of the 'chinook Spironucleus' from experimentally infected chinook salmon are about the same size as S. barkhanus, and in Leishman-Giemsa stained smears the nuclei in some specimens appear tear-drop-shaped (Fig. 3.1). SEM specimens show that the two posterior cytostomes are surrounded by crescent-shaped ridges and the body is not adorned (Kent et al., 1992). The 'chinook Spironucleus' infects chinook salmon and may cause transitory infection in Atlantic salmon S. barkhanus from Atlantic salmon does not infect chinook salmon (Kent et al., 1992 F.C. Guo and P.T.K. Woo, unpublished). This is one indication that they are different however, further comparative studies of the biology of the two organisms are needed. Spironucleus elegans from cichlids does not readily infect salmonids (Kulda and Lom, 1964a,b). However, amphibians are presumed to be a source of infection for fish since angelfish can acquire S. elegans from newt rectal fluid (Kulda and Lom, 1964a). Kent et...

Direct Negative Effects On Invertebrates Killing By Basidiomycota

As far as we are aware, there are no reports of epizootics of arthropods caused by Basidiomycota, though there are undoubtedly examples of killing. There is certainly evidence that mycelium of Hypholoma fasciculare can kill Collembola in some situations (T.D. Rotheray et al., unpublished). Mycelium of certain groups of Basidiomycota kill and subsequently utilize nematodes, often producing specialized killing structures, including Pleurotus species (e.g. P. ostreatus, P. cornucopiae and P. tuber-regium which produce droplets of toxin on aerial stalks Thorn and Barron, 1984 Hibbett and Thorn, 1994) Hohenbuehelia species producing adhesive secretory cells on hyphae or conidia (Thorn and Barron, 1984) and some Hyphoderma species producing stephanocysts (previously thought to be dispersal propagules) that are trapping devices (Tzean and Liou, 1993) (the stephanocytes exude a chemical that bonds tightly to the nematode cuticle, and in attempting to pull away the nematode may frequently...

Feeding Guild Complexity in Relation to Ecosystem Processes

Ing generalists, even omnivores, and the almost complete lack of feeding specialists in most detrital food webs (Maraun et al., 2003 Setala et al., unpublished manuscript) is likely to diminish the functional importance of biological complexity at all levels of the ecological hierarchy. This is also a possible explanation as to why trophic cascades typically occurring in systems with well-defined trophic levels are seldomly reported in belowground food webs (Mikola and Setala, 1998b Laakso and Setala, 1999a Wardle, 1999a). In summary, although nutrient cycles and plant growth can be sensitive to changes taking place within trophic groups of secondary consumers, these effects have proven to be weak as compared to effects resulting from interactions between true trophic levels and interactions taking place close to the base of the detrital food web.

Differential diagnosis

CS has variable expression, and thus, this disorder may be considered as a great imitator of many syndromes. BRR could be considered in the differential diagnosis although, with the identification of PTEN mutations in this syndrome, most believe that CS and at least a subset of BRR should be considered as a single genetic entity with the proposed name of 'PTEN Hamartoma Tumour Syndrome' or 'PHTS' (Marsh et al., 1999). The PHTS entity is particularly germane because there are currently more than 14 families with an overlap of both CS and BRR features (Marsh et al., 1999 Eng, unpublished observations). Now, at least one Proteus-like individual has been found to have germline PTEN mutation (Zhou et al., 2000b).

Conditionality of Food Web Complexity Ecosystem Functioning Interaction

This warrants us to take for granted that the weak diversity-ecosystem functioning relationship in soils (Setala et al., unpublished manuscript), including the stability aspects, should hold beyond the more or less artificial microcosm conditions. However, as it is notoriously difficult to establish field experiments with properly controlled belowground communities (Lawton, 1996 Scheu and Setala, 2002), soil ecologists have been obliged to test hypotheses and theory using a simplifying micro-and mesoscosm approach. Although the example given later derives from a microcosm experiment, it nevertheless emphasizes the context-dependent nature of interactions between food web structure and ecosystem functioning.

