It has been estimated that genitourinary malignancies will account for 25% of new cancer diagnoses in the United States in 2005 (Jemal et al. 2005). While the incidence of many of these malignancies has increased over the past two decades, the mortality rates appear to be decreasing. Early cancer detection combined with improvements in surgical and nonsurgical oncologic therapy account for these trends. Although not common, newly diagnosed cancer patients occasionally present in an emergent, life-threatening manner that warrants immediate medical or surgical intervention. As the prevalence of genitourinary malignancies continues to expand, additional patients can be expected to develop disease or treatment-related complications. This chapter will serve to review the diagnosis and management of oncologic emergencies as they pertain to the urologist.

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