Paracetamol, acetaminophen and dextropropoxyphene can be used with no risk (Biyani and Joyce 2002a). Codeine is contraindicated during the first trimester because of its potential teratogenic side effects but can be used episodically during the second and third trimesters (Pedersen and Finster 1979). In cases of intense pain, morphine can be necessary. The prescription should be of short duration to prevent any risk of ma-ternofetal dependence, growth delay, or prematurely induced labor (Barron 1985). Morphine should not be used at the beginning of or during labor.
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