Febrile neutropenia is defined as: (1) a single oral temperature above 38.3°C or a temperature of 38.0°C or higher lasting longer than 1 h, and (2) an absolute neutrophil count below 500 cells/^l (Hughes et al. 2002). Of bladder cancer patients undergoing CMV or MVAC chemotherapy regimens, 10 % -14 % meet these established criteria (Gilligan et al. 2003). The importance of febrile neutropenia lies in the fact that infection is the most common cause of fever in the neutropenic setting (50 %) and, in turn, the leading cause of chemotherapy-related death (Schimpff 1986). As such, fever in the context of neutropenia is considered to reflect active infection until proven otherwise.
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