Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia is the most common paraneoplastic syndrome encountered in bladder cancer. The proposed mechanisms are the same as for renal carcinoma and include secretion of parathyroid-like peptide and prostaglandins. The large majority of these tumors were epidermoid carcinoma with a poor prognosis. Hy-percalcemia associated with bladder cancer is known to resolve with resection of the primary tumor or cy-stectomy and the patient should not be denied definitive local therapy (Wolchok 1998).

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