Major Depression In The Context Of Evolution

Significantly diverged from these traditional diets, reducing the absolute amounts of EPA and DHA intake while increasing the relative intake of omega-6 fatty acids, which compete with omega-3 functions (Eaton et al., 1998). The ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids are estimated to be between 0.4 and 2.8 in Paleolithic and evolutionary diets, including models in which either plants and hyper animal butchering were considered as sole sources of food. These models did not include seafood consumption, which would bring the ratios even lower. In contrast, current average ratios are estimated to be approximately 17 in typical Western industrialized societies (Eaton et al., 1998) and we have observed schizophrenics with AA EPA ratios in red blood cells of more than 70 (unpublished data). These changes in the dietary intake are based not only on decreased seafood consumption but also on the increased production of seed oils (in particular, soybean and corn oils). These seed oils have...

Discovery and Incorporation of the Second Fragment

The available amino acid sequence data suggested that the second site was much less conserved among PTPs and thus could provide a handle on selectivity, especially against TCPTP 26 ). Some initial crystallographic experiments with some extended di-fluorophosphonates had suggested that reaching the second, noncata-lytic phosphotyrosine site was possible (unpublished data). However, whether this was possible to achieve using the naphthyloxamate head was still an open question.

Characterization of differentiated pancreatic and hepatic cell phenotypes

Detailed protocols for RNA isolation, reverse transcription, cDNA amplification, and separation of PCR products from mES cell-differentiated derivatives are described elsewhere ((18) and see Chapter 6) and a discussion of RT-PCR analysis in the context of mES cell-based differentiation systems is given in Chapter 6. Primer sequences for detecting gene transcripts that are specifically involved in the development and function of pancreatic b cells, and of hepatocytes, are presented in Table 1. Some of these gene transcripts may be detected in mES cells and or mES-cell derivatives after spontaneous differentiation ((14) and Kania et al., unpublished data).

Bipolar Affective Disorder

The cross-national relationships between lower prevalence rates of bipolar affective disorders and greater seafood consumption (Noaghuli, Hibbeln, and Weissman , unpublished data) are strongly consistent with the clinical intervention trial described by Stoll et al. (1999a) above. Bipolar spectrum disorders have the strongest, most well-defined relationship to seafood consumption in a nonlinear power regression with an apparent threshold of approximately 75 lbs person y. Below this level of consumption, the prevalence rates of bipolar disorder rise precipitously from 0.4 in Taiwan (81.6 lbs person y) to 6.5 in Germany (27.6 lbs person y) a nearly 60-fold difference in prevalence (Noaghuli, Hibbeln, and Weissman, unpublished data). Bipolar affective disorders I and II have similar nonlinear relationships.

Postpartum Depression

Postpartum depression and published data on the DHA content of breast milk (Hibbeln, unpublished). We found that the DHA concentration of mothers' milk predicted prevalence rates of postpartum depression in a simple linear regression model (r -0.88, p < 0.0001, n 16), whereas seafood consumption predicted prevalence rates of postpartum depression in a nonlinear logarithmic regression (r -0.81, p < 0.0001). These differences comparing seafood consumption data to the breast milk compositional data may be the result of the nonlinear relationship between dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acid and final tissue concentrations (Lands et al., 1992). The observation that the AA composition of mothers' milk did not predict postpartum depression prevalence rates adds confidence to the proposition that DHA and or other omega-3 fatty acids are the active components. These cross-national relationships remained significant even after the exclusion of all Asian countries and the exclusion of...

