Hematologic

It is well known that some malignant nonhematologi-cal tumors manifest leukocytosis as a paraneoplastic syndrome without any concomitant infection. This phenomenon has been suggested to be mainly due to autonomic overproduction of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which is one of the hemato-poietic growth factors that stimulates the growth and proliferation and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocytes. G-CSF producing bladder cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. Of the few cases reported in the literature, only one had no evidence of recurrence at 40 months following cystectomy (Tachibana et al. 1995, 1997; Hirasawa et al. 2002).

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