Diagnostic Procedures

Typical clinical laboratory data are provided in Table 5.3:

Table 5.3. Laboratory findings in urosepsis

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate increased (normal range:

females 1-25 mm/h; males 0-17 mm/h) C-reactive protein (CRP) increased (normal range,

0.1 - < 8.2 mg/l, depends on the method used) Leukocyte counts (>12x109/l or <4x109/l) with toxic granulation, and immature neutrophils (bands) > 10% Thrombocytopenia (< 80 x 109/l) Hyperbilirubinemia (normal range, < 1 mg/100 ml) Increased creatinine level (normal range, < 1.5 mg/100 ml) Proteinuria

Initially respiratory alkalosis, later on metabolic acidosis Hypoxemia

Biomarkers of sepsis (cytokines, procalcitonin) and of blood coagulation (D-dimer, protein C, protein S, anti-thrombin) may be determined and provide further hints

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