Detecting Rare Cytotypes

In general, the use of FCM has changed our perception of the magnitude of chromosomal and ploidy variation in wild species. For example, Bennert et al. (2005) reported the first case of triploidy in the ancient spore-producing genus Equisetum (horsetail, Equisetaceae), which has long been considered cytologically uniform and diploid. Using FCM, triploids have also been reported in Chamerion angustifolium (Husband and Schemske 1998), Cirsium rivulare (thistle, Asteraceae Bures et al. 2004b), Lamium subg. Galeobdolon (Rosenbaumova et al. 2004), Draba lonchocarpa (Brassicaceae Grundt et al. 2005), Pimpinella saxifraga (Apiaceae K. Mozolova et al., unpublished data), and Vaccinium uliginosum agg. (I. G. Alsos et al., unpublished data). Increasing evidence for triploids has led researchers to re-examine the importance of such odd-ploidies in the evolutionary dynamics of these complexes (Husband 2004 Yamauchi et al. 2004).

Mechanistic Basis for Programming of Metabolic Homeostasis Evidence from Experimental Models

What about the systematic, tissue or cellular changes underlying the changes in postnatal growth and metabolism in experimental models Several experimental models of constraints to placental size or function, produce progeny with reduced size at birth followed by neonatal catch-up growth (Table 4). Increased neonatal appetite appears to be a central feature of catch-up growth, although the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In rats, fetal growth restriction induced by maternal undernutrition during pregnancy increases the appetite of progeny after weaning, which may contribute to the later development of obesity and metabolic dysfunction.47 Neonatal catch-up growth is also associated with increased whole-body sensitivity to the actions of insulin and insulin-like growth factor, important anabolic hormones for neonatal growth, in sheep and guinea pigs that were small at birth.8587 Despite increased insulin sensitivity as neonates, insulin resistance develops with ageing, as young...

The Clustering of Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Pathway Genes

It has been long proposed that the aflatoxin pathway genes may be clustered with a common regulator (Cleveland and Bhatnagar 1991). The first experimental evidence showing the potential clustering of aflatoxin pathway genes was, however, demonstrated by Trail et al. (1995b) when they found that the nor-1 and ver-1 genes were linked in a cosmid clone (NorA) with the regulatory gene aflR and a putative aflatoxin pathway gene, uvm8 (now named fas-1) in between. This observation provided evidence that at least the early stages of the pathway may be linked. By mapping overlapping cosmid clones in A. parasiticus and A. flavus (Yu et al. 1995a), a linkage of genes involved in aflatoxin formation, from early stage nor-1 gene to later stage omtA, was established indicating that the entire aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway genes may be clustered. This observation and subsequent discoveries of pathway genes led to a consensus cluster map consisting of at least nine aflatoxin pathway genes pksA,...

Phylogenetic Inference

Although little explored as yet, FCM can also be useful for tracing progenitors of polyploid taxa through genome size analysis (Leitch and Bennett 1997). For example, in allopolyploid, triploid banana cultivars, Lysak et al. (1999) demonstrated about 12 difference in DNA amount between their component genomes A (donated from Musa acuminata Musaceae) and B (donated from M. balbisiana), and proposed that comparative analysis of genome size may be helpful in identifying putative diploid progenitors of cultivated triploid Musa clones. Similarly, hexaploid wheat comprises three different diploid genomes the D genome (2C 5.05 pg) seems to contain less DNA than both A (2C 6.15 pg) and B (2C 6.09 pg) genomes (Lee et al. 1997). In addition, differences in genome size within Hieracium subg. Pilosella (Asteraceae Brautigam and Brautigam 1996) can be used as a clue for clarification of species relationships, identification of putative parents and genomic constitution in hybridogenous taxa (J....

The Biosynthetic Pathways of Aflatoxins and Sterigmatocystin

Aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway gene cluster (Figure 1, panel A). Sequence analyses have shown that there are two large genes, fas-1A and fas-2A, encoding for beta- and alpha-subunit of FAS, respectively (Mahanti et al. 1996, unpublished, personal communication). The gene fas-1A and fas-2A were renamed fas-1 and fas-2 in the aflatoxin pathway gene cluster encoding for FAS-1 (FASa) and FAS-2 (FAS ), respectively (Payne and Brown 1998). Brown et al. (1996a) proposed the involvement of FAS in ST biosynthesis in A. nidulans. They identified two genes, stcJ and stcK in the ST cluster, that are homologous to FASs, fas-2 and fas-1 of aflatoxin pathway genes, respectively. Disruption of stcJ and stcK encoding FASa and FAS subunits (FAS-2 and FAS-1), respectively in A. nidulans, stopped ST synthesis. Watanabe et al. (1996) provided the biochemical evidence for the role of a FASs and PKSs in the biosynthesis of aflatoxin. The N-acetylcysteamine thioester of hexanoic acid could be incorporated...

