Trauma is defined as the morbid condition of the body produced by external violence. Physicians with different specialties (general surgery, urology, traumatology) evaluate and treat the trauma patient, as a high level of expertise is required to prevent mortality and reduce morbidity. Renal trauma occurs in approximately 1 % - 5 % of all traumas (Baverstock et al. 2001; Meng et al. 1999). The kidney is the most commonly injured genitourinary and abdominal organ, with the male to female ratio being 3: 1 (Herschorn etal. 1991; Kristjansson and Pedersen 1993; Danuser et al. 2001). Renal trauma can be acutely life-threatening, but the majority of renal

Fig. 15.4.3. Algorithm for treatment of colon injuries related to percutaneous nephrostomy injuries

Open surgical repair injuries are mild and can be managed conservatively. Advances in the imaging and staging of trauma, as well as in treatment strategies during the last 20 years, have decreased the need for surgical intervention and increased renal preservation (Santucci and McAninch 2000).

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