Factors Affecting AflatoxinST Biosynthesis

The aflR gene, coding for a sequence specific zinc binuclear DNA-binding protein, a Gal 4-type 47 kDa polypeptide, has been shown to be required for transcriptional activation of most, if not all, the structural genes (Chang et al. 1993 1995b 1999a,b Ehrlich et al. 1998 Flaherty and Payne 1997 Payne et al. 1993 Yu et al. 1997 Woloshuk et al. 1994) by binding to the palindromic sequence 5'-TCGN5CGA-3' in the promoter region of the structural genes (Ehrlich et al. 1999a,b Fernandes et al. 1998) in A parasiticus, A.flavus, and A. nidulans (Yu et al. 1996). In A. sojae, a nontoxigenic strain used in industrial fermentations, was found to contain a defective aflR gene in addition to potential other defects (Matsushima et al. 2001a,b Takahashi et al. 2002). Thus, with the absence of the functional regulatory protein, no induction of aflatoxin can occur in this food grade Aspergillus. Additional factors involved in regulation of aflatoxin synthesis were evidenced by Flaherty and Payne...

Human Data On Omega3 Fatty Acids And Neurotransmitter Metabolites

Correlational data from human studies are consistent with the proposition that omega-3 status is related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurotransmitter metabolite concentrations. We observed that plasma concentrations of DHA and AA predicted CSF 5-HIAA and CSF homovanillic acid concentrations in 234 subjects (Hibbeln, 1998a Hibbeln et al., 1998b). In healthy control subjects and late-onset alcoholics, higher concentrations of plasma DHA predicted higher concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA. It is remarkable that this correlational relationship was found between a cerebrospinal fluid measure of a neu-rotransmitter metabolite and a plasma level of a fatty acid. We have also replicated this finding among 104 adult rhesus monkeys. Higher concentrations of the omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA in plasma predicted higher concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA (Hibbeln, et al., unpublished data). Among these animals, higher EPA and DHA plasma concentrations also predicted more functional dominance behaviors....

Comments For The Design Of Future Studies Tissue Concentration Studies

Controlled, it is doubtful that tissue compositional studies can accurately test the hypothesis that the metabolism of essential fatty acids are altered by comparing patient groups to controls. For example, there was a poor correlation between the ratios of precursors to products and the in vivo production of deuterated AA and DHA from deuterated fatty acid precursors in adults (Hibbeln and Salem, unpublished data). A decreased product-to-precursor ratio may not indicate that there is a block in metabolism, it may also indicate that the product is being rapidly degraded. Finally, technical issues should be considered in studies of tissue composition such as the difficult separation and quantification of 24 0 and 24 1 from 22 6n3 and the stability of samples.

Evolutionary Dynamics of Populations with Ploidy Variation

FCM has also been used to explore the evolutionary forces governing the establishment of polyploids once they have been formed. The single largest evolutionary force acting against polyploid persistence is minority cytotype exclusion, which is a reproductive disadvantage operating against rare cytotypes (Husband 2000 Levin 1975). Several different mechanisms may counter this negative effect on polyploids, such as assortative mating through flowering time divergence (Bre-tagnolle and Thompson 1995 Petit et al. 1997), ecological differentiation (Johnson et al. 2003 Suda et al. 2004 J. Ramsey, unpublished data), pollinator fidelity (Segraves and Thompson 1999), self-fertilization or clonal growth (Quarin et al. 2001), and competitive superiority of polyploids (Baack 2005). One of the most comprehensive research programs on the evolutionary dynamics of mixed-ploidy populations has involved the plant, Chamerion angustifolium (as summarized by Husband and Sabara 2003). In a suite of...

Ploidy Level Frequencies at Different Life Stages Temporal Variation

Onaria (Rosaceae), DNA ploidy can be assigned using half of a seed (Fig. 5.3), allowing the other half to be used for genetic tests (P. Kron and B. C. Husband, unpublished data). Work is currently underway to test for differences in ploidy frequencies in seeds and seedlings, and strong differences have been detected between frequencies of polyploids, hybrids and parthenogenic haploids in seeds and mature trees.

Herbal treatments and essential oils

Herbal and other alternative therapies have become more popular with the general public, despite a lack of evidence for efficacy in this application. Although terpenoids are a major constituent of the active component of some registered products, most alternative therapies use these chemicals at low concentrations to reduce the risk of side-effects. However, such low doses will inevitably select for resistant strains of lice and some resistance to terpenoids has already been observed in the UK (IF Burgess, unpublished).

Late Gestational Glucocorticoids and Programming of Blood Pressure

In sheep, single or repeated, maternal or fetal, betamethasone injections in late gestation do not cause hypertension in adult offspring,39 in contrast to the established and well-characterised effects of glucocorticoid administration early in prenatal life, which causes hypertension in sheep.40'41 Postnatal hypertension resulting from early gestational dexamethasone exposure is associated with a reduction in nephron number,42 similar to observations from studies of rats, oudined above.38 The gestational timing of corticosteroid treatment resulting in postnatal hypertension in rats and sheep is quite different however, in terms of renal development, dexamethasone treatment is given at similar times, prior to commencement of nephrogenesis.42'43 Our investigations in sheep, a species with a similar gestational nephrogenic profile to humans,44 indicate that late gestational betamethasone exposure in sheep does not reduce nephron number (unpublished observations) this suggests that...

Uncertain Net Effects Of Disturbances

The second type of uncertainty can be eliminated if we have precise parameter estimates. For both food webs we lack information on self-damping terms au (e.g., intraspecific competition or cannibalism), and for the Ythan web, interaction strengths are estimated from predator-prey body size ratios, assuming biologically reasonable scaling relationships (see Emmerson et al., Chapter 4.3, for further details). We have explored the robustness of our results using different au, ranging from -10-3 to -10-6 for both webs, and different scaling exponents between interaction strengths and predator-prey body-size ratios for Ythan, generating a universe of community matrices with their correspondent inverses (generating a feasible parameter space for a population of community matrices and their inverses). We observed (described in detail in Montoya et al., unpublished manuscript) that results were very robust to the selection of community matrix. This suggests that once the patterning of...

Stage 1 Product strategy

Management decided that the existing varieties had been on the market for long enough, and to provide an edge and a stimulus a new variety was needed. To some extent this is a continuing search. But it gained added stimulus as the older varieties were a bit stale, and market share would surely dwindle as the competition sought to kindle its own novelties. Apart from the very broad concept, a new apple, plant breeders thought back over the whole gamut of experience with apple varieties. They tried to single out characteristics that

Pathogenic Mechanisms

Diencephalon,38 hypothalamus,29 and amygdala,21,40 have been suggested as the brain regions responsible for initiating eating seizures. In animals kindling of amygdala at low intensity stimuli can result in seizures.45,46 Amygdala is involved in the masticatory movements during seizures.47 It is possible that in patients with EE, repeated acts of eating may kindle the amygdala resulting in seizures.26

Energy Flow and Functional Food Webs

Field experiments suggest additional effects of piscivore removal by commercial netters. Piscivore exclusion on sand bank habitats results in increased abundance of prey fishes in the size range most commonly consumed by piscivorous fishes, likely a behavioral response to piscivore exclusion (Layman and Winemiller, 2004). Subsequent work has shown this pattern to hold at the landscape scale, as distinct size-based differences in fish assemblage structure between netted and un-netted lagoons that correspond closely to those at the experimental scale (Layman et al., unpublished manuscript). Two small characins, Moenkhausia sp. af. lepidura and Bryconops caudomaculatus, displayed

Biochemical and Disease Control Outcomes with Low Dose Rate LDR Brachytherapy

Tation, the biochemical outcomes for favorable-risk patients were compared with those for similar patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to dose levels of 81 Gy. With a median follow-up of three years in each group, the biochemical outcomes for the brachytherapy group and the high-dose IMRT group were 95 and 93 , respectively (unpublished data). D'Amico et al. 19 recently compared the outcome for low-risk patients treated between 1997 and 2002 with radical prostatectomy (n 322) and MRI-guided I-125 implantation (n 196).With a median follow-up of four years, the five-year PSA control rates for patients treated with surgery and brachytherapy were 93 and 95 , respectively.

Achieving Standardization of Cell Lines

Table 9.3 Typical examples of variation in karyotype data for Vera cells (A) and HeLa cells (B) over a period of in-vitro culture (L. Young, unpublished data NIBSC). Table 9.3 Typical examples of variation in karyotype data for Vera cells (A) and HeLa cells (B) over a period of in-vitro culture (L. Young, unpublished data NIBSC).

Identification of Bm BIV and M Individuals after Selfing or Intraploidy Pollinations

The frequency of BIII and MI plants was determined by FCM ploidy analyses of progenies originating from in vitro regenerated mother plants of Hypericum perfo-ratum (Brutovska et al. 1998), and in self progenies of Poa pratensis (Poaceae Huff and Bara 1993). BIV plants (unreduced egg cell fertilized by unreduced pollen) do not often occur a few individuals were identified by FCM in P. pratensis (Huff and Bara 1993 Matzk et al. 2005) and H. perforatum (F. Matzk, unpublished data). Similarly, parthenogenetically developed individuals (MI n + 0) were discriminated by ploidy analyses from the actual F1 hybrids (BII n + n) of interspecific crosses in Actinidia (Actinidiaceae Chat et al. 1996). In this case,

Unreduced Gametes and Polyploidy

In addition to providing estimates of unreduced gamete production, FCM has provided insights into the development of both reduced and unreduced pollen. In binucleate pollen, the normal generative nucleus was found to be resting in the 2C stage, and approximately equal numbers of 1n (vegetative) and 2n (generative) nuclei were detected in several species, including Lilium (Liliaceae Bino et al. 1990 van Tuyl et al. 1989), Rosa (Rosaceae Jacob et al. 2001), and Chamerion (P. Kron and B. C. Husband, unpublished data). Trinucleate species have been found consistently to have a single main fluorescence peak corresponding to vegetative and sperm nuclei in the 1C state (Bino et al. 1990 (Zea Poaceae and Dendran-thema Asteraceae), Sugiura et al. 1998 (Diospyros), Pan et al. 2004 (Brassica Bras-sicaceae), P. Kron et al., unpublished data (Rumex Polygonaceae)). Pichot and Maataoui (2000) found that in the gymnosperm genus Cupressus, the single nucleus was in 2C at pollen maturation and in 1C at...

Genotypephenotype Associations

Tumor formation in carriers of predisposing RB1 gene mutations depends on the chance occurrence of second mutations. Because of the influence of stochastic events, a given predisposing RB1 gene mutation is associated with variable expressivity. Statistical analysis of phenotypical variation shows that the distribution of phenotypical expression within most families complies with a Poisson distribution (Bohringer und Lohmann, unpublished).

Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells

Neither human nor mouse MAPC-injected IM in SCID mice have led to the development of teratomas (unpublished observations). Similarly, we have not yet detected donor-derived tumor formation following IV injection of human or mouse MAPC in NOD-SCID animals. However, when mouse undifferentiated MAPCs are administered IV to NOD-SCID mice, engraftment in the hematopoietic system as well as epithelia of gut, liver, and lung is seen. One of the animals developed a host-tumor, an occurrence seen frequently in aging NOD-SCID mice. We detected the contribution of MAPC-derived endothelium to tumor vessels